theology is a set of techniques and methods of philosophical human nature that they try to reach particular knowledge on the divine organizations. Etymological it comes from the Greek: theos and logo, that God and treaty mean, study.
This term was used for the first time by Plato in “ the Republic ” to talk about to the understanding of the divine nature by means of the reason, in opposition to the own literary understanding of its contemporary poets. Later, Aristotle used the term in numerous occasions with two meaning:
Theology like the fundamental branch of Philosophy, also called philosophy first or science of the first principles, later called Metaphysical by its followers.
Theology like denomination of immediately previous the mythological thought to Philosophy, in a pejorative sense, and mainly used to call theologians to the old thinkers not-philosophers (like Hesiod and Ferécides de Siros ).
San Agustín took the concept natural theology ( theologia naturalis ) from the great work “ Antiquitates rerum divinatum ”, of M. Terencio Varrón, like unique true theology among the three presented/displayed by Varrón: the mythical one, the policy and the natural one. On this one, supernatural theology ( theologia supernaturalis ), based on the data of the revelation and therefore considered located superior. supernatural theology, located outside the battle area of the Philosophy, was not underneath, but over this one, and her servant considered, would help who it in the understanding of God.
Teodicea is a term used like at the moment synonymous of natural theology . XVIII by Leibniz like title of one of its works: “ Test of Teodicea. About the kindness of God, the freedom of the man and the origin of the evil ”, although Leibniz talked about with teodicea to any investigation whose aim was to explain the existence of the evil and to justify the kindness of God.
The term theology, therefore, is not initially of Christian origin. Only through a progressive process so much in East as in the West prevails the Christian use of the term “theology”. For Merciful of Alexandria, indicates the “knowledge of the divine things”. For Origins express the “true doctrine on God and Jesus Christ like Salvador”. corresponds to Eusebio the privilege of to have applied to the attribute for the first time theologos to Juan Gospeller, since in its gospel a “eminent doctrine wrote on God”. From him, the Catholic Church affirms that the theology indicates the true doctrine, the Christian, in opposition to the false doctrine that taught to the pagans and herejes.
The term theology is a compound word that, in its literal meaning, can indicate to speak of God, or a speech on God. If in general terms the theology is a reflection on God (and in this sense a philosophical theology also exists), in the most current sense of Catholic Church is a reflection that tries to know and to include/understand the faith from the reason. Therefore, the catholic theology estimates the faith as experiencial foundation and tries in her and through her the knowledge and the understanding of the faith. In other words, it is an intellectual, methodical and critical activity that estimates the adhesion to the Catholic faith. In order to indicate it synthetically, is often transformed to the formula of Anselmo: “Fides quaerens intellectum” : (the theology is the will of the faith to include/understand).
In the constitution of the catholic theological knowledge they can indicate its object, its sources and their place. “ Object ” of the theology is God - of direct way, and World and Man in the light of God. “ sources of the theological knowledge ” and their criteria really is human Reason and divine Revelation, of privileged way. “place” of the theology is Church like Christianity and faith community.
From they derive here that the Church must be able to establish of authorized form criteria for the theological reflection. According to the catholic Church, the investigation and the theological work register within a rational knowledge that the theology is science whose object is given by the revelation to say, the Word of God transmitted and interpreted by the Church under the authority of the Teaching that is impossible to avoid the mediation of the Church, and welcomed by the faith of the assent of the community.
the Theology is asked about the nature, the properties and the essence of God using like source the Revelation and method the trinitaria logic. In this sense the Theology is to a large extent Christian, although also the nonChristian religions have a respectable tradition theological, but based on other principles.
the Christian Churches and their Theology is based on two mysteries accepted by all: The Trinitario Mystery and the Cristológico Mystery.
Mystery Trinitario It is the doctrine that explains the existence of a single God in three different and identifiable people: Father, Son and Spirit Santo; The theory of the three in uno." The plurality in one unidad".
Mystery Cristológico Jesus Christ is the whole life of, - the second Person or the Son: Its birth, passion, death and resurrection, by which Father reconciles to the men with God. The mystery is in the impossibility to understand how two natures agree in the same Person, Divine, the infinite one and eternal, with human, finite and mortal, so that of which occurs for example Paradoxical the same Person of Jesus, of Friday of crucifixion to the Sunday of Resurrection, is been dead like man and at the same time alive like God next to the Father and to the Spirit Santo. It is the mystery of which it is, from its historical birth, true God and true man.
In addition, the theology is also dedicated to the study of other realities:
Eclesiología On the paper of same Church within the plan of the divine Salvation.
Escatología Related to the eclesiología, it tries on the last destiny of the Church, as well as of the last realities as much of each person as of the humanity generally.
In medioevo arose multiple schisms around the nature from Christ and with reference to the virginity from Maria ( Mariología ). With respect to this one last one, the controversy partly turned in which in Mateo 1:23 the angel announces the birth in virginal condition, whereas Isaiah in its prophecy alludes to one " almah" that in Hebrew it means " niña" or " jovencita", but not to one " bethulah" that it means " virgen" . This one is a small example of the difficulties of the theology like scientific discipline, when having to find the noncontradiction between the philological and philosophical arguments, and the dogmatic affirmations of the Teaching of the Catholic Church, maintained for being " attended by Spirit Santo ".
The first millenium is characterized by the unit between the theological knowledge and the pastoral ministry of the bishops. The great theologians are Doctors of the Church . And these, with some exceptions, are bishops. The teaching of the bishop was developed vice versa being theologian and; showing the unit and the complementariness of the two functions. The theology was considered like commentary and effort of penetration in the Word of God to be able it to live concretely.
In the West, the one is mainly Agustín that maintains with vigor the religious sense of theology: the theology like the effort is included/understood to penetrate more and more in the intelligence of the Scripture and the Word of God. Anselmo de Aosta advances in the understanding of the theology and creates the basic principle of the theology: quaero intelligere ut credam, thirst creed ut intelligam (=busco to understand to believe, but I create to be able to understand).
The appearance of the first universities in century XII and the beginning of the distinction in the scholastic studies will take to the theology to become questionings and sentences on the faith, and to be clear more and more like “science”. Developing becomes a form of rational knowledge of the data thus. What the faith welcomes like gift, explains it to the theology using the laws of the rational understanding. The theologians identify themselves with the great teachers of the universities and the monastic orders become the cradle privileged for their formation. The identification between bishop and theologians is already only one exception. The doctrine grows in the understanding thanks to the aid of the reason, but, nevertheless, the first great division between the theological schools, that is to say different ways begins to include/understand and to explain the same faith.
A particular meaning of “the theological” word as of century XIX is perceived. The theology, included almost exclusively as justification of the doctrine of the Teaching, identifies to the theologian like a that one that as much supports this doctrine (of the Teaching) in the light of the theoretical principles of the philosophy like in the plane of the historical investigation. In any case, its function is reduced to the one of commentator.
Council the Vatican II (1962-1965) has allowed to see us more the theology animated by the Scripture (DV 24) and more in contact with the life connected with the church. Therefore, the theology continues being anchored in the revelation like foundation his and to the faith like its critical intelligence, so that the life of faith of the believer can be motivated and significant.
Extraordinarily has been influenced by the philosopher Althusser, that in their reinterpretación of Marx, settles down that the totalitarianism is not a condition sine qua non of the marxism, and that the truly excellent thing is the social transformation and the fight against the injustices. From the new Pleiad of theologians it will raise here that it is possible to be Marxist and to maintain the idea of God. However, due to the loss of prestige of the marxism, in its historical applications, it will stop being used like term in the theology. Even its derivations as the theology of the liberation stops being used in the pastoral language.
But the theses of Marx in the sense that stay all appeal to further on is alienante, and that all the attention must be directed to this world. It takes implicit the re-reading of the other two great virtues: Faith and Charity, in temporary key of human .
It is possible to be thought about the catholic theologian like in whom, by vocation, it is given to the study of an event that sinks its roots in the past, but like son of his weather, dark of the provocations and tension of the present, having to produce instruments so that S-event comprehensible and significant also for today. Like believer, one is taken in his investigation by the certainty of the faith, but as scientist is subject to the rules of the critical knowledge.
the theologian is first of all a believer . Its investigation already is put in the horizon of the revelation, that is not of his demonstrative object of its theological work. It accepts this truth as the tradition connected with the church has been transmitted it. This is what constitutes the object of its faith. The theologian, therefore, doubt of the foundations of his theological knowledge nor does not settle down new ideas. Its work is not the one to produce the truth, but the one to look for the intelligibility of that one truth that it accepts and who knows that he is so by the faith. Its task as scientist is the one to invent languages and forms of communication that allow to recognize how the historical event Jesus de Nazaret is completely and insurmountable the revelation of the trinitario love of God. This truth is the one that it must emphasize with all their fullness of sense.
the Word of God, object of study of the theologian, comes in the Church and through the Church to him. The understanding of this Word, connected with the church half-full from its origin, primarily orients the believing community, so that it knows to give reason of his faith (1 EP 3. In this horizon it is where another characteristic of the theologian is put: the eclesialidad, that is to say to live, to think and to feel like part of the Church.
The ministry of the theologian becomes more visible when, by virtue of its competition, fruit of the investigation and the personal study, teaches to the others. But to the being a ministry in the Church and of the Church, relates that it of a totally peculiar way to the revelation, the education of the theologian never occurs him in a personal view. As soon as theologian, are always “a public” person, since it express the intelligence of the faith connected with the church . The theologian as science man needs clearly competition and scientific preparation, but as subject connected with the church demands obedience and fidelity to him for his education (oral and written) (1 Cor 4. the theologian is “responsible” for its ministry and, therefore, the theologian will have tender, like permanent objective, to happen constantly of the search of “intelligence” to the conquest of the “wisdom”.
Theology of the Liberation
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