City of Sanlúcar de Barrameda is Spanish Municipality located in Province of Cadiz, in independent Community of Andalusia . Seated in the left margin of Estuary of Guadalquivir River, against National Park of Doñana, is 44 km of the province capital, Cadiz, and 126 km of the autonomic capital, Seville . Its population is of 63,968 inhabitants ( NSI 2007 ).
The term of Sanlúcar been has lived from the Antiquity, assuming that belonged to the scope of civilization of Tartessos. Mentioned in different Roman and medieval texts, the town of Sanlúcar was granted in señorío to Guzmán Good in 1297, beginning a time of demographic and economic height made possible mainly by port of Barrameda . By its strategic situation, the city was protagonist of the exploration, colonization and evangelisation of America between centuries XV and XVII. The fall in misfortune of House of Medina-Sidonia in 1645, the general decay of Spain under Carlos II, the transfer of House of Hiring to Cadiz in 1711 and Earthquake of Lisbon in 1755 negatively affected Sanlúcar, that happened to have a more and more secondary paper. Century XIX the economic activity of the city became to Grape growing and summer Tourism, on a bottom of uncertainty and great social inequalities. In the century XX Sanlúcar it lived the same political frights that the rest of Spain, not undergoing destructions during Civil War . In 1973 was declared Joint historical-artistic . From restoration of the democracy diverse parties has followed one another to the front of the City council, that has been get into debt strongly, to which is added that Sanlúcar is at the moment the Spanish city with smaller per capita rent.
Nowadays Sanlúcar is well-known mainly by its gastronomy, mainly by manzanilla and Prawns by its music, in particular Flamenco and by the summer tourism, mainly by flat racing in the beach, declared of Tourist Interest the International . Less well-known but of great importance for the historians is File of the House of Medina-Sidonia, located in the palace of the same name.
In Andalusia they exist and they existed other called places Sanlúcar, that are different to each other adding Place-name bases a last name differentiator. In this case, the nickname that is added is of Barrameda, alluding to the place where is placed Port of Sanlúcar . The payment of Barrameda, from the city-planning point of view, was during centuries separated of the urban helmet of Sanlúcar, reasoning among them the way of Barrameda (today Barrameda street and avenue of Huelva). At the moment there is no city-planning discontinuity between Sanlúcar and Barrameda, although the densidad of constructions that there are in the space between both nuclei is minor who the existing one in each of them.
As far as Etimología of both Place-names, is no consensus between the students of the subject, existing several hypotheses:
the name of Sanlúcar could come from Arab shaluqa (شلوقة), Arab name of the called East wind Siroco or Jaloque (both names come from the Arab shaluqa ).
According to the data of National Institute of Statistic the toponímico last name Sanlúcar (that could be referred to anyone of the places thus denominated), does not exist. Nevertheless Alfonso Sanlúcar de Barrameda, franciscan are the news of fray who was bishop of the Canary Islands-Rubicón in the period 1404-1417 and fray Juan de Sanlúcar, franciscan that exerted the same position from 1470 to 1474. As far as the toponímico last name Barrameda, whose origin does not raise ambiguity, is privative of people born in Canary Islands, according to the data of the register to 1 of January of the 2006. The historical relations between House of Medina-Sidonia, Sanlúcar and the Canary Islands, easily explain the presence of these last names in the Lucky Islands.
The shield of Sanlúcar shows, on field of silver, a bull or winged ox knocked down on a book of gold, located on waves of Azur and silver, endorsed by a almenada gold tower, crowned by a star or star, bordura of gold loaded with the legend Lvciferi Fanvm Senatvs and, to the timbre, a closed real crown. Mote or motto talks about the Temple of the old Star that mentions the geography and that more likely rose in archaeological Deposit known like the Tesorillo the Algaida . The star represents Venus planet or Star, whereas the tower can represent the own temple. The bull or knocked down winged ox on gospels represents in Tetramorphs San Lucas Gospeller, landlord of the city. The antiquity of the shield is not known although it can affirm that it dates, at least, from principles of century XVIII, because of this century they are several blazons that have been distributed by the city. The flag of Sanlúcar, however, has been created recently by Jose Carlos Garci'a Rodriguez using like central reason the historical shield for the municipality.
The city is located in which assumes was the nucleus of the old civilization of Tartessos, although has been in the municipal term no archaeological finding corresponding to that culture. Nevertheless, yes there have been prehistoric findings and of the Antiquity, like the Dolmen de Hidalgo (in the Agostao ), cylindrical Idol of the Cortijo of the Source, Treasure of Ébora (found fortuitously in the Cortijo de Ébora), Bronze of Bonanza, the Tesorillo (sanctuary dedicated to Astarté ) and the Well of the Caveros, these two last ones in the Pine of the Algaida. Old geographies of Avieno, Estrabón and Pomponio Mela mention two enclaves of importance that were within the present municipal term of Sanlúcar: Luciferi Fanum and the city of '' Ebura '' or Ébora . First, “the temple of the Star”, could be identified with the Sanctuary of the Tesorillo and the second it seems that it was in the present Cortijo de Ébora, whose name conserves part of the old place-name.
During Islamic domination the term of the present Sanlúcar belonged to Cora de Sidonia . In the 807 years, 812, 844 and 859 took place incursions vikingas by the Guadalquivir river, that possibly affected to the existing establishments in the present term.
It is very possible that Rábida was one or ribat for the defense of the estuary of the Guadalquivir, whose rest could be the main body of present Palace of Dukes de Medina-Sidonia . Perhaps " Towers of Solúcar" mentioned by chronicles watchtowers would be a series of or towers-almenara distributed by the coast of Sanlúcar, similars to which later by the litorial constructed Felipe II Andalusian.
According to Expensive Rodrigo in his Additions to the Corografía of Seville, Sanlúcar de Barrameda was called during the Islamic domination Masagued or Massagued . In order to affirm this one was based on the Latin translation of anonymous the original Arab who Gabriel de Sion or Sionita (1577-1648) published in Paris in 1629. The Nubiense, in fact, is not other than Geography of Al-Idrisi . According to the translator Masagued means " templos", place-name that seems to keep the memory from Luciferi Fanum .
Nevertheless, the conditions of life of the Mudejar ones went away degrading reason why in 1264 revolted with the help of Benimerines North African. The trimmings of the castles of the gaditana region were passed to knife. The Castilian answer was not made hope and in the following months the king Alfonso X reconquered the strengths definitively and expelled all the Muslim population.
The name of Sanlúcar is mentioned in Cantigas of Santa Maria written by this king, concretely in Cantiga of Santa Maria nº 371, within the cycle or Song book of Santa Maria of the Port . In this song galaico-Portuguese they are mentioned " Sam Luchas" and " Barrameda" like different places. The 4 of April of 1295 the king Sancho IV verbally promised Señorío de Sanlúcar to Alonso Perez de Guzmán Good by its heroic intervention in the defense of Tarifa, although the king died without making cash señorío. was the king Fernando IV that confirmed the donation of " Villa de Sanlúcar with all settlers, terms and properties, and the chests and rights that he had there and to have había", as Toro says the privilege of donation of the Señorío de Sanlúcar signed in 13 of October of 1297 . Besides the town of Sanlúcar, señorío homonymous included Trebujena, Chipiona and Rota.
Guzmán Good repopulated the town, helping to the repobladores with fiscal advantages. It constructed a castle, well-known with time like " Viejo" palace;, in contrast with " Nueva" strength; or Castle of Santiago and Walls of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, outside which several suburbs grew. Nowadays some rest of these walls in Albaicín are conserved . To the death of Guzmán the Good one, Sanlúcar had become señorío rich, mainly by the possibilities of Port of Barrameda, later called Port of Bonanza . When marrying Isabel Perez de Guzmán (the one of the daughters of Guzmán Good one) with Fernán Ponce of Leon, this one took in married dowry Rota and Chipiona, becoming independent both towns from the Señorío de Sanlucar in 1303 and getting up to the possessions of the family Ponce of Leon, germ of House of Arcs . In 1310 took place the visit of the Duke of Britain to Sanlúcar, that was in Spain on the occasion of its wedding with Infant Isabel, sister of Fernando IV . This visit abrió a commercial route between Sanlúcar and Britain that importance was acquiring during the centuries Century XIV and XV . According to the tradition, although there is no documentary certainty, around 1360 rose Parochial Greater Church of Ntra. Of those years, of half-full of century XIV, Dikr is the anonymous chronicle written in called Arab bilad al-Andalus , that mentions the castle of Šalūqa, located in a slight elevation of the land in the left margin of the opening of the Guadalquivir and pertaining to cora of Sidonia . Given the chronology of the text, the most reasonable interpretation is than the Arab place-name Šalūqa is an arabicization of the Castilian Sanlúcar and not on the contrary.
In second half of century XV, still in Low Average Age according to classic Historiography, Sanlúcar already was completely in own Mercantilismo of immersed Modern Age . Port of Barrameda, like the majority of the ports of the Low Andalusia, maintained important commercial relations with the ports of the north of Europe, Genoa etc., being the wine the main exported product and the textiles the main import. Also it was an active port in the exploration, commerce and sacking of the coasts of Atlantic, in hard competition with Portuguese . Also, " is necessary to mention the celebration of two frank fairs annual calls; the Vendejas".
Between the years 1477 and 1478 II Duke of Medina-Sidonia made construct Castle of Santiago, lodging in him Kings Católicos when they visited the city in 1477, during War of Castilian Succession . In 1478 the Duke gave to the call Privilege of the Bretones, document who gave facilities to these retailers to settle down itself in the town and to practice his mercantile activities. For the residence of these merchants the Bretones street was reserved, next to the Alcaicería and to the Covachas or the Stores of the Sierpes . That same year the Kings congregated in Sanlúcar a great fleet to go to the overseas possessions of the king of Portugal but the Navy was defeated and captured by the Portuguese.
In 1497 left from Sanlúcar the fleet that seized of a depopulated territory of North Africa where today Melilla rises to the city of, that thus happened to comprise of the dominions of House of Medina-Sidonia and of the crown of Castilla.En 1494, Trebujena was constituted in independent municipality of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, by means of letter-colonizes granted by III the Duke with Medina-Sidonia the 21 of April.
After Discovery of America in 1492 the Kings established in Seville the monopoly of the commerce with " islands of Indias", Mainland, the Canary Islands and Berbería, creating House of Hiring in 1503 . It implied the closing to the overseas traffic of the ports of the coast Andalusian, that thus began a fast economic declivity. Sanlúcar was the unique exception, since it managed to defend his freedom of commerce in a lawsuit against the Kings, conserving the Duke its independent Customs. In Sanlúcar a branch of the House of Sevillan Hiring also settled, that thus avoided to the great boats laborious navigation by Guadalquivir to arrive at Sevilla.Las colonies from merchants bretones, flamenco, English and Italian they continued based in the town. The colony of English merchants had an outstanding paper, constructing from 1517 the English Catholic Church of San Jorge.
The Perez de Guzmán, whose position was the Post of captain-general of the Sea Océana and Costas of Andalusia, had been accumulating the important nobiliary titles of Sir of Sanlúcar (1298), Fog Count (1369) and Duke of Medina-Sidonia (1445). These Great of Spain, ended up determining their residence stable to Sanlúcar, Palace of Dukes de Medina-Sidonia, that today is soothes of most important File of the House of Medina-Sidonia and the Foundation House of Medina-Sidonia. In this way, Sanlúcar happened to be the State Capital of this nobiliary house, becoming an important political and economic center. In 1509 the town rented to the Dukes about three million and average of annual maravedíes (more than half originating of the Customs of the port). This lifted number represented around a third of the rents of the Dukes and was highest among all dominions.
Sanlúcar throughout continued being a reputation port Century of Gold . Of their port marine expeditions of great importance weighed anchor, between which Trip of Cristóbal emphasizes III Columbus (1498). Also it was the departure point and arrival of I marine Earth Circumnavigation, expedition begun by Fernando de Magallanes 20 of September of 1519 and finalized by Juan Sebastián Elcano in 1522 .
Lope de Vega (fragment of Amar, to serve and to wait for )
To being one of the natural places of delay of the missionaries who went to New World, and thanks to the patronage of the House of Medina-Sidonia, many religious orders settled down in Sanlúcar, arriving to be an authentic consecrated city, City-convent of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, to the way of the of Burgos ducal town of Lerma . Sample of it is the numerous convents and hermitages that existed. The presence of so many convents, churches and hermitages, next to the bullente commercial activity and to the enormous traffic of people and originating merchandize of numerous countries, had to create in the city a colorful effect of resistance, very similar to which produced Seville . In the Convent of Carmelite the Barefoot ones is conserved '' Written by hand of Sanlúcar '' or '' Codex of Barrameda '' of San Juan de la Cruz .
In resistance, Sanlúcar also had a great activity of Prostitution . The great amount of floating population generated problems of public order that caused that the bailiff position had to be remunerated with a very high rent.
Sanlúcar stopped in 1579 being a mere town when receiving the title of city. In 1576 settled down in the population the second press of the province of Cadiz, being the first work printed in this establishment the Latin medicine compendium Opera Medicinalia, written by Petro de Peramato.
In 1624, took place the real visit Felipe IV to Sanlúcar, after convite given in the Boundary of Doñana, organized by VIII the Duke of Medina-Sidonia. In 1645, after presumed independentista Conspiracy in Andalusia (1641), Sanlúcar was incorporated to real Corona. Dukes of Medina-Sidonia stopped being the gentlemen of Sanlúcar and marched to live to the Court, by imposition of Felipe IV, and so its patronage on the city was decreased very.
In 1711, with the transfer of House of the Hiring from Seville to Cadiz, the port of Sanlúcar lost great part of its strategic value, nevertheless House of Arizón continued being constructed to magnificent examples of House of Shippers Indians like, and a new building rose for soothes of Town hall in the Place of the Creek, that replaced soothes old of the Place of Above, being called this one since then the Cabildillo. Of century XVIII is also the buildings of Jail, of Pósito and the place or Market of Supplies . In 1755 the population was affected by Earthquake of Lisbon and by subsequent seismic wave .
The stay of Francisco de Goya in the house of XIII Duchess of Dawn, duchess consorte of Medina-Sidonia, the summer of 1796, gave to pictorial fruits among others small notebook or Album of Sanlúcar and leaves of Album B or Sanlúcar-Madrid . On 1780 was based Friendly Economic Society of the Country of Sanlúcar de Barrameda . Thanks to Manuel de Godoy, was created Botanical Garden of La Paz, the Pine of the Algaida and the Marine Consulate and the Province of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, that lasted from 1804 to 1808. Also at the beginning of Century XIX was constructed Cemetery of San Antonio Abbot and Slaughter house Policeman.
Sanlúcar counted from the Twenties of century XIX with several steamers that covered the Seville-Sanlúcar-Cadiz line, which allowed to a fast transfer to the gaditana capital and the metropolis Andalusian. One of these lines was known like Seville-Sanlúcar-Sea.
With the Decree of division in provinces of 1833, the city was definitively including in Province of Cadiz, because until then, from Recapture and throughout Old Regime, Sanlúcar had comprised of Kingdom of Seville and the Vicar of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, belonged to the jurisdiction of Archbishopric of Seville . The raising of the wine manzanilla, that had begun at the end of century XVIII, was being perfected thanks to the arrival of " montañeses", in whose overseas they carried out commercial and financial activities, because store clerks were average, means moneylenders. These the originating of north of Spain and enriched families thanks to their work began to take control of properties and capitals, which allowed them to become related with families of old prestige but in clear economic declivity at that time. In 1845 was created the Society of Flat racing of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, like regulating organ of these races of horse, event that repeats since then every summer in the beach sanluqueña. After his first visit in 1848, Dukes de Montpensier and Infantes of Spain, Antonio de Orleans and Maria Luisa Fernanda de Borbón, who lived in the Sevillian Palace on San Telmo, constructed in Sanlúcar their summery residence: Palace of Orleans-Bourbon . With the Dukes, it went his small noble court, politicians and artists, who again gave to Sanlúcar a cosmopolitan character him they in center turned and it of summering of the Sevillan bourgeoisie. The city received at this time several seen real. In 1853, Maria Amalia de Bourbon the Sicilies visited (mother of the Duke), in 1856 Fernando II (king widower of Portugal), in 1862 Isabel II (brother of the duchess) and in 1882 Alfonso XII and Maria Cristina de Hapsburg-Lorraine .
After Revolution of 1868, initiated in Cadiz and extended the rest of the country, Sanlúcar proclaimed independent corner in 1873, like other many cities Andalusian and Spaniards. The period of Restoration is dominated by the problems of Under-development of the field Andalusian and the definitive loss of the overseas colonies after the 98 Desastre of . To this economic uncertainty the problem of was added to him Domination and influence of a cacique, that made be born in the zone a fort Anarchism, whose more classic at the same time as discussed example is the Black Hand . In a situation very similar to the previous one Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera was developed .
Since the end of century XIX until the beginning of the XX several railway lines were constructed that united Sanlúcar with places and cities in their neighborhoods. These historical lines were:
Sanlúcar (town) - the Tables - Sherry of the Border
At present, in spite of the great population that has the municipality, it is not in him any of those historical routes of railroad.
In the decade of years 10, 20 and 30 of century XX, Sanlúcar consolidate as the most important destiny of summering of the south of Spain, tourist splendor that contrasts with little flattering a social situation. It is constructed to the Bullring of the Pine and " hotels of playa", luxurious constructed residences of summer in multiple historicistas and regionalistic styles; case of the Hotel of Marquesses de Villamarta, builds of Aníbal González . Also, at the beginning of century XX one settled the Street car of the Beach, that it crossed, for lightening of the heated swimmers, the Stroll of the Road from the old Place from the Customs to the Beach and vice versa; an authentic symbol of " modernidad". It is the time at which Joaquin Turina father painted its picture of the beach of Sanlúcar and Joaquin Turina son composed several works dedicated to Sanlúcar " city of plata" in its musical inspiration and to manzanilla, its favorite broth.
Sanlúcar de Barrameda during the Second Spanish Republic participated in the happened events in all Spain in the general elections of 1931 and 1933, with the republican victory of first and Lerrouxistas later. In 1931, when was proclaimed II Spanish Republic, Sanlúcar underwent the serious problems of Illiteracy (50.8% of the population), Large estate ownership (nine proprietors held the ownership of 62.10% of territories of the municipal term) and a discharge rate of unemployment . In the elections of that year the republicans and the Socialists won, who were supported by the labor movement of tendency anarchist, of long tradition in Marco de Jerez and that had its algid moments in Cantonal of 1873 and in Events of Old woman Houses . During the first triennium of the Republic the labor movement was the cause of diverse destructive acts of protest antisystem. In 1931 an attempt of burning fire of the Convent of Capucin took place, like anticlerical manifestation. In 1933, the night of the 11 of January, the Municipal and of Notarial Protocols, situated File in Pósito policeman, underwent a brought about fire. This fact, happened during General Huelga that CNT had summoned in all Spain. Beyond the symbolic act of the destruction of the documents, that gave faith of the Earth property, the burning fire of notarial protocols and other municipal documentation, caused an irreparable loss for the documentary patrimony of the city. Fortunately, the acts you will capitulate were saved because they kept in another building. In the general elections of the Republic of 1933, one took place the defeat of the Socialists and the victory of Lerroux, that gave to passage to the call Preservative or black Biennium. In Sanlúcar the result of these elections was the same that at level national, which can be attributed to the high abstention that reached a quota of 74.2%, concentrated mainly in the working class, disappointed by the little reforms undertaken by the republic, and very influenced by the anarchism. Just named civil governor of Cadiz it undertook a series of inspection to the city councils, whose concealed objective was the destitution of the socialist municipal corporations and the appointment of lerrouxistas mayors. The democratic city council of Sanlúcar, was accused of corruption and incompetence and was replaced by another relative by marriage the government of Lerroux.
In 1933 the Regulating Council of was created Denominations of Sherry Origin and Manzanilla-Sanlúcar de Barrameda . During Spanish Civil War, Sanlúcar was soon after the military rise under the control of National Side, whose control was Gonzalo Queipo de Llano, appointed Head of the Field army of the Frank South by . At the first moments of the conflict they shot to the citizens of republican Side considered more rebels by the insurrectionists and choked the pockets of resistance. Nevertheless, the rest of the conflict was developed with certain tranquility in the city.
During Francoism, the society sanluqueña, composed mainly by a small group of landowners and owners of a wine cellar and a great amount of day laborers, farmers, fishermen and small retailers, as soon as it had undergone changes in his structure since the end of century XIX. Certain manufacturing activity existed at that time, example of which was the soap factory or almona, of canvas shoes, soda water and siphon, painting, gas and several factories of alcohol. In addition, the city continued being tourist destiny of many Sevillians of all the social classes, a less and less elitist tourism.
The social life was concentrated in the casinos of the city: the Mercantile Circle and the Circle of Craftsmen, reserved for the well off class one and the rest of sanluqueños the other. The Athenian Sanluqueño also was an important social gathering and collection point. The cultural activity of the city was limited traditional events and other acts that adjusted to the own Orthodoxy of the dictatorship. The main religious acts were the procession of Our Lady of the Crowned Charity, employer of the city, the processions of Easter, Velá of San Antonio, Velá of Divine Shepherd (antecedent of the present Fair of the Manzanilla) and romería of the Dew, very minority at that time. In these religious acts and festive acts of charity was let see Infant Alfonso and Infant Beatriz, whose residence in the city continued with the tradition of the parents and grandparents of the Infant, Dukes of Galliera and Dukes of Monstpensier respectively. In the artistic scope, the musical activity was most outstanding with frequent concerts of the Municipal Band of Music, the Orfeón Santa Cecilia and the Sanluqueña Orchestra and represented spectacles of zarzuela in the Main Theater, that was decaying progressively by the proliferation of numerous cinemas of districts, nowadays disappeared.
In 1973 was recognized by means of decree-law Joint historical-artistic of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. By these years Luisa Isabel Alvarez de Toledo and Maura, XXI Duchess of Medina-Sidonia, well-known in Sanlúcar like the Duquesita, after assuming the headquarters of the nobiliary house, undertook the restoration of its palace of Sanlúcar, reuniting in the original lot of the ducal house an enormous artistic and documentary patrimony whose conservation and diffusion are the base of the present Foundation House of Medina-Sidonia. The novel Glass of shade, written by Jose Luis Acquaroni in 1977, has like basic curtain interesting aspects of Civil War, Postwar period, Francoism and Transition in Sanlúcar.
In the first democratic municipal elections after the Second Bourbon Restoration and subsequent restoration of the democracy in Spain, was chosen mayor Jose Luis Medina Lapieza, of Left United, succeeding until the present time in the mayorship the following politicians: Vital Manuel Gordillo ( PSOE ), Agustín Caves (PSOE), Juan Rodriguez Rosemary ( PP ), Blond Rafael (PP), Dry Laura (PP) and Irene Garci'a (PSOE). This democratic period agrees with the creation of the National Park and the Natural Park of Doñana, it leaves from which belongs at the end of Sanlúcar. The cultural supply enlarged with the creation of the Festival the International of Music " To borders of the Guadalquivir". In the Nineties, agreeing with the period previous and subsequent to 92 Expo, came to the restoration from several historical buildings of the city on the part of Together of Andalusia .
Nevertheless in all the democratic period a strong municipal indebtedness has taken place. The Historical-artistic Set (declared legally from 1973), beyond the conservation of its main buildings, has not been protected in its totality. Although Law of Spanish Historical Patrimony of 1986 establishes like municipal competition the obligatory nature to write up a Special Plan of Protection of the Historical-Artistic Set in its article 20,1, no of the later municipal governments to this law has written up, to date of year 2007, this plan, failing to fulfill itself of continued form the effective law. The General Delegation of Cultural Goods of the Meeting of Andalusia, within the framework from Law of Historical Patrimony Andalusian of 1991, has not intervened in the affair either. This situation, together with the phenomenon of present city-planning Speculation to a large extent of Spain in these years, has decreased substantially the architectonic, city-planning and ethnographic patrimony sanluqueño, besides causing a model of arrangement of the territory that does not follow the criteria of Sustainability . The interventions of the city council in the matter of Urbanism generally legal or have been legalized by the own local administration, since she herself has competition to formulate it through modifications in General Plan of Urban Arrangement . Nevertheless, there have been cases of illegality declares and demonstrated in the courts like the call " Sanlúcar" case;, example of political Corruption in Spain, that had great cover on the part of Spanish mass media.
Sanlúcar is placed in Depression of the Guadalquivir . Part of its term is in Salt marshes, originated by the colmatación of old Lacus Ligustinus . The coastal zone of the slums is formed by a great sandy ground, that long ago was formed by dunes and hills, like natural continuation of Fat Sands . In this zone, in which it emphasizes the great dune fossilized Algaida Mount, the sand has a great content in Ilmenita . The slums are separated of the stop by the Ravine, a step whose main material is Mud . The countryside is formed by payments of Lagoon and Bujeos
Sanlúcar has climate of oceanic Mediterranean type . It presents/displays a little precipitation index and the smoothest temperatures of the province. The insolation reaches an annual average of 3000 to 3200 hours, being one of the sunniest municipalities of Europe . The summer is dry and something more humid in the coastal strip by the Atlantic influence .
Several compound pine groves of repopulation mainly by piñoneros pines ( pinea Pinus ) and white Retama ( retama monosperma ) have disappeared due to the urbanization or are threatened. The dunes in the beach of the Sinks, although very degraded, conserve native vegetation like Barrón ( arenaria Ammophila L. ), the lily of sea ( Pancratium maritimum L. ), the beach small cart ( mendicago marine L. ), the thistle of sea ( Eryngium maritimum ), ( Cyperus capitatus Vand.), the wallflower of sea ( Malcolmia littorea L. ) and cuernecillo of sea ( Lotus creticus L.
Until common Chameleon does very little ( chamaeleo chamaeleon ) was a very abundant species in the kitchen gardens and sanluqueños Navazos '. The disappearance of the habitat of this species due to the massive urbanization of the Spanish coast makes a species vulnerable. The colony of Milan is important of the Pine of the Algaida.
Sees Annex: Composition of the City council of Sanlúcar de Barrameda .
The city nails in the left margin of Estuary of Guadalquivir River, against National Park of Doñana, in Reserve of fishing of the opening of the Guadalquivir . His Geographical coordinates ' N, 6º 21 ' is 36º 46 Or and its 30 altitude is of Meters on the level of the sea. The municipal term has an extension of 174 km ² and directly limits with the localities of Trebujena, Chipiona, Sherry of the Border, Broken and the Port of Santa Maria and, to the other side of the Guadalquivir, with Almonte and Aznalcázar .
is nailed in center geographic of Costa de la Luz, to 44 kilometers of the province capital, Cadiz . Within its term Pine of Algaida-Salt marsh de Bonanza is, places that comprise of Natural Park of Doñana, in Salt marshes of the Guadalquivir .
In the year 2006 had 63,509 inhabitants, with a densidad of population of 364. Province of Cadiz is head of Divided nº 6 of judicial, under which are the municipalities of Trebujena and Chipiona . Form leaves from the administrative region of Coast the Northwest of Cadiz and is integrated in Federation of Municipalities of the Low Guadalquivir and in Federation of Municipalities of the Region of Doñana . From the geographic and cultural pertence, point of view to the Low Andalusia, concretely to the wine producing territory of Marco de Jerez and to the flamenco area of Cadiz and the Ports . Arciprestazgo de Sanlúcar de Barrameda is under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the bishopric of Asidonia-Sherry Diocese . is hermanada with the municipality Belgian of Koekelberg, San Sebastián of the Kings, in Venezuela, and the Andalusian municipalities of Woods of the Border and Almonte .
According to estimations of Brown Antonio Ollero, for period 1476-1571:
In 1476, the population was among 3204 and 3560 inhabitants.
In 1533, the population was among 4572 and 5080 inhabitants.
In 1536, the population was among 4855 and 5395 inhabitants.
In 1571, the population was among 5845 and 6495 inhabitants.
Demographic evolution of Sanlúcar de Barrameda from year 1900:
The urban helmet of the city extends to two separated heights by the Ravine . Their districts and main places are the High District, the Slums, the District, Under Guide, Bonanza, the Mazacote, the Rockrose, the Colony Algaida Mount, Monteolivete, the Palmar, the Dehesilla, the Stop of the Caves, the Sinks, the Spirit Santo, the Band Beach, the other Band.
The agricultural territory of Sanlúcar is divided in payments, whose unit of surface she is the aranzada one of Sanlúcar, equivalent to 0.4752 Hectares
The municipal term account with the following cattle routes :
Real Gorge of the old Way of Seville
The railroad was suppressed in the Eighties of century XX. The transport nautical of passengers is limited the hulls that cross a river Guadalquivir towards the other Band (especially used during the Dew ) and to the Real ship Fernando, who takes to the visitors to the neighboring National Park of Doñana.
The unique present access to Sanlúcar de Barrameda is by highway. The main highways that leave from Sanlúcar (ordinates in the sense of the needles of the clock) are the following:
Wagon A-471 to Trebujena, Lebrija and the Heads, and that from connects with the toll freeway AP-4 there and the highway N-IV towards Seville and Madrid .
A service of buses with daily exits a exists: The Port of Santa Maria and Cadiz; Chipiona; Coast Whale; Trebujena, Lebrija, the Heads, the Palaces, Two Brothers and Seville. The nearer stations of train are those of Sherry of the Border (to 26 km) and the Port of Santa Maria (to 20 km), both located on the line of the RENFE that connects Cadiz and Seville. The nearest airports are those of Sherry (to 35 km) and Seville (to 134 km). Something more moved away are those of Gibraltar (147 km) and Malaga (255 km).
; Post office and Telegraphs Sanlúcar de Barrameda comprised of Military Optical Telegraph of Cadiz from 1805 to 1820. At present it counts on a Post office, being the zip code of all the municipality the 11540.
Nowadays the medical assistance is concentrated in the Virgin Local Hospital of the Way, in the centers of health of the Road and the High District (this last one located in the old Hospital of San Diego) and in several doctor's offices distributed by other outlying areas.
From old Agriculture was one of the bases of the economy sanluqueña. In the fields of Sanlúcar, like in the neighboring Sherry fields of the Border, the predominant culture was the Mediterranean tríada one ( Wheat, Grapevine and Olivo ). During Old Regime, Sanlúcar was deficit almost always in the wheat production, reason why jerezano wheat bought itself surplus for the supplying of the city. Periurban kitchen gardens and kitchen gardens located in sandy grounds near the navazos coast existed called . In the zone of the Rockrose was very abundant the albérchigos fruit trees of dry land like, Almonds tree, Plum trees, Pear trees and the wild Azofaifo . A fundamental source for the knowledge of the history of agriculture in Sanlúcar is the called panegírico the guzmana Charidad, written by Fray Pedro de Beltrán at the beginning of the century XVII in which relation becomes of the cultivated horticultural species at that time in the locality.
In Navazos “, that is orchards that in Andalusia form in sandy grounds immediate to beaches, cultivated Popes, Tomatos Peppers Onion, Garlic, Beans Chícharos ”, '' green kidney beans '', Watermelons melons, Pumpkins Fig trees Quinces and navazos Grapevines extended by the sandy coastal strip that goes from the Spirit Santo to something beyond the port of Bonanza. Some of them were put under an irrigation system that took advantage of the influence that the tides have on the level of underground waters. These were called by navaceros " navazos of marea". In the last years the city-planning expansion has caused that the majority of them disappears, relegating them to the zone of Agricultural Colony Algaida Mount . This colony was created as a result of the application of the Law of Colonization and inner Repopulation of 30 of August of 1907. After the request of the City council in 1908, the Colony was inaugurated officially in 1914, after to have saved the administrative obstacle that supposed that the Algaida was catalogued as mount of public utility, by means of the approval ad hoc of a special law, sanctioned the 27 of December of 1910. The creation of inner colonies was one of the consequences that Andalusia underwent after the 98 Desastre of, that supposed to Spain the total losses to him of its overseas colonies. In the Colony, was cultivated essentially Potatoes Tomatos Cauliflowers and other own vegetables of the navazos. Nowadays Carrot dedicates itself mainly to the culture of, and the potato, this last one very appreciated inside and outside the well-known city and like Popes of Sanlúcar. In the last years the culture under plastic has proliferated extraordinarily, mainly in the payments next to Chipiona, where numerous greenhouses exist that dedicate to Flower-growing essentially .
In the century XVIII, Lucas Marin and founding Cubillos of the Friendly Society of the Country, fomented the intensive culture of the potato in Sanlúcar. Since then, Popes of Sanlúcar enjoy inside a great reputation and outside the city, by their great quality, due to its raising in navazos and to the production of two annual harvests, called " Popes of temporada" and " Popes of otoño". The varieties that traditionally have been cultivated are inglesilla, jaer it, mercu, savin and espunta.
From the Antiquity Marco de Jerez was a zone of production and wine raising. In the tactical mission of Sanlúcar, it is documented to the wine export to England and Flanders from the port of Barrameda during the Low Average Age. Since the end of century XVIII and principles of century XIX, the wines of the zone underwent important changes, caused by the introduction of new agrarian techniques, new varieties of grape and new forms of elaboration of the broths. To this sanluqueña of families of owners of a wine cellar coming from the north of the Iberian Peninsula is added to the irruption in the viniviticultura, called " montañeses" ; an inner immigration that was very fruitful for Sanlúcar in this one and in other fields. Next to the great proprietors of vines, they existed mayetos ; weeders of little volume whose name is related to the term roteño Mayetería .
The denominated wine manzanilla is the more characteristic broth sanluqueño, for being a bred wine exclusively in Sanlúcar and to have a great recognition inside and outside the city. The Regulating Council of Demonimaciones of Sherry Origin and Manzanilla-Sanlúcar de Barrameda was created in 1933 . The traditional varieties of manzanilla are " manzanilla fina" and " manzanilla pasada". For some years the consumption in the fairs is frequent Andalusian of the call Rebujito, mixes of manzanilla and Seven Up . Several warehouses sanluqueñas are assigned to the Regulating Council of Sherry Brandy (created in 1987) and to which Sherry Vinegar regulates .
The city is located in Reserve of fishing of the opening of the Guadalquivir, a marine-fluvial space key in the raising of several marine species of Gulf of Cadiz . In the guzmana Charidad, panegírico of principles of century XVII already named, is done detailed mention of all the marine species that were fished at the time in Sanlúcar; being for that reason an important source for the study of the history of the fishing in Sanlúcar.
Throughout the coast existed a series of fishing ground corrals that nowadays are in disuse. These corrals are stone barricades of more or less semicircular form and a peak altitude 1.s, constructed in the ample sandy ground of the beach that in Atlantic coast is during Low tide in the open . With High water floods the corral filling of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other forms of marine life, that are catched inside the corral with the low tide as a result of the barricade, circumstance that takes advantage by the corraleros fishermen to make its captures with tarraya or esparavel. Also the fishing of occurred in the Guadalquivir sollo or sturgeon until it was extinguished definitively of his waters in second half of century XX. The harvesting of ostiones, that had certain importance in second half of century XX, continues being realized in the end of the Spirit Santo.
At present, its more important fishing product is the famous prawn of Sanlúcar. The larger ones denominate " Pablo Romero".
During Old Regime Education in Sanlúcar was in the hands of individuals and institutions. There are the news of teachers of Grammar from 1556 to 1625, as well as of three schools. The grammar teachers were paid for by Duke of Medina-Sidonia and the City, as well as the School of San Ildefonso (founded on 1585) and the School of Convent of Santo Domingo (founded on 1633), that were dedicated to the education of the first letters, of the support of the Santísimo Sacrament and the latinidad. Both schools entered crisis with the incorporation of Sanlúcar Corona and disappeared in the middle of century XVIII. In addition, in the School of Santo Domingo Theology was distributed, Art and Moral Philosophy, whereas in the School of the Company of Jesus (founded on 1627 and closed after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767), was Chair of Moral, Poetic Rhetoric and.
After the foundation of Economic Society Friendly of the Country of Sanlúcar de Barrameda in 1781, the Town hall stopped taking care of education happening the witness to this one. The Society was elevated in the organ that evaluated the suitability of the aspirings to educational in the municipality. In addition, uniting the illustrated concepts of Education and Charity, it created the Patriotic School of Spinnings and the House of orphaned and abandoned children.
In century XIX, a Council Seminary was created, under patronazgo of Francisco de Paula Rodriguez, who remained until the Sixties of century XX. On 1868 the Escolápios Parents founded house in Sanlúcar and 1905 the brothers of the Salle.
In December of 1948 the Mutual benefit society of Work and Accidents at sea, of the Social Institute of Navy, inaugurated in the property " The Picacho" the Committed School " Our Lady of the Pilar" in order to welcome in the orphans of fishermen passed away in the sea, that was governed by nuns of the Pio Calasancio Institute de Hijas of the Divine Shepherd, which they had adjacent another school. At the end of the 60, in the school it was possible to be studied Baccalaureate and, from the 70, Professional Formation of First and secondly Degrees, besides primary education or E. In 2005 the School the Peak was transferred by the Ministry of Work to the Meeting of Andalusia, which today maintains until the studies of obligatory education and a School of the Hotel trade.
After Transition, Sanlúcar has been soothes of courses of summer of the universities Menéndez Pelayo, National of remote Education ( UNED ) and Cadiz. At present the city counts on centers of Infantile, Primary, Secondary Education and of Professional Formation.
For being a place of great transit of people and merchandize, the beach of Sanlúcar is named by Cervantes in chapter II and III of the first part of the Quijote ( 1605 ), like a place of pícaros and thieves: Pensó the guest who the Castilian called salary to him had been by to have seemed to him of the healthy ones of Castile, although it was Andalusian, and of those of the beach of Sanlúcar, not less thief than Thief, neither the less maleante who estudiantado paje… Also, in Sanlúcar of an anonymous French passes episodes of apocryphal Quijote, new Continuation and true of the history and the adventures of the incomparable Don Quixote of La Mancha, published enters of 1722 and 1726.
Around Years 1920, Sanlúcar and his manzanilla are subject appellant in the work of of the brothers Manuel and Antonio Machado .
The novel of Jose Luis Acquaroni Glass of shade, that was National Prize of Literature in 1977, is developed in " Port of Santa Maria de Humeros", imaginary place-name after which the city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda hides. In 1979, Gallic Antonio, like breadwinner of the literary Contest of XXV the Celebration of Glorification of the Guadalquivir River, delivered a beautiful speech loaded of own Andalucismo of those years. The journalist and writer sanluqueño Eduardo Mendicutti, makes reference in its narrative work of form more or less guarded to part of imaginary sanluqueño, that includes places, personages, expressions, customs, gastronomy, etc. Examples of it is their novels palomo lame and the kiss of the cocoat .
Examples of the poetic repertoire popular Andalusian that speak of Sanlúcar are:
In Sherry, like in Sanlúcar, that does not work not manduca
To Sanlúcar, by tuna and to see the Duke
the Modern Age, Sanlúcar counted on two important musical chapels, the one of the Parish of Ntra. Mrs of Or and the one of the Sanctuary of Ntra. From this same time it dates a rich collection of organs distributed by the temples of the city. Already on the Contemporary Age, the Municipal Band of Music was based on 1852 (today Band Julian Cerdán), one of oldest of Spain. It had municipal character until 1975, year in which one dissolved, until in 1980 it returned to organize itself like organization deprived under the name of the musician who directed the old municipal band from 1918 to 1952, Julian Cerdán.
If Seville were " city of oro" in the inspiration of Joaquin Turina, Sanlúcar de Barrameda was the “city of silver”. It spent long summery seasons in the city and several of their compositions have subject sanluqueño or are dedicated to manzanilla . These compositions are colorful Sonata for piano Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the one poem sanluqueña, Corners of Sanlúcar, the drinkers of manzanilla, Plegaria to Our Father of the Veracruz and the hour of manzanilla .
On 1945 Luis Rosemary Muñoz and Dark-brown Manuel de Diego founded the Sanluqueña Orchestra (extinguished) and the Orfeón Santa Cecilia. This Orfeón was the one in charge to release some of choral religious works of Germa'n Alvarez Beigbeder . Sanlúcar account with Pasodoble called Hymn to the Manzanilla, with letter of Juan Manuel Beard Blackberry and music of Fernando To prick Rodriguez, who is the official hymn of the city by agreement of the city council. Also it has great popularity between the most expert sanluqueños of his tradition, Hymn to Ntra. Mrs of the Charity of the jerezano Germa'n Alvarez Beigbeder, solemn composition of great artistic quality. Some composers of Song mention Sanlúcar in their works, case of Even and nones, composed by Quintero, Leon and Quiroga and interpreted by Juanita Reina in the film the Lola goes away the Ports . Also Cariá sanluqueña, composed by Ochaíta, Valerio and Solano and interpreted by Grace Mounts, is a song that narrates the tragic destiny of Cariá, a woman who takes the feminine par excellence name sanluqueño, for being the one of the employer of the city.
In 1985 Manuel Castle composed Nocturne in Sanlúcar, to be released on the occasion of the tribute that Festival the International of Music of Sanlúcar de Barrameda would give to the pianist sanluqueño Antonio Brown Lucas. Also stimulated by its presence in this festival, the violinista Stanley Weiner composed its six Concerts of Sanlúcar, in clear parallelism with the six Concerts of Brandenburgo of Juan Sebastián Bach . In addition, Sanlúcar counts on the work carried out by the Elementary Conservatory of Music Joaquin Turina, on Musical Youths of Sanlúcar de Barrameda and on the Municipal Classroom of Music of the City council.
In " geography of cante", expression of Caffarena Angel, Sanlúcar de Barrameda of Cadiz is in the flamenco area and the Ports and Sherry . The flamenco woods of Sanlúcar are mirabrás, pink, the snails and romeras, all of them included in the group of Bars, that you par excellence sing are them of Cadiz. Fundamental names of the flamenco sort in Sanlúcar are, among others many, Maria Mica, Pepe Sanlúcar, Esteban de Sanlúcar, Antonio de Sanlúcar, Ramon Mountain Medrano, Isidro Muñoz, the Sallago, Maria Vargas, Manolo Sanlúcar, Sworn Antonio " The Nono" and Vital Laura. Most of the flamenco activity in Sanlúcar generates the Rock Cultural Flamenco Port Star, that organizes every summer the contest " Nights of Under Guía".
During Francoism, several films of subject were rolled in Sanlúcar costumbrista Andalusian as the Lola goes away to the Ports, based on the homonymous work of Manuel and Antonio Machado, directed by Juan de Orduña in 1947 and carried out by Juanita Reina and the song Fisherman, directed by Antonio of Amo in 1954 and with the paper protagonist of Antonio Oil mill . In them the cinematographic possibilities take shelter of the estuary of the Guadalquivir, being some of their true images ethnographic documents. More recently the film palomo lame (1995), adaptation of the homonymous novel of sanluqueño Eduardo Mendicutti, directed by Jaime de Armiñán, was rolled almost completely in the city. Also Sanlúcar de Barramenda is the protagonist of two videos of the series Andalusia is of cinema, realized by Together of Andalusia like showcase of the tourist potential and cinematographic Andalusian.
The products of their famous kitchen garden, fried Pescaíto and the marine stews are the appreciated part more of their traditional gastronomy, that can be tasted in the restaurants of the old marine district of Under Guide. In the field of the confectioner's they emphasize Alpisteras de Sanlúcar, whose prescription was picked up in century XIX by the traveller Richard Ford .
Sanlúcar counts on one old popular liking by Run of bulls and has given to the world of Bullfighting several bullfigthers, case of Manuel Hermosilla and Llanera, Smoky Jose Martinez " Limeño", Ojeda Alpaca, Marismeño, Stopped Jose Luis and the Mangui . The Bullring of the Pine is the bullfighting enclosure for bullfighting of the city, although previously the bulls ran themselves in other qualified abiertos places of the city to this end, as the Pradillo and Place Above of San Juan.
The sport clubs of the city are Athletic Sanluqueño Club of Soccer, been in Stage of the Palmar, the Sanluqueño Ray, the Sport Union Algaida, Adesa 80, the Real Club Nautical, the Club Barrameda Athletics, the Club of Nautical Activities Length and the Club of Fishing the Raft. The main sport infrastructures are the Pavilion of Under sport Guide and them Track of the Peak.
Carnival, in February.
The flat racing of Sanlúcar is an equestrian competition that is celebrated annually in the beach of the municipality. Her organization corresponds to the Society of Flat racing of Sanlúcar de Barrameda and to the City council of Sanlúcar. They began to be realized in 1845, reason why one is the older races of English style of whatever are celebrated in Spain they are declared Celebration of Tourist Interest National Andalusian, and the International and comprise of the Spanish equestrian circuit.
Museum of the Sea " The Caracolas", on diverse aspects of the marine idiosyncrasy of Sanlúcar.
Local Television exists a channel of, TeleSanlúcar, that emits its signal in analogical, available in also digital by Internet .
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, along with Sherry of the Border, Broken, Chipiona and Trebujena conforms the demarcation of digital television terrestrial TL05CA, denominated Sherry of the Border and that will occupy channel 30 of the signal. Wave Sherry Broadcast television, for being public the local television of the city demarcation head received from automatic form its license. A second public local channel will have the mission to cover the rest with cities framed in the territory ( Coast the Northwest ), having to arrive at 95% of the population in 2012 . In addition, the day 29 of July of 2008, the Meeting of Andalusia granted three licenses deprived, falling on the companies Productions Antares Average SL, Alcestes SLU and Green Publicidad y Medios SA .
Sanluqueños of birth
Luisa de Guzmán or Luísa de Gusmão, reigns and runs of Portugal.
* also Sees the category " Sanluqueños"
Tie to Sanlúcar
Guzmán Good, I Mr. of Sanlúcar and refundador of the town.
Leopoldo of the Prado
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