Tatra is an automobile manufacturer located in Kopřivnice, Czech Republic . receives its name of Montes Tatras. The company was based on 1850 with the name of Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, dedicating to the manufacture of vehicles and carts. 1897 would become the producer of the first motor vehicle of Central Europe, the Präsident. In 1919 the company happened to denominate Tatra. There are some who affirm that Tatra is the third older manufacturer automobile, after Mercedes Benz and Peugeot . Tatra stopped the production of tourism in 1999 but still with traction makes a successful range of cross-country vehicles 4x4, 6x6, 8x8 10x10 and 12x12 (Tatra is seen trucks).
In 1900 sees the light the first car completely designed by Ledwinka, the Type To, with a back motor of 2714 cc and one speed 40 end of km/h. Of this model 22 units would be constructed. The following model, already in 1902, the B Type, had a central motor but Ledwinka let the company to concentrate itself in the development of steam motors. 1905 would return in, designing a new car completely, the S Type with a motor of 4 cylinders and 3308 cc. In 1912 the production was seen seriously affected after a strike that lasted 23 weeks and Hugo Fischer von Roslerstam left the company.
In 1919, finalized World War I, is created a new country, Czechoslovakia and Nesseldorf becomes Kopřivnice . Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau happens to be called Kopřivnice vozovka and in 1919 the division of the company dedicated to the automobile construction receives the name of Tatra. Leopold Pasching took the control and Hans Ledwinka once again returned in 1921 to design the revolutionary 11 Tatra .
The new car, sent in 1923 had a rigid tubular frame with oscillating semiaxes in the back part, which provided an independent suspension to him in the back wheels. The motor, located in the frontal part, was cooled by air and had two cylinders of 1056 cc. In 1926 would be replaced by the similar T 12 that had brakes in the four wheels. T 17, a later development of 1926, had a motor of 6 cylinders, that supposed 1930 cc and it was cooled by water. This model already had a completely independent suspension.
In 1927 the company happened to be called Tatra formally a.
aerodynamic coefficient of the T77 (only 0,212) rarely is improved even in modern vehicles. The characteristics of this model, that would inherit the great majority of the Tatras that happened to them were the back traction and a V8 motor air cooled, very falsified technically for the time.
Ledwinka commented its ideas with Ferdinand Porsche that used several characteristics of the designs of Tatra in Kdf - Wagen of 1938, later known like Volkswagen Escarabajo .
This circumstance is particularly evident when seeing the small T97 model with a back motor of 4 cylinders mounted in a flat configuration, air cooled and a body of cleared forms. Tatra undertook legal actions immediately, but the litigation was not solved until 1961 when Volkswagen was condemned to pay 30.000 of German marks for damages and damages.
After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the German army, Tatra continued making its cars, mainly because these were of the taste of the Germans. The Nazi officials were many who died to the steering wheel of heavy Tatra models with back traction and lead at an excessive speed. Tatra began to be well-known between the soldiers German like the Czechoslovakian secret weapon, to such an extent that apparently occurred you order the officials prohibiting them to drive the Tatra cars.
In 1946, after the arrival to the power of the Communist Party, the company was nationalized. In spite of continuing producing the models previous to the war, new one was designed one, Tatra T600 Tatraplan (the name celebrated the new planned communist economy). began to make in 1947. In 1951, the Department of State Planning decided that from then the Tatraplan the factory of Škoda had to be constructed to member state located in Mladá Boleslav, leaving Tatra was dedicated to the production of trucks, railway buses and equipment.
To pains three years later, as a result of the many complaints of the high positions on the official cars concerned of Russia, Tatra obtains permission again to produce a luxury car, the famous Tatra T603. He was a worthy successor of the prewar period cars, also with back motor and motor V8 air cooled, counted in addition on the distinguishing aerodynamic seal to the company. The Tatra T603 had three frontal lights and first of the prototypes it had a stabilizing central fin in the back part, although this one disappeared in the production model. Very to the American style, it counted on paragolpes chromed of great projections and had a surprising appearance for 1955 . The appearance was not the only thing that tapeworm; The performance was animated for a car, great of six seats, and the conduction was as smooth as the crystal. Made almost completely by hand, the Tatra was not for everybody, was unattainable for the citizen from on foot and was reserved for the elites of the Communist Party, directors of factories and other high positions, as well as to be exported to the rest of communist countries like official vehicles. Fidel Castro even had a Tatra white, customized T603 and with Conditioned air .
The T603 was constructed until 1975, reigning during 20 years like the best car of the Comunism. During this time numerous improvements were added to him, but all the new T603 made during the time was not really new. When a new Tatra replaced to another old man, this one returned to the factory. There he was updated with the characteristics of the new model, occurred a new one finished to him, him " etiquetaba" like new and he was envoy of return like a new Tatra to replace another old one. Thus, it is difficult to follow the history of the vehicles that survived those years.
The T603 appeared in the film of 2005 a series of catastrophic misfortunes, of Lemony Snicket like the other car that was rarer that Imperial Chrysler .
In 1968 was developed a substitute, Tatra T613 . Designed by the Italian study Vignale with cleared lines less, more in agreement with the new tendencies of the automobile design. In fact did not begin to make until 1973 although the production in mass did not begin until the following year. Although the design was the same, the chassis and the motor were new, with 4 camshafts above, a greater volume (3495cc) and the 165 a power near bhp. In addition, the motor had been slightly displaced forwards to improve the balance. Until 1996 5 series of this model with diverse modifications were constructed . The excellent design of Vignalle allowed that the T613 was not old fashioned until almost at the end of this period. They were constructed more than 11000 units, although in the end the production was reduced until a few dozens of more old fashioned units per year as the Tatras was remained more and.
With a volume of orders and production suspended from the fall of Comunism, Tatra decided to suspend to the production of Tatra T613 in 1996 . There was an attempt to make an up-to-date version, Tatra T700, based to a large extent on the preceding model, but with an update of the body and other details. The sales were poor, and in 1999 Tatra left the production of cars definitively. Nevertheless the manufacture of trucks is quite successful.
The estadonunidense Terex Corporation bought most (71%) of Tatra at the end of 2003 .
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