Swedish Pomerania (in Swedish : Svenska Pommern ; in German : Schwedisch-Pommern ) was a dominion of Swedish Corona between the centuries XVII and XIX, located in which today in days Baltic coast is of Germany and Poland . As a result of Pole-Swedish Wars and of War of the Thirty Years, Sweden secured an important control on the South Baltic coast, including Pomerania and parts of Silesia and Prusia . After Peace of Westfalia of 1648, Sweden received Western Pomerania or Vorpommern, and a strip of Eastern Pomerania or Hinterpommern, with the islands of Rügen, Usedom and Wolin . Sweden controlled Pomerania like Reichsfürsten (imperial prince) of Empire . Sweden lost its territories in Pomerania as a result of the dissolution of Sacrum Germanic Roman Empire in 1806 during Napoleonic Wars .

History

War of the Thirty Years

Pomerania vió surrounded in War of the Thirty Years in the decade of 1620 . With the city of Stralsund surrounded by the imperial troops, their sovereign, Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Stettin, concluded a deal with the king Gustavo Adolph of Sweden in June of 1628 . 10 of July of 1630 the treaty extended to a species of pact " eterno" and at the end of that same year the military occupation of Pomerania had already finalized. After this fact, Gustavo Adolph became the effective sovereign of the country, and although the rights of succession on Pomerania, that fell on the voter Jorge-Guillermo I of Brandenburg, were recognized, the Swedish king still pressed to Margrave of Brandenburg so that this one broke with the emperor Fernando II of Hapsburg . In 1634 the states of Pomerania assigned the temporary government to a meeting of direction of eight members, that continued working until Brandenburg dissolved in 1638 to cause the imperial investiture to it.

Consequently Pomerania entered an anarchy state, forcing of this form to take part to the Swedish. From 1641 the administration was directed by an advice (" Concilium status ") from Stettin (Szczecin), until the treaty of peace of 1648 granted right on the province in favor of Sweden . In the negotiations of peace of Osnabruck, Brandenburg-Prusia received the Eastern Pomerania ( Hinterpommern ) and the part of Duchy of Pomerania located to the west of the river Oder, except Stettin. Whereas the strip from land to the east of Oder that included/understood the districts of Damm and Gollnow and the island of Wolin, and Western Pomerania ( Vorpommern ) with the islands of Rügen and Usedom, was yielded to imperial Sweden as feudo. To 1653 the borders with Brandenburg paid attention of very favorable form for Sweden. The border with Mecklemburgo, throughout Trebel and Recknitz, would be fixed following the agreements of 1591 .

Under Swedish Corona

The history of Pomerania under the Swedish domination is a history of extreme poverty and conflict. Of 1657 to 1659, during Second War of the North, Austrian the Polish troops, and brandeburguesas devastated the country. The territory was occupied by Denmark and Brandenburg between 1675 and 1679 during Escanesa War, by which Denmark demanded the island of Rügen and Brandenburgo the rest of Pomerania. Both campaigns were in vain for the winners, except by Gollnow and the strip of land located to the east of Oder, that happened to Brandenburg as it pledges as a indemnification, until this was paid in 1693 .

The first years of Great War of the North did not affect Pomerania. Until the Danish, Russian and Polish troops crossed their borders in 1714, Kingdom of Prusia first appeared like a vacillating mediator later to happen to also become aggressor. The king Carlos XII of Sweden directed the defense of Pomerania during a year (from November of 1714 to December of 1715 ), before fleeing to Lund . The Danish seized of Rügen and Western Pomerania to the north of the river Peene ( Neuvorpommern ), whereas the Western Pomerania to the south of the river ( Altvorpommern ) was occupied by Prusia. By Treated about Frederiksborg ( 3 of June of 1720 ), Denmark was forced to give back the control on the occupied area to Sweden, but in Treated about Stockholm of 21 of January of that same year, to Prusia was allowed him to retain its conquests, including Stettin. By this treaty, Sweden yielded to Prusia the territory to the east of the Oder that had gained in 1648, as well as the Western Pomerania to the south of the Peene river and the islands of Wolin and Usedom. The attempts to reclaim the lost territories during War of Pomerania ( 1757 - 1762 ), framed in the Seven Years' War, were bankrupts.

The entrance of Sweden in Third Coalition of 1805 against Napoleón, supposed the occupation of the Swedish Pomerania on the part of the French troops of 1807 to 1810 . In 1813, when the French troops had already left Pomerania, the Swedish Navy defeated to Napoleón in Batalla de Leipzig, next to the troops of Russia, Prusia and Austria . Sweden also attacked Denmark and, by Treated about Kiel of 14 of January of 1814, this one yielded Pomerania to the Danish in exchange for Norway . However, the destiny of the Swedish Pomerania sealed during Congress of Vienna through treaties between Prusia and Denmark of of 4 June and with Sweden of of 7 June of 1815 . In these Prusia maneuvers obtained the Swedish Pomerania in exchange for Lauenburg that was yielded to Denmark, which received in addition 2 ' 6 táleros million of on the part of Prusia and 3 ' 5 million táleros on the part of Sweden for indemnification by damages military. The Swedish Pomerania was incorporated to Prusia like " New Pomerania Superior" ( Neuvorpommern ) within the Prussian province of Pomerania.

Constitution and administration

Nobility of Pomerania was firmly based and counted on extensive privileges, whereas in the opposite side was an ample population of servants . Until the end of Century XVIII the servants constituted both third of the population of the country. The states dominated by the nobility were divided in districts, whereas the real dominions, that included a quarter of the country, were divided in amts .

The position of Pomerania in the Kingdom of Sweden depended on the conversations between the States of Pomerania and the Government of Sweden. The conversations gave little results until the Instructions of Government of 17 of July of 1663, and in 1664 the States of Pomerania only recognized the Swedish monarch like their new sovereign.

The Real Government of Pomerania ( die königliche Landesregierung ) was made up of a governor-general, who always was a chancellor of Deprived Advice of Sweden, like head of the same and by five chancellors of the Real Government, among them the president of the Court of Appeal, the chancellor and the captain of the castle of Stettin, over the inspector of the Amts. When they required it to the circumstances, the States, the nobility, the bourgeois and, until the decade of 1690, the clergy could be summoned to meet in a local parliament denominated Landtag . The nobility was represented by a deputy by district, and these deputies as well were sent by their respective districts to the noble convention. The deputies on the other hand had a deputy by each city with right to vote, emphasizing among them the one of Stralsund. Landtag was presided over by a marshal ( Erb-landmarschall ). The third component of the S-states the five (initially ten) chancellors of Landtag named by the Real Government of Pomerania following the short list presented/displayed by the States. The chancellors of Landtag formed Land Council, that mediated with the Swedish government and supervised the Constitution.

The States, that had exerted a great authority on the Dukes of Pomerania, were able to exert a significant influence on Sweden. Their rights of petinción were not, nevertheless, limited and by the privileges granted by the king Federico I in 1720 was recognized them an explicit right to participate in matters of legislation and taxes.

Legal system

The system bequeaths in Pomerania was characterized by a state of great confusion, due to the lack of a consistent legislation or a collection of very basic laws and however a crazy collection of legal principles. The Swedish dominion brought the government at least you read of them within a system of you cut. Beginning in 1655, the cases could be appealed before the court from first instance to the court of appeal in Greifswald (located in Wolgast from 1665 - 1680 ), where the sentences were dealed with under the appeal law 1672, work lead by David Mevius . The cases under canonical law went directly to a town hall located in Greifswald. From the appeal court the cases could be appealed to the supreme court for the Swedish dominions in Germany, the High Court in Wismar, that was abierto in 1653 .

Economy

In economic terms, Pomerania did not suppose any gain for Sweden. Under the administration of Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein ( 1776 - 1791 ) the dominion only produced surplus (táleros total income until 1782 of 250,000 ). On the other hand, it represented an authentic ballast, where most of the expenses went to the military fortification of Stralsund and defenses generally. The first source of income was the licenses, the rights of customs for the import and export by sea. The tax on liquors and grain were remplzados by a personal tax, Quartalsteuer (imposed quarterly). In Century XVIII this one was replaced by a tax I base, to hujensteuer . The population of the Swedish Pomerania was of 89,000 inhabitants in 1766, which reached the 113,000 inhabitants in 1802, with a quarter of the same living in the island of Rügen.

Abolition of the Constitution

By the real proclamation of 26 of June of 1806, the Constitution of Pomerania was suspended and abolished. Instructions of Government of 1766, Act of Union and Security of 1789 and the Law of 1734 happened to have precedence and were implemented from 1 of September of 1808 . The reason of this real sanction was that the states, in spite of the real prohibition, had met in you cut to appeal against the real statutes, in particular elm statute of 30 of April of 1806 referring to the increase of the pomerana Navy. In the new order, Gustavo Adolph IV tried to introduce a government divided in departments. The law of the Swedish church was introduced. The country was divided in four provincial districts ( Härad ) and congregational districts ( Socken ) in agreement with the Swedish model of administration. The States of Pomerania could only be convicados for specifically referring questions to Pomerania and Rügen. The new paper of Landtag was based on Riksdag of the Swedish States, taking place the referring conversations to its new paper in August of 1806, where they declared his loyalty to the king and they acclaimed to him like his sovereign.

List of Governor-generals

  • Sten Svantesson Bielke ( 1633 - 1641 )
  • Lennart Torstenson ( 1641 - 1648 )
  • Carl Gustaf Wrangel ( 1648 - 1650 )
  • Johan Oxenstierna ( 1650 - 1652 )
  • Axel Lillie ( 1652 - 1661 )
  • Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck ( 1679 - 1685 )
  • Nils Bielke ( 1687 - 1698 )
  • Nils Bielke ( 1698 - 1711 )
  • Johan August Meijerfeldt ( 1713 - 1747 )
  • Axel von Louvain ( 1748 - 1766 )
  • Hans Henrik von Liewen ( 1766 - 1772 )
  • Carl Fredrik Sinclair ( 1772 - 1776 )
  • Fredrik Vilhelm von Hessenstein ( 1776 - 1791 )
  • Eric Ruuth ( 1792 - 1796 )
  • Filip Julius Bernhard von Platen ( 1796 - 1800 )
  • Hans Henric von Essen ( 1800 - 1809 )

Connections

  • The Island of Dänholm, the Swedish Pomerania in 1807.
  • The campaign of Guillaume Marie Anne Brune in the Swedish Pomerania in 1807.
  • Map of the Duchy of Pomerania

.

Random links:Chaetocarpeae | Cleopatra III | Eternal night | House desolate | Rafael Angel Garci'a

© 2007-2008 speedlook.com; article text available under the terms of GFDL, from fr.wikipedia.org