Tatra is an automobile manufacturer located in Kopřivnice, Czech Republic . receives its name of Montes Tatras. The company was based on 1850 with the name of Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft, dedicating to the manufacture of vehicles and carts. 1897 would become the producer of the first motor vehicle of Central Europe, the Präsident. In 1919 the company happened to denominate Tatra. There are some who affirm that Tatra is the third older manufacturer automobile, after Mercedes Benz and Peugeot . Tatra stopped the production of tourism in 1999 but still with traction makes a successful range of cross-country vehicles 4x4, 6x6, 8x8 10x10 and 12x12 (Tatra is seen trucks).

First years

Ignác Šustala ( 1822 - 1891 ), founded the company on which at that time was Nesseldorf, Moravia . began to construct cars of horses in 1850. In 1891 began to make also train wagons, calling then to the company Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau-Fabriksgesellschaft. In 1890 contracted Hugo Fischer von Roslerstam like technical director. Anvil the death of Šustala, Bon Roslerstam took the control from the company and in 1897 bought a Benz automobile that used like model to construct the first car of the company, the Präsident that exhibited in Vienna in 1897 . Tatra received several orders of the new car and under the direction of the young engineer Hans Ledwinka ( 1878 - 1967 ) was constructed ten improved cars.

In 1900 sees the light the first car completely designed by Ledwinka, the Type To, with a back motor of 2714  cc and one speed 40 end of km/h. Of this model 22 units would be constructed. The following model, already in 1902, the B Type, had a central motor but Ledwinka let the company to concentrate itself in the development of steam motors. 1905 would return in, designing a new car completely, the S Type with a motor of 4 cylinders and 3308  cc. In 1912 the production was seen seriously affected after a strike that lasted 23 weeks and Hugo Fischer von Roslerstam left the company.

The Tatra concept

In 1919, finalized World War I, is created a new country, Czechoslovakia and Nesseldorf becomes Kopřivnice . Nesselsdorfer Wagenbau happens to be called Kopřivnice vozovka and in 1919 the division of the company dedicated to the automobile construction receives the name of Tatra. Leopold Pasching took the control and Hans Ledwinka once again returned in 1921 to design the revolutionary 11 Tatra .

The new car, sent in 1923 had a rigid tubular frame with oscillating semiaxes in the back part, which provided an independent suspension to him in the back wheels. The motor, located in the frontal part, was cooled by air and had two cylinders of 1056  cc. In 1926 would be replaced by the similar T 12 that had brakes in the four wheels. T 17, a later development of 1926, had a motor of 6 cylinders, that supposed 1930  cc and it was cooled by water. This model already had a completely independent suspension.

In 1927 the company happened to be called Tatra formally a.

Before World War II

The specialty of Tatra was the cars of luxury and technically very advanced. In the decade of 1930, under the technical manual of the Austrian engineer Hans Ledwinka and its Erich son, Tatra began to construct cars advanced for its time and of streamlined lines. First of these models of was great Tatra T77 1934, the first aerodynamic car of production of the world.

aerodynamic coefficient of the T77 (only 0,212) rarely is improved even in modern vehicles. The characteristics of this model, that would inherit the great majority of the Tatras that happened to them were the back traction and a V8 motor air cooled, very falsified technically for the time.

Ledwinka commented its ideas with Ferdinand Porsche that used several characteristics of the designs of Tatra in Kdf - Wagen of 1938, later known like Volkswagen Escarabajo .

This circumstance is particularly evident when seeing the small T97 model with a back motor of 4 cylinders mounted in a flat configuration, air cooled and a body of cleared forms. Tatra undertook legal actions immediately, but the litigation was not solved until 1961 when Volkswagen was condemned to pay 30.000 of German marks for damages and damages.

World War II

After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the German army, Tatra continued making its cars, mainly because these were of the taste of the Germans. The Nazi officials were many who died to the steering wheel of heavy Tatra models with back traction and lead at an excessive speed. Tatra began to be well-known between the soldiers German like the Czechoslovakian secret weapon, to such an extent that apparently occurred you order the officials prohibiting them to drive the Tatra cars.

Communist control during the postwar period

In 1946, after the arrival to the power of the Communist Party, the company was nationalized. In spite of continuing producing the models previous to the war, new one was designed one, Tatra T600 Tatraplan (the name celebrated the new planned communist economy). began to make in 1947. In 1951, the Department of State Planning decided that from then the Tatraplan the factory of Škoda had to be constructed to member state located in Mladá Boleslav, leaving Tatra was dedicated to the production of trucks, railway buses and equipment.

Tatra T603

To pains three years later, as a result of the many complaints of the high positions on the official cars concerned of Russia, Tatra obtains permission again to produce a luxury car, the famous Tatra T603. He was a worthy successor of the prewar period cars, also with back motor and motor V8 air cooled, counted in addition on the distinguishing aerodynamic seal to the company. The Tatra T603 had three frontal lights and first of the prototypes it had a stabilizing central fin in the back part, although this one disappeared in the production model. Very to the American style, it counted on paragolpes chromed of great projections and had a surprising appearance for 1955 . The appearance was not the only thing that tapeworm; The performance was animated for a car, great of six seats, and the conduction was as smooth as the crystal. Made almost completely by hand, the Tatra was not for everybody, was unattainable for the citizen from on foot and was reserved for the elites of the Communist Party, directors of factories and other high positions, as well as to be exported to the rest of communist countries like official vehicles. Fidel Castro even had a Tatra white, customized T603 and with Conditioned air .

The T603 was constructed until 1975, reigning during 20 years like the best car of the Comunism. During this time numerous improvements were added to him, but all the new T603 made during the time was not really new. When a new Tatra replaced to another old man, this one returned to the factory. There he was updated with the characteristics of the new model, occurred a new one finished to him, him " etiquetaba" like new and he was envoy of return like a new Tatra to replace another old one. Thus, it is difficult to follow the history of the vehicles that survived those years.

The T603 appeared in the film of 2005 a series of catastrophic misfortunes, of Lemony Snicket like the other car that was rarer that Imperial Chrysler .

New image for years 70, the Tatra T613

In 1968 was developed a substitute, Tatra T613 . Designed by the Italian study Vignale with cleared lines less, more in agreement with the new tendencies of the automobile design. In fact did not begin to make until 1973 although the production in mass did not begin until the following year. Although the design was the same, the chassis and the motor were new, with 4 camshafts above, a greater volume (3495cc) and the 165 a power near bhp. In addition, the motor had been slightly displaced forwards to improve the balance. Until 1996 5 series of this model with diverse modifications were constructed . The excellent design of Vignalle allowed that the T613 was not old fashioned until almost at the end of this period. They were constructed more than 11000 units, although in the end the production was reduced until a few dozens of more old fashioned units per year as the Tatras was remained more and.

Last steps and the end

With a volume of orders and production suspended from the fall of Comunism, Tatra decided to suspend to the production of Tatra T613 in 1996 . There was an attempt to make an up-to-date version, Tatra T700, based to a large extent on the preceding model, but with an update of the body and other details. The sales were poor, and in 1999 Tatra left the production of cars definitively. Nevertheless the manufacture of trucks is quite successful.

The estadonunidense Terex Corporation bought most (71%) of Tatra at the end of 2003 .

Models

Automobiles

  • Tatra T11
  • Tatra T12
  • Tatra T17
  • Tatra T57
  • Tatra T75
  • Tatra V570
  • Tatra T77
  • Tatra T77a
  • Tatra T87
  • Tatra T97
  • Tatra T107
  • Tatra T600 Tatraplan
  • Tatra T603
  • Tatra T613
  • Tatra T700

Trucks

  • Tatra T111

  • Tatra T141
  • Tatra T805
  • Tatra T138
  • Tatra T813
  • Tatra T148
  • Tatra T815
    • Tatrapan armored Vehicle based on the chassis of Tatra 815.
  • Tatra T163 Jamal
  • Tatra T816

It is also seen

  • Ready of present manufacturers of automobiles

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