Vicente Fox Quesada ( City of Mexico, 2 of July of 1942 ) is Politician and Mexican Industralist that evolved like President of Mexico of 1 of December of 2000 to 30 of November of 2006 . was the first President of Mexico pertaining to a political party different from Divided Institutional, that had occupied the Presidency of the Republic by more than 70 years, contendiendo by the call Revolutionary Alliance by the Change .

Antecedents

Her mother, Mercedes Quesada Etxaide, was born in San Sebastián, Guip'uzcoa ( Spain ), 11 of May of 1919, emigrated to Mexico to early age and died 29 of June of 2006 in the familiar residence.

His paternal grandfathers, Jose Luis Fox Flach, were born under the name of Joseph Louis Fuchs in Cincinnati, Ohio, the United States son of Louis Fuchs and Catherina Elisabetha Flach, both Immigrants catholic Germans .

In spite of the popular supposition of which the grandfathers of Vicente Fox could be descending of Irish, the federal census of Cincinnati (1850, 1860) sample that was German son. The Fuchs family exchanged her last name to " Fox" after 1870, which is a literal translation of the German language to the English. His father, Jose Luis Fox Pont, was born in Irapuato, Guanajuato and acquired the North American nationality, nevertheless the 4 of March of 1946, recovered the Mexican nationality. Jose Luis Fox Pont comes from a family who in 1915 acquired the Property San Carlos.

Vicente Fox spent his first years in the Farm San Cristóbal of the municipality of San Francisco of the Corner, in company of its eight brothers. most of attended its basic studies in catholic institutions, School of the Salle in Leon and Instituto Lux in Leon and studied the degree in administration of companies, in Latin American University, Having the letter of pasante until the year of 1999 .

1965, entered to work in the company Coca-Cola the first as distributing premises and later as supervisor of route of distributing trucks and in 1970 got to be National Director of Operations, in 1971 Director of Marketing research, stops in only eleven years to assume the presidency of the division of Latin America, becoming the executive manager more young person in the history of the transnational company.

All the previous one thanks to the support of Sergio Zyman, Vice-president and Chief Officer Marketing of The Coca-Cola Co. and one of the partners of the transnational company with greater influence in its Advice of Administration.

By those dates it decided to attend the Graduate of High Management, distributed by professors of the School of Businesses of Universidad Harvard, later resigned to the refresquera company in 1979 to dedicate itself to his businesses, which turn around the farming feeding, the congealed vegetable export and the footwear. Some years before it had contracted first nuptials with his assistant in Coca-Cola, Lilian of the Shell; they were married from 1972 to 1991. They adopted four children: Ana Cristina, Paulina, Vicente and Rodrigo. By personal problems, the civil marriage was dissolved in 1991 .

Beginnings in policy

In the middle of the Eighties began to participate in public activities in the state of Guanajuato, where " founded the Patronage of the House Cradle; Daniel" friend;, dedicated to the welcome of orphans and he promoted the Educative Patronage Loyola and the Lux Institute of the city of Leon ; all these projects with the support of nongovernmental organizations, private initiative and catholic groups.

In 1980 it initiated the proceedings for the adoption of his children: Ana Cristina Fox of the Shell, born the 2 from September of 1979 in the Farm San Cristóbal; Vicente Fox of the Shell, born the 16 from March of 1982, in the Property San Cristóbal; Paulina Fox of Concha and Rodrigo Fox of the Shell, born the 20 from January of 1988, in the Farm San Cristóbal.

With the support of Manuel J. Clouthier decides to affiliate with Party National Action (BREAD) 1 of March of 1988 .

That same year of 1988, Fox obtained its first position of popular election when obtaining the federal delegation by III the Federal Electoral District of Guanajuato, in that Federal Legislature was Coordinating of the Farming Commissions, of the fraction of the Party of National Action.

Of parallel way he was Secretary of the Farming Branch in Alternative Cabinet of the BREAD formed by Manuel J. Clouthier

In 1995 he was member of the Group San Angel.

Governor

Three years later contendió by the gubernatura of the state of Guanajuato, against the candidate of the PRI Ramon Aguirre Vela'zquez, ex- runs of Department of the Federal District, in the government of Miguel of Stolen Madrid between 1 of December of 1982 and 30 of November of 1988 . Although the PRI officially had obtained the majority of votes was shortages checks of the government for the financing of the campaign of the PRI. The 30 of August of the same year the new Congress of the state with majority PRI member, named like temporary governor to Carlos Medina Plascencia, later was retired the candidate of the PRI to which Luis Donaldo Colosio, said:

" The peculiar conditions of the fight . raised the exigency to us of conciliating the triumph with the principles of our morality…. and to put in front our responsibility superior with the nation and the society as a whole, to the legitimate reclamation of victoria"

In extraordinary state election of 1995 was winning with 58% of the votes, against Ignacio Vázquez Towers with a 32% of the votes.

Presidential campaign

Or for 1997 Fox had indicated publicly its interest to occupy the Presidency of the Republic, position for which would be only qualified after the constitutional reform of article 82 in 1993 that allows to the Mexicans by birth, children of father or mother of national foreign origin been born within teritorio to aspire to the position. 14 became of the presidential candidacy of November of 1999 .

It was one long political campaign that lasted more than 2 years which were characterized to implement novel strategies of political marketing research inspired by their professional experience. It counted on the support of diverse Friendly institutions one of but controversial of Fox was the call whose holder Korrodi Linen was accused to allow originating resources of the foreigner and other not known sources.

In the year 2000 Fox, representing Alliance by the Change (composed by Party National Action (BREAD) and Divided to Green Ecologist of Mexico (PVEM)), and with the support of the candidate of now extinct Divided of the Mexican Revolution Authentic (PARM), he almost obtained an historical triumph on Divided Institutional (PRI) with 42.5% of the votes Revolutionary, which is sufficient in the Mexican electoral legislation to declare a winning candidate; the Mexican legislation he does not contemplate one second electoral return.

Presidency of the Republic

Is seen: Cabinet of Vicente Fox Vicente Fox assumed the presidency with one of the higher indices of popularity in the recent history of Mexico . Nevertheless, in a moment its popularity went away mining, mainly by discords around the change that meant its presidency, being criticized by the opposition by supposed irresponsible acts of its part.

Advised by its Secretary of Property, Francisco Gil Diaz it promoted one (among others) reforms public prosecutor who contemplated to burden with the tax to the added value the consumption of foods, medicines, colegiaturas of private schools, books and magazines, but the reform was rejected. This reform was controversial, because there were specialists to favor and against.

2 of July of 2001, right when being fulfilled a year of its last electoral victory and an anniversary more of its birth, Vicente Fox contracted second nuptials by the civil route with its ex- spokesman, the Mrs Marta Sahagún Jiménez, one old collaborator in Guanajuato that finished receiving the invalidity of its first marriage in the year 2000 .

Conflict by the project of the airport of the Texcoco

From the beginning of its Vicente Fox mandate it was had it jeopardize to improve the infrastructure of Mexico with the construction of a new airport in the metropolitan zone of the City of Mexico, the governments of Noble and of Been of Mexico they asked for the work. After several feasibility studies the 22 of October of the 2001 determined that the work would be realized in lands of Lake of the Texcoco . In order to obtain this work a presidential decree was issued that to expropriate 4 thousand 550 hectares, pertaining to ejidatarios, by which 7 pesos by square meter would be pleased. Affected farmers made several protests, the 2 of November of 2001, the ejidatarios of San Salvador Atenco initiated the legal proceedings, opposing before the federal courts the decree expropiatorio.

In December of 2001 farmers of San Salvador Atenco placed barricades in the main accesses to their earth to prevent the entrance of police or machinery. The protests continued in different zones from the City of Mexico during several months and the annoyance of the farmers increased.

Finally due to the great nonconformity of the farmers the 1 of August of 2002 the Presidency of the Republic decided to cancel the project in the Texcoco of the new airport of the City of Mexico.

Creation of the AFI

First of November of the 2001, by decree is created AFI agency which is in charge to fight federal crimes as the kidnapping, drug traffic, the organized delinquency as well as the electoral crimes, the decree establecia this institution like operative part of PGR

During the first months of 2005, was surrounded in a legal and political disturbance related to the violation (loss of political immunity) of the head of government of the capital of the country: Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, that accused the president to confabular itself in his against. Days later, he reached an agreement with Vicente Fox, by means of which PGR would not exert criminal action against him. This brought about the resignation of the General Rafael Macedo of the Shell to the leadership of that institution. This agreement was criticized by the President of the Supreme Court of Law of the Nation, Mariano Chip ax.

Another conflict in which vió surrounded was the influence peddling of the Bribiesca, (children of Marta Sahagún ) according to declarations of the deputy of the PRD Martha Lucia Mícher Camarena that in October of 2005, assured that the Bribiesca commissions and businesses with organs of the government benefitted with $42 million weights by.

Foreign policy

The relations with the United States arrived at a little while from tension because the Government of Vicente Fox indicated his rejection to the war of Iraq of official way in the Security Council in the UN, at moments at which Mexico looked for the support of president Bush for a migratory agreement.

During his electoral campaign Fox raised to turn to Mexico into a nation leader and activates in hemispherical subjects - " Creo that with the maturity which today we have, we must leave to the world to participate in which happens, we likes or we do not like, thus he is favorable or no. We throughout the world must be a clear actor in the participation " -.

The first political confrontation of international character happened with Cuba as a result of the visit of the Cuban leader to Mexico on the occasion of the Summit of Organization of United Nations on the Financing to the Development celebrated in Monterrey in March of the year 2002, in which Vicente Fox I invite to leave from the country to Fidel Castro to give him to its place to the President of the United States George Bush, sadly making the phrase famous of " You eat and you vas" .

In November of 2005, Fox criticized along with Alexander Toledo of Peru to members of Mercosur ( Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay ), that along with Venezuela does not agree in creating ALCA . The feeling in the mentioned countries is that there are aspects that do not benefit to them (particulalrmente the agricultural subsidies in the United States ). This caused a confrontation. The categorical defense of the ALCA done by Fox during the summit also surprised many Mexican political analysts and of Latin America because the ALCA nonfigure between the priorities of the Mexican foreign policy, because Mexico already has ample TLC with the United States . Rhetoric of Vicente Fox, in this summit generated interchange of declarations bitter on the part of government of Argentina, who complained which Vicente Fox had assumed interventionist positions when it criticized his president, Néstor Kirchner, to make too much case to the Argentine public opinion.

The distance of Mexico with Latin America also has been put in evidence after diverse mix-ups with other countries of the region, coincidently all with governments of left tendency; but chosen democratically in the ballot boxes, as is the case of Brazil, with whom it was had signed a friendship agreement and cooperation that it included gives it reciprocal of visas. The agreement was broken unilaterally, through the government of Vicente Fox in 2005 and went to demand visas to citizens of this country and Ecuador . Finally, Vicente Fox made reference to Bolivia of contemptuous way when commenting the state of the commercial natural gas interchanges with the nation that, recently, had chosen to Evo Morales like its president, declaring " that eats their gas " . In opposition to the custom that imposes the importance of Mexico in the region, Vicente Fox did not go, in spite of being guest, to the taking of possession of the recently elect governments in Uruguay, Bolivia and Chile . In the case of Bolivia, Fox said that he did not go due to a previous commitment.

Migration

Vicente Fox is the president of Mexico that has been more pronounced to obtain a migratory agreement between the United States and Mexico, turning this subject during its presidential term like main axis into its encounter with the President of the United States George W Bush [HTTP //news.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_1444000/1444456. From the beginning of their mandate talks in the USA had begun to obtain a migratory reform, nevertheless the terrorist attacks of the 11 of September congealed all possibility of reaching an agreement. Throughout its presidential term, Vicente Fox looked for a migratory reform of the EU that never took shape, due to the opposition of diverse groups in the congress and North American Senate. Under this reform a migration controlled through a plan of temporary workers would have to exist and migrant the illegal ones with more than 5 years in the USA would have to be legalized.

Nevertheless in spite of these efforts the government of George W. Bush has glided to construct and to reinforce the border wall in the border with Mexico which Vicente Fox showed its rejection immediately personally and by the diplomatic way; also the shipment of 6.000 members of ordered Bush national Guard to support the workings of the border patrol. To which the ex- chancellor Luis Ernesto Derbez threatened in realizing civil demands by means of the consulates to the government of the United States .

Vicente Fox also has obtained certain rights and supports for Mexican in the United States like the expedition of the Consular Matriculation which is accepted by diverse banks and state governments like valid identification, has obtained a diminution in the telephone tariffs from the USA towards Mexico, thus also the diminution of the cost of the shipment of remittances by the migrant ones and supported to a reform in IFE to abroad obtain the vote of the Mexicans, which it was beginning in the past elections of the 2 of Julio of the 2006.

In May of 2006, received national critics and international, due to a declaration that was considered racist, although the conflict did not happen to majors, given the explanation that soon occurred of the incident. Nevertheless the declarations of cut racists continued in the speeches of Vicente Fox, because it indicated that " deceived like vile Chinese to us " in a meeting with automotive industralists of an Asian country, it is possible to emphasize that this phrase is of the Mexican colloquial language.

Use

Before being chosen like president, Fox promised in his campaign that would provide to each Mexican opportunity of a work in Mexico . Actually, one makes sure that Fox has depended to a large extent on a migration policy towards the United States like way to provide means of subsistence to the Mexican workers. This opinion is based on the percentage that the remittances have with respect to the gross internal product, which has not commented is that previously it was not counted on the means that today must to calculate those remittances. The migration policy has become main piece of the relations with the United States and the priority of the government of Mexico . Fox is an enthusiastic promoter of a policy of open borders that both allows the free transit of people between countries. His more recent request to the government of the United States was the one to create a Plan of Working Guests that according to Fox would provide a greater security to the EUA - " the best thing than can happen to him to both countries is that they have a flow ordered and controlled of the migration towards the United States, '' "

This policy has encountered a great opposition in the American side whose congress approved the construction of wall antiimmigrants throughout the border. Fox hard condemned the attitude of the USA - " the walls were in the past century; they were demolished by the own citizenship, the search of the freedom and the democracy were demolished by; it is not possible that walls between two brother nations are being constructed, partners and neighbors it is a shame, it seems to us that would not have to exist in the relation between Mexico and the USA " .

Social policy

In the presidential term of Fox scholarships to students of limited resources of primary and secondary level, pre-school, maternal and economic marginalized family support were implemented political social such as.

At the end of 2005, president Fox declared its intention to apply a plan of economic aid to old people of limited resources that will be implemented in March of 2006 . This last program has raised critics of some adversaries of the president, because by Andres Manuel was a very popular program applied for the first time in City of Mexico Lopez Obrador and then it was criticized hard by Fox. These two measures are considered by the government like one cause " notable" reduction in the number of poor men in Mexico, opinion that is shared by some organisms of international character. Of additional way, it has tried to increase the capacity of attendance in the services of health to people without social security, introducing the Popular call Surely.

Education, science and technology

In agreement with René Drucker, coordinator of the investigation in basic sciences for the UNAM, " no other government in recent history has neglected the investigation in basic sciences like the Fox." The plan of Fox for the National Council of Science and Technology, CONACYT, that was of 2006 this organization will receive 1% of the GIP, nevertheless the budget of this organization for fiscal year 2006 was of 0. Federal government the investment in investigation and development in 2004 went from 0.95 against Mexico % In Brazil and 0.

Library Jose Vasconcelos

The Library Jose Vasconcelos, labellings by the press like " Megabiblioteca", the greater infrastructure investment is considered in the administration Fox. The library has an approximated surface of 38000 meters square and had a predicted initial cost of 954 million weights (approximately 98 million dollars).

Fox inaugurated the Library the 16 of May of 2006 where he declared that she was one of the outposts more constructions of century 21, which would be reason for commentaries in Mass media of everything Mexico . This inauguration took place one week before the date limit the president had to promote its profits before the presidential election of 2006.

The Library had to be closed in March of 2007 due to construction defects. The Auditor Superior of the Federation detected 36 irregularities in his construction and sent 13 of motions of responsibility to servants public of the federal government. Between the detected irregularities the deviation of marble blocks was documented, to a cost of 15 million weights (approximately 1.

CNI 40 Channel and Project 40, by a free Mexico

27 of December of 2002, personnel armed of Aztec TV took by assault the transmitting antenna from CNI Channel 40, in Hill of the Chiquihuite . On the following day, the programming of Aztec TV saw in the CNI signal Channel 40. Furious, the employees of the burst in channel approached Vicente Fox with a placard that said And the Law? It was Aztec TV of Channel 40. the answer of the agent chief executive Fox was, And I why?

Aztec TV managed to create his third television channel, " Project 40: By a Mexico Libre" occupying the screen of channel 40, granted to Television transmitter of the Valley of Mexico and to CNI Channel 40. On the other hand, in spite of the facilitated Aztec TV support in the case of Channel 40, the litigations between the missing TV channel and the Television transmitter of the Ajusco follow their course. Debia is also said that to Vicente Fox favors to Aztec TV and that was great ally and friend of Ricardo Saline Sheet, concessionaire of TV Azteca.Se is conceited that it was Martha Shagun de Fox but benefitted by Aztec Television due to the promotion of its Foundation We go Mexico that it was sponsored by channels 7 and 13 of TV Azteca.La continuous signal of Channel 40 kidnapped by the Television transmitter of the Ajusco, since they are not owners of the concessionaire of Channel 40, the company Television transmitter of the Valley of Mexico .

Aim of the presidential term

Electoral intervention

The proselytism of president Fox was the main critic of Alliance by Mexico and the coalition By the Good of All . Only in the first months of 2006, Fox realized 52 tours by the country, in which he reiterated through spot or in declarations that “are not time to change of horse”, which “if we followed by this way, tomorrow Mexico will be better than yesterday”.

Data of the House of Representatives reveal that it enters January and April of 2006, the erogación of the federal government in communication was increased 137% and game 3700 for advertizing expenses could have exceeded the thousand 500 million weights in that electoral year. According to the report obtained through Federal Institute of Access to the Public Information (IFAI), only in spot production the Presidency of the Republic spent 80 million weights during that period.

Lopez Obrador, went first in reconvenir to President Fox so that it stopped taking part in the electoral campaign, with the phrase of “ cállese Chachalaca! ”, it decided to put a letter to him to the President of the Republic in which it tried to apologize for that same phrase, arguing that was “exabrupto”, but ratifying to him that there are “plans” of which we are in one Election of State, every time resources have been used very great public in advertizing spots with political dyes and that also programs of public attendance are being exerted with clientelistas-electoral purposes.

The day of the sentence the magistrates wrote that Fox put in risk the validation of the presidential election. There was no a single magistrate who did not make the signalling: the interference of president Vicente Fox was the greater irregularity detected during the development of the electoral process. " We remember that it got to make commentaries indirect or metaphorical that affected the political positions that competed in the election and mentions even express related to the process; interference that constitutes the greater irregularity detected during the development of proceso", it maintained the magistrada Alfonsina Navarrese Bertha.

Last report of Government

They lacked 3 months so that the mandate of Vicente Fox Quezada finished and it inquired to him that there was no guarantee so that arrived at the legislative tribune and rendered its message on the occasion of its last report of government, due to the electoral crisis that was lived at those moments. To pictures before arriving at the Legislative Palace of San Lazaro, the parties already determined their positions to the opening of sessions in the 60 Legislature. Legislators of the PRD waited for already it in block in the entrance of the House of Representatives. The tribune practically had seizure.

The left legislators occupy the directive table of the Congress and prevented the president, Vicente Fox, to read their last report before the Camera, reason why he chooses to give, strongly guarded by the Army and the police, the text of the Report in the lobby of the House of Representatives to the secretary of the Directive Table of the Senate, Rodolfo Perez Sparrowhawk.

1 of December of 2006, Vicente Fox gave to the presidency from the republic to the Lic. to him Felipe Calderón Hinojosa in the middle of a political crisis due to the result so closed in the elections of 2 of July of 2006 .

Postpresidencia

After to have already left the position announced the Creation of a Training center, Library and Museum in lands near its Farm in San Cristobal, Guanajuato . In addition it announced that " cabalgaría" by Latin America to promote the democracy and the freedom against Populism .

with important means of that country has had interviews in the United States, like FOX and Cnn, where his government defended while Mexican Migration received critics of the average North American conservatives by the subject of of to the United States .

Controversial statue

In October of 2007, an announcement was done in the municipality of Mouth of the River, Veracruz, that a statue of Vicente Fox erigiria in honor to the ex- president. This has provoked many critics of the opposition Divided of the Democratic Revolution and Mexican mass media for the mayor of Mouth of the River, that is affiliate to the Party National Action, of which Fox also is member. 14 of October of 2007, in the city of Mouth of the River, Veracruz, would be revealed a statue in its honor, but a day before the ceremony, a group of PRI members congregated in boulevar " Vicente Fox Quesada" in order to demolish it. Even so, the develación was not cancelled, although later the statue will be recovered.

The BREAD accused the members of the governor of Veracruz, Fidel Herrera Beltrán, to order the attack to the statue, whereas Fox called " intolerante". Some sources in mass media consider that the installation of the statue was inadequate, since ex- President Fox faces accusations regarding a scandal of illicit enrichment.

11 of December of 2007, was reinstated the statue of Vicente Fox Ex-president in boulevard of the same name in the city of Mouth of the River, Veracruz . 7 of January of 2008, this statue was mancillada guinea fowl and.

Scandal and accusations of illicit enrichment

In September of 2007 resurged in the national political scene, after the magazine That published a news article on the life of the guanajuatense politician and its wife Marta Sahagún de Fox, in the farm San Cristóbal just remodelado, to a year to finish its presidential term.

After the appearance of the extensive news article in the Mexican magazine dedicated to social subjects of excellent personages, voices in the Mexican Congress arose to investigate their fortune, for which it even was to create a special commission of investigation; while a senator of PRD - Ricardo Monreal Avila - presented/displayed before the General Office of the judge advocate general of the Republic a demand by the presumption of diverse crimes, between which illicit Enrichment emphasizes the one of .

In that context, besides some uprisings done by some politicians and ex- near collaborators, like Korrodi Linen, that the Friendly organization presided over of Fox, now the ex- agent chief executive is surrounded in accusations on the use of resources to remodelar its farm, in the state of Guanajuato.

16 of October, Vicente Fox left an interview with Rubén Luengas of the chain Telemundo, when not wanting to respond to the constant accusations on its multiple properties and those of its wife, Martha Sahagún.

In that same month delegated of PRD they presented/displayed supposed tests and denounces before the PGR, to hide complaints of illicit enrichment of the Bribiesca by near six billions of pesos, and frauds to PEMEX using company KILATE.

Books

- Vicente Fox is author of the book To the Pines published in 1999 . In October of 2007 published along with Rob Allyn the book Revolution of Hope: The Life, Faith, and Dreams of to Mexican President .

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