Red Brigades (in Italian Brigate Rosse ) were an organization of armed warfare revolutionary Italian founded on 1969, that was gradually becoming terrorist Group . Dividing of marxist-leninist a theoretical formation, had like objective to be attracted a part of Proletariado towards its insurrectionary positions against the reformist policies of PCI . One of its original objectives era to retire to Italy of Treated about the North Atlantic, that influenced the Italian policy through denominated Gladio Operation . Its symbol is an asymmetric star of five ends.

The birth of the Red Brigades

Antecedents

The last years of the decade of the 60 mark the border where " finishes in Italy the period of the call; miracle económico" and the social welfare, more and more answered by the following generation and as much begins the instability and the revolts in the labor world as in the college student. In image of French May and the protests against War of Vietnam in Berkeley and following the examples of Rudi Dutschke and Daniel Cohn-Bendit the Italian university young people welcome the new concepts of the atypical marxism that condemns EE., but that simultaneously distance of USSR and its communist parties of Western Europe. In Italy especially Divided Communist Italian (PCI) is considered by the new generations of left like a party that betraying the partisano spirit had entered to collaborate directly with the enemies of the workers. Previously to the Red Brigades, other groups had begun diverse projects of armed warfare, as (Piero is the case of Gruppo Horseman Horseman, Sante Notarnicola, Adriano Rovoletto, Danilo Crepaldi), that acted between 1963 and 1967, in a species war to the sign state rather anarchist, or Gruppo of 22 October (Rinaldo Fioroni, Silvio Malagoli, Augusto Bienne, Giuseppe Battaglia) following in Genoa of theses of Carlos Marighella and his Small Manual of the Urban Guerilla .

The history of the BR begins with some students of the University of Trento, that during the student revolts of 1968 part of the CUB (basic Unitary Committees), mixed battalions of students and workers form who organize the revolts, strikes and meetings of that one year. In these groups they excel the personalities of Marco Boato, Mauro Rostagno and mainly of Renato Curcio and its future wife Margherita " Mara" Cagol . Curcio is editor of the magazine " I toil Politico" of inspiration marxist-leninist, criticism at first with armed warfare, but that little by little is changing of position influenced by the repression of the police in the manifestation of Avola ( Siracusa ) where 2 laborers die and are 50 wounded, as well as by the increase of the neofascist violence of groups like Ordine Nuovo . Curcio and Cagol marry in August of 1969 and and Paola Besuschio move to Milan next to Giorgio Semeria, futures charter members of the BR.

The Metropolitan Political Group

In Milan the student revolts of 1968 take step in 1969 to the call " autumn caliente" of working and union fight, in which the students are united to the workers in a revolutionary movement that the historical left is incapable to control and to manage. The Curcio-Cagol marriage will make diverse contact with the enemy with workers and technicians in the CUB of the factories lombardas, militants like Mario Moretti, Pierluigi Zuffada, Giuliano Isa, Corrado Alunni, Umberto Forioli or Corrado Simoni, that will form in September of 1969 CPM (Colectivo Politico Metropolitano), fundamental center of the BR. Formed in principle like a laboratory of political analysis where they were united theater manifestations, courses of art or music for workers, after Attempted of Piazza Fontana (never clarified but attributed to neofascist to the service of the secret services), changes its direction to become an instrument that must predispose to the labor structure revolutionary organization and to develop to an offensive generalized against the system to it.

At the end of 1969 the CPM organizes a congress in the hotel Stella Maris of Chiavari in which they participate around 60 delegates and where the hypothesis to happen to the armed warfare takes shape in the call Libretto Giallo, a document of 28 pages titled social Lucha and organization in the metropolis . The congress of Chiavari also indicates the necessity to transform the CPM into an organization who gathers militants of different groups. Most important " is the call; Gruppo dell'appartamento" of Reggio d'Emilia, formed by other historical ones of the BR, Alberto Franceschini, Tonino Paroli, Lauro Azzolini, Fabrizio Pelli, Frank Bonisoli, Prospero Gallinari, Ognibene Robert ., ex--members of the FGCI (communist youths), disillusioned with the do-nothing policy of the PCI that it even prevented to demonstrate against the base of NATO them in Rimini .

Proletarian left and armed warfare

The fusion of these groups and other minors Left Proletarian gave rise to the extra-parlamentary party, that will have its own publication of equal name where they will appear, like symbols, the sickle and the hammer cruzados with a gun. Proletarian left will participate next to other groups as Continuous Lotta or Avanguardia Worker in the social fight by the house or the transport, but after the congress of Pecorile ( Reggio de Emilia ) it will give a first jump towards the secrecy, and to the birth of the BR. Renato Curcio, Mara Cagol and Alberto Franceschini spoke of armed warfare cradle in propagandistic gestures, advertizing fires, kidnappings (lightning), proclamations and vindications, to wake up bring back to consciousness revolutionary of the workers. Nevertheless Corrado Simioni was please an armed warfare more bloodthirsty with proposals than for some they were too adventurous, in which the political murder or the use of pumps was included. They overcome theses of Curcio, reason why Simioni leaves the party, founding Superclan (in the sense of superclandestine) with other militants, like Duccio Berio and Vanni Mulinaris .

The experience of continuous Proletarian Left paralelamente to the first brigadistas actions, announcing the 20 of September of 1970 with a titled bulletin cominciato L'autunno rosso è già (the red autumn has begun), the end of the SP and the birth of the magazine " Nuova Resistenzia" spokesman of the neoborn group Red Brigades . The name was chosen after long discussions between Curcio, Cagol and Franceschini with reference to the Brigade Garibaldi and Red Army . The star of five ends was related to the flag of Vietcong and to the guerilla detachment Tupamaros of Uruguay, the true reference of the armed band.

The first action of the BR was the fire of the car of Giuseppe Leoni, leader of the Sit- company Siemens in Milan the 17 of September of 1970 within the working fights within the factory. That same afternoon appears in the window of Ferrari of another head of the company (Giorgio engineer Villa) appears pasquín with the message: Even when your Ferrari lasted? Until we decide that it is hour to end her and with the blacklegs. The 20 of October in the bulletin of Proletarian Sinistra greet the birth of the BR: the appearances of organizations self-employed workers (Red Brigades) indicate the first moments of proletarian autorganización to fight to the patrons and their servants in their same land and with the same means that they use against the working class.

The Armed Propaganda (1970-1974)

Action of the Red Brigades (1970-1974)

First actions

The first period of activity of the BR is faithful to the concept of Renato Curcio on armed Lucha, that would have to be used as binder of the working fight in the factories and the great companies, in this sense the actions must have a noticeable propagandistic objective to gain the consensus of the proletarian class. On the other hand also the actions must have like objectives the political enemies of the labor movement, who were restoring in Italy a police state anti-proletarian through the call Strategy of the tension, devised from the same forces of the State and beginning by neofascist the terrorist groups . Attempted of piazza Fontana against the Nazionale Bank dell'Agricoltura on the part of these groups, indicates for many the beginning of " Years of lead ", with continuous attacks and confrontations between the forces of the state, groups of Extreme right and groups of Extreme left .

The first brigadistas actions were limited to set afire the automobiles of diverse heads of the great Milanese companies, as well as to members of Italian Social Movement (MSI). Its first mediatic success was the attack of Lainate ( Milan ), where 8 incendiary pumps in the facilities of Pirelli were placed, although three only exploded, the raised stir was sufficient like so that the press it began to speak of the new armed group. Although Corriere della Sera described to the BR as " phantasmagoric organization extraparlamentaria" and the newspaper of own PCI, L'Unita would label, it as " provocation of facist style ", the BR had secured their objective to occur to know between the working claiming groups. At the same time several actions in Rome take place vindicated by BR-Rome, independent and spontaneous group related to the original BR, that deny their relation and scorn the actions in which explosive devices and threats of death are involved.

Kidnappings lightning

Renato Curcio understands that they could not continue burning old woman cars and therefore Tupamaro thought about realizing gestures to the style, the lightning kidnappings: brief demonstrative-punitive retentions of some personage particularly hated symbol, immortalized through photographies that would spread in press and bulletins of propaganda where the brigadistas messages as well as the judgment of the kidnapped one would reproduce, from its liberation in state of " freedom provisional". The first one chosen is Idalgo Macchiarini, leader between hardest of Siemens, that after one hour of retention is released with a poster to the neck: RED BRIGADES. THEY BITE AND THEY FLEE. NOTHING WILL BE UNPUNISHED. TO STRIKE TO ONE TO EDUCATE ONE HUNDRED. ALL THE POWER FOR THE ARMED TOWN. The confrontations break out again the 11 of March of 1972 by the accusation against Pietro Valpreda (militant anarchist) of being the author of Attempted of piazza Fontana, to the shout of " Free Valpreda!, the terrorist is the State! ", is triggered in Milan the urban revolt in which is sent cocktails molotov against soothes of Corriere della Sera . Four days later the death, while prepared the sabotage of a high tension cable in Segrate Milan, of Giangiacomo Feltrinelli takes place, owner of the publishing house Feltrinelli, as well as founding of Groups of Partisana Action (GAP). The BR kidnap to the secretary of the local section of MSI, Bartolomeo Di I mine, beginning their blows against Extreme right, incarnated in Italian Social Movement, the facist union CISNAL, and the paramilitary group Avanguardia Nazionale .

The 2 of May of 1972, the Italian police gives the first blow against the BR, is discovered the brigadista base of Via Boiardo, where is stopped Marco Pisetta, in fact infiltrating of the customs officers in the organization. The documents confiscated in soothe allow to send to the judicature a mandate of look for and capture against Mario Moretti and other brigadistas accused of property armed band. The BR are specialized in the kidnapping lightning, in which the brigadistas make a species of judgments to the retained ones and later they release with proclamations, like the engineer of Alpha, Michele Mincuzzi : BRIGADES ROJAS-MINCUZZI MICHELE FACIST LEADER OF ALPHA ROMEO-PROCESADO BY THE BR. NOTHING WILL BE IMPUNE-GOLPEAR TO ONE TO EDUCATE TO CIEN-TODO THE POWER FOR TOWN ARMADO-POR THE COMUNISM

The kidnapping of Ettore Armerio of FIAT, is a new step forward in the propagandistic scaling of the BR, during its retention become public three official notices: " No commitment with FIAT fascism! ", " The dismissals will not be unpunished! " and " We are not who must have miedo". The official notices are distributed in the main Italian factories Ansaldo ( Sampiderena Genoa ), SIT- Siemens ( Milan ), Breda ( Porto Marghera and Sesto San Giovanni ), Alpha ( Arese ) and in the same FIAT, also in Modena, Piacenza, Varese and other many places, which demonstrated the dangerous extension of the brigadista phenomenon. The secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ernesto Pucci, observes that: " the episode represents a manifestation of the expansion of a certain type of criminality, that it imposes the mobilization of all the energy of estado".

The Sossi Campaign

But Mario Sossi was the kidnapping of instructional Judge when the BR reach their zenith. Account Mario Moretti : Is the first great action armed against the state and had grandisimo effect. It is real, lived and visible, small but emblematic a confrontation, against the true state, the magistrature, the police and the customs officers. It fascinated to many, and it had an extraordinary echo in the press. It was with Sossi with which we seize terrain of means . Indeed " Sossi" campaign; she was very productive for the BR, up to 8 official notices were emitted, in which the relations between diverse estates of the state were brought to light, groups of common delinquents and groups of black terrorism. The stupidity whereupon was dealed with the kidnapping on the part of the magistrate Genoa Francesco the Coco, gave wings to the brigadistas that request the liberation of 8 members of Group 22 of October . During 35 days in a continuous crossing of official notices and accusations, including those of the own Sossi that asks to the Coco and to the minister Paolo Emilio Taviani which they occupy its place and does company to him in " Jail of the town " the 20 of May with the decision of the court of appeal of Genoa finish to give of office the provisional freedom to the 8 of the 22 of October. By their side the BR release to Sossi the 23 of May in Milan, with a ticket of train for Genoa in the pocket, after the Sossi kidnapping makes some declarations against the magistrature … independence of the Magistrature is an utopia, this already knew the BR to it, I I have understood in these 35 days to it. Francesco the Coco that publicly had assured the release of a prisoner of the 8 of the 22 October, gives reverse gear adducing that the agreement has not been respected: Sossi is free physically but not spiritually . An controversial sling in the Italian society takes place, until Guiseppe Branca (ex-president of the Constitutional Court) is asked: Who guarantees that a state incapable to maintain today the word given to the delinquents will know to maintain it to the honest citizens tomorrow?, from all this the turn out obtains the BR to prolong the effect of their newspaper action, radio and television, in which it is spoken of the honesty of the BR and the dishonesty of the own State. The star of five ends shone as never it would do plus it.

The first reverses

After " Sossi" campaign; the BR had left with the image of gentile bandits able to put in hardships to all the apparatus of State without bloodshed. Nevertheless the 17 of June of 1974 in Padua the news begins to contradict this fame. In an attack to soothes of MSI, Giuseppe Mazzola and Graziano Giralucci face the brigadistas and both die in the action. For the BR he is " incident of trabajo", that even, it says Curcio, had the temptation of not revindicar, they were for the BR unexpected, unexpected and mainly very embarrassing deaths, that would not have to modify the strategic line of the organization. In the end they revindican the action with a laconic official notice: a nucleus armed of the BR has occupied soothes of the MSI in Padua. Both facist presents, having reacted violently, have been executed .

More serious it was, nevertheless, the events of the autumn of 1974. The SID had been able to introduce in the organization to infiltrated Silvano Girotto, " Brother metralleta", an rebellious assumption of the guerilla of Latin America. After several contacts, Girotto was able to be photographed the 31 of August with Renato Curcio and Mario Moretti, arranging an appointment for the 8 of September. That day the customs officers were waiting for and were stopped in Pinerolo to them ( Turin ), Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini, two of the most important members of the cupola of the BR, Moretti manages to elude the capture. By the declarations of Girotto, supposed head of the BR is arrested the 9 of October in Like to ex--partisano Giambattista Lazagna (although it did not militate in the organization), also day 10 falls soothes of Via Amendo it in Robbiano I gave to Mediglia ( Milan ), and arrests to the Faustus Tommei and Aldo Bonomi . Day 13 in Robbiano, the 14 falls Pietro Bertolazzi, Pietro Bassi and on the following day Ognibene Robert is severely wounded by the customs officers in a shooting during its halting in which the lieutenant dies customs officer Felice Maritano.

The kidnapping of Sossi, the fall of Curcio and the increase of the violence spiral (besides the BR by other armed groups) are going to mark an important strategic change in the armed warfare of the BR that already venia being developed from towards time in the organization.

The attack to the heart of the State (1975-1978)

Action of the Red Brigades (1975-1978)

The Strategic Resolution

Throughout 1974 discussed within BR the necessity abrir nine revolutionary front. Next to " In front of Great the Fábricas", where one was to create an atmosphere revolutionary and for which had been created the NORA (Working Centres of Armed Resistance), " was abría; In front of Lucha to Counterrevolution " that it projected an attack against the political institutions and the same Been, the phase of " propaganda armada" it has finished, begins " attack to the heart of the Estado". The kidnapping of judge Sossi can be framed within this new line, not yet defined, but that in their first official notice already speaks of: against neon-gaullismo to take the attack to the state heart. To transform the crisis of the regime into armed warfare by Comunism . From the jail Renato Curcio speaks of one " war of clases", not only Italian but of European environment, reason why of remembers the death in the jail of Holgher member Meins Fraction of the Red Army (RAF).

Nevertheless the BR cross his first crisis, them force of the state have reduced their active members to a dozen of cash. The strategic axis had replaced Curcio and Franceschini in the executive by Giorgio Semeria and Mara Cagol, that decides to give an impressive blow, the liberation of the penitentiary of Casale Monferrato of Renato. The operation scrupulously was prepared and its action was in certain surprising easy way, which takes to think to certain sectors of the left, like Working Vanguard or the newspaper L'Unita, that BR has relation with the secret services. BR in a new document emphasizes that the action of liberation of the prisoners is framed in the context of " propaganda armada" in the sense that has produced a deep disarticulation in the state and has created the premises to organize the revolutionary vanguard, which must face now completely against the state that represents fascism of white shirt .

In April of 1975 is emitted Resolution of the strategic axis in which reference to acronym SIM is made for the first time (Been Imperialistic of Multinational ) the true cause of the antiproletarian and contrarevolucionaria violence. The fight needs therefore a intesificación the attack to " heart of Estado", the increase of urban Guerilla and the expansion of the assemblies self-employed workers. The objective no longer is the facist groups, in what BR does not see a real danger, but their objectives directly point at Christian Democracy the true sostenedores of the state, to the yellow unions that match to the SIM and their bodies of repression.

The relation with other armed groups increases, in Naples with Proletarian Armed Nuclei (NAP) (split of Continuous Lotta ), ferment of the new Neapolitan column, with which collaborates in the kidnapping in Rome of judge Giuseppe De Gennaro, or in the same Rome with the split ones of To be able Working (POTOP), that will form the Roman column, being united to already existing in Milan, Turin and Veneto .

The death of Mara and 2º arrest of Curcio

The organization needs means to continue her activity, for that reason actions are planned to obtain money. First Vallarino Gancia is the kidnapping of the industrial grape grower, the brigadistas surprise to him when coming out of their property they introduce and it in a van. Contemporarily in a near place an automobile has an accident, the customs officers recognize the conductor Massimo Maraschi, member of BR, that is prisoner, the agents relate subjects both, a kidnapping and a stopped brigadista, in the zone must have a base of the group, like thus was. Continuous controls in the properties become and small villages, in one of them, Spiotta d'Arzelio see two suspicious cars, when arriving at the inspection unties a shooting, fall wounded two customs officers Giovanni D'Afonso who will die some days later and Umberto Rocca who will lose an eye and an arm. Mara Cagol is sitting hurt with two firings, a police shoots in Thorax to it ending its life. The news runs quickly, Curcio finds out in Milan where it was sheltered, later issues a single official notice: Today has fallen fighting Margherita Cagol, Mara, communist and member leader of Executive Committee of the Red Brigades. Their life and its death are an example that no combatant by the freedom will be able to forget. That thousands of arms rise to gather their gun. We, as last greeting, him tenth: Mara a flower has been abierto and this flower of freedom the Red Brigades continuran cultivating until the victory

In the direction of the BR, Renato Curcio is seen little by little isolated due to the wall that maintains the police around him, and its ideological spacing with Mario Moretti . The actions of BR go to take a step made forms nearer the terrorism. The money necessity causes that " is created; In front logístico", ordered to assault finacieras organizations (revolutionary expropriations) and also in charge to obtain arms and the ammunition. A jump in the kidnappings occurs, that pass to be punitive actions by means of gambizzazione, that is to say it is hurt in the leg to the kidnapped one like punishment method (used previously by WRATH ), and in fact it is begun to raise the political murders for the first time as form of armed warfare. This new form of fight well is not received by some members mainly of " In front of Great the Fábricas", of this form the first split of the Brigades takes place. Corrado Alunni, Fabrizio Pelli and Susanna Ronconi lead a new group more related to the fight within the factory, is born Combatant Communist Formation (FCC).

In autumn of 1975 the police and the customs officers begin an offensive against the BR. The 4 of September in Ponte of the Brenta a shooting takes place in which the police Antonio Niedda dies and are stopped the brigadistas Car it Picchiura and Luigi Despali . The 30 of the same month are hurt and captured in Altopascio ( Lucca ) an historical one of the group, Paola Besuschio . The 24 of December customs officers arrest in Pavia to Fabrizio Pelli and finally in January of 1976 they are able to close the wall on Curcio. The police controlled a floor in Milan in which lived Nadia Mantovani which it had seen with Renato some months it before, when, Silvia Rossi and Angela Basone tried to accede to the house were stopped the brigadistas Vicenzo Guagliardo . The police tries the assault and in the shooting Brigadier Lucio Prati and own Renato Curcio are hurt, that is stopped along with Nadia Mantovani. Later they are arrested Giuliano Isa, Adriano Colombo and Antonio Morlacchi and four days later is stopped and severely wounded another historical one, Giorgio Semeria . It is the first great success of the police against the BR. That same year, the 17 of May Turin begins in a process against twenty-three brigadistas, between which they are some of the leaders: Curcio, Franceschini, Gallinari, Ognibene, Bassi, Bertolazzi, Levati, and against that never it even was of the BR, like Giovanbattista Lazagna .

The murder of the Coco. The era Moretti

Almost all the founders of the BR were at the beginning of 1976 in the jail, in freedom was only Mario Moretti and with him much new brigadistas again die and rather more violent than its predecessors. The process against the BR serves as reason to give the jump to the planned murder, and logically a judge chooses itself, and among them the most hated, Francesco the Coco, the one that its commitment did not fulfill after the kidnapping of Sossi. The 8 of June of 1976, from return to its house in Genoa, and when it leaves its car is shot with pistols with silencer, in the action are also assassinated two agents of its escort, Giovanni Saponara and Antonio Dean. For many the murder of the Coco was the chronicle of an announced death, days before had appeared threatening guinea fowl in the walls of the Palace of Justice of Genoa, the company/signature of ordenaza in which stopped again to the miebros of 22 of October, was the company/signature of its sentence of death.

In the judgment of Turin against the brigadistas, the defendant Probut Gallinari tried to read an official notice centres armed of the Red Brigades have yesterday assassinated to the minion of the state Francesco the Coco and two mercenaries that had to protect it…, interrupted it to the judge and the customs officers retired the writing to him, Gallinari continued: Ajusticiar to the Coco is not an exemplary retaliation, with this action abre a new phase of the war of classes, today next to the Coco has been judged also you, Lordship . What indicated the clear change of attitude of the brigadista in its new step did Terorismo politician. In the process the acusadoos rejected " justice burguesa" and they challenged to the appointed counsels, declaring itself political prisoners. BR threatened of death to any lawyer or magistrate who acted like defender, and the threat was not in vain, the lawyer Fulvio Croce was the president of advice of the order of Turin, the one in charge to designate to the lawyers. The 28 of April of 1978 shortly before beginning the judgment (3 of May) are assassinated in the entrance of their house.

For many authors with the murder of the Coco the period begins more it last of " years of plomo", that would have its zenith in secuetro of Aldo Moor . After the political elections of 1976, in the new parliament, for the first time from 1947, PCI does not vote against the government of Christian Democracy, this fact and the defeat of the radical left ( Continuous Lotta, Working Vanguard ) in the eleciones produces a radicalization with the appearance of multiple groups armed of revolutionary left: in September is constituted Forward edge (PL), in October appear in Turin Proletarian Escuadras Armed (SPA), the same month are born Revolutionary Communist Committees (CoCoRi), November (ST) appear the abbreviations of Without Truce and Lucha Armed by the Comunism (LAC) that would convergeran in the calls Combatant Communist Brigades (BCC) yen January of the 77 revindican his first action Communist Committees by the Working Power (CCPO).

Reorganization

Meanwhile BR is reorganized quickly with new incoporaciones, at the same time as the police sends a new campaign of haltings. Throughout the month of July of the 1976 diverse operations are realized in the atmospheres of left in which several brigadistas are arrested, in Milan is stopped Frank Brunelli, in Verona fall Marco Fasoli, Michele Galati and Luigi Pedilarco and in Turin Adriana Garizio . The 15 of December a shooting in Sesto takes place San Giovanni (well-known locality like Stalingrado of Italy ), in which the police Vittorio Padovani and Sergio Bazzega die, as well as the young person Walter Alassia, militant of the Revolutionary Communist Committee and Continuous Lotta . Alassia was militant basic of BR, but that from its death would already become a symbol of the Milanese column, that would take its name, like the hicíera the Turinese one with Mara Cagol.

In spite of the haltings, Mario Moretti, is able to reconstruct the organization, and the actions multiply during year 1977. They are " gambizzados", Valerio Traversini (justice civil servant), Dark brown Diotti (head of FIAT ), Guglielmo Restelli (head of the Breda), Alberto Mammoli (doctor of the jail of Pisa, Dark brown Vittorio (director of Il Secolo XIX ), Indro Montanelli (historian and journalist, director of Il Giornale Nuovo ), Emilio Rossi (director of the TG1), Antonio Granzotto (director of Il Gazzetino ), these last ones in a campaign against the journalists (with the intention of to disarticulate the cotrarevolucionaria function developed by great means ), Mario Perlini (regional secretary of Lazio of Communion and Liberation ), Maurizio Puddu (president of the DC in Turin), Rinaldo Camaioni (civil servant of FIAT ), Car it Arienti (adviser of the DC in Milan), Antonio Cocozzello (adviser of the DC in Turin), Publio Fiori (member of the DC), Car it Casalegno (director of the Stampa ), Giorgio Coda (neuropsiquiatra). Besides innumerable assaults, burning fire of vehicles and attacks to police station, newspapers, you soothe of the DC and military facilities. Also the flights of Prospero Gallinari are well-known actions of the jail of Treviso with twelve stopped more and the one of Antonio Savino with other nine, of the military prison of Forlì .

The atmosphere during year 1977 is terrible, follow one another strikes, manifestations and confrontations. The 11 of March faces in University of Bologna, independent groups against militants of Communion and Liberation, with the intervention of the police dies Francesco Lorusso of Continuous Lotta, which produces a revolt of 50,000 young people, suffering the city a day of street guerilla. The minister of the interior, Francesco Cossiga, prohibits the manifestations, although these continue, in Rome dies Giorgiana Massi, in an act of the PRI (Partido Italian Radical). Months depues is assassinated the militant of Continuous Lotta, Walter Rossi, by a neofascist group, as well as the student Crescenzio Robert.

Red Brigades alone or next to other groups extend their actions by all the country, at organizational level are established in 1977, six main-body columns:

  • Column of Turin ( Colonist Mara Cagol )
  • Column of Milan ( Colonist Walter Alassia )
  • Column of Genoa ( Colonist Francesco Berardi from 1979)
  • Column of Veneto ( Colonist Annamaria Ludmann from 1980)
  • Column of Rome ( Colonist XXVIII I gave to March from 1980)
  • Column of Naples
  • Diverse smaller groups in Stupid, Florence, Marcas and Roman
All the columns act of independent form and in collaboration with other groups following the directives of the Strategic axis directed by Mario Moretti with Prospero Gallinari and Cruel Balzerani . Next to the fronts already established (great factories, fight contrarevolucionaria and logistic), new one is abre one. " In front of the prisoners politicos". It is indeed in this front where BR becomes echo of the deaths in the jail (supposedly assassinated) of the militants of the RAF, Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan Carl Scrapes, 18 October of 1977 in Stammhein ( Germany ). The initiative against the prison treatment of the political prisoners, hard established from July of the 1977 with the opening of the set of jails of máxiima security under the control of the general Car it Alberto Della Chiesa, is developed with mortal attacks against: Riccardo Palm, magistrate of the Main directorate of Penintenciarios Institutes ( Rome 14-2-78); Lorenzo Cotugno, agent of monitoring of the jail " Him Nuove" ( Turin, 11-4-78); Francesco Di Cataldo, head of the watchmen of the jail " S.Vittore" ( Milan, 20-4-78).

The Operation Fritz: Aldo Moor

Although the 1978 " was abrió with the mortal attacks in the call; In front of presos", the true objective continued being " heart of Estado" and very especially Christian Democracy, the brigadista Frank Bonisoli commented in an interview in 1998: the process of Turin to the historical heads of BR, also had to be our process, the revolution that it processed to the State. And the Christian Democracy for us was the State and some of their leaders, like Andreotti and Moor, were their true representation… The kidnapping of Moor and the one of other protagonists had to be continued with the one of Leopoldo Pirelli . Aldo Moor incarnated the soul of Christian Democracy and in addition the action against Giulio Andreotti was much more complicated when living right in the center on the city, while Moor lived in a residential district to the outskirts of Rome.

Bonisoli saw Moor by chance going to the church of Santa Clara, I inform to the strategic group that it came preparing in Rome, formed by brigadistas of all the columns and was put in observation. The brigadista verified that it realized the same route all the mornings, discarded to attack near the church the salary too much people and after a long study it was indicated like the place indicated the Way Mario Fani to the northwest of the city more. The action was fast and organized very well, to the 9:00 in the morning Moor traveled in FIAT 130 next to the marshal of customs officers Oreste Leonardi and the conductor (also customs officer) Domenico Ricci. To this automobile Alfa Romeo escorted one to him Alfetta with three police of the state, the Giulio conductor Creek, Brigadier Francesco Zizzi and the guard Raffaele Iozzino. A FIAT 128 leaves reverse gear from the Way Stresa and blocks to the car of Moor and the Alpha of the escort hits against him, the left part of the street leaves several brigadista dressed (up to 10) in uniforms Alitalia and removes its submachine guns, they shoot first against FIAT and depués they pester with the Alfa Romeo of the escort del that is able to leave Iozzino pistol in hand but it is lowered, of FIAT remove to Moor they raise and it another car to leave fleeing along with other two cars disappearing in the streets Rome more .

The 18 of March to the 12:00 after the funerals of the escort, Il Messaggero is received in the newspaper a telephone call from BR in which it is indicated that in Fotomatón within the subterrano passage of the place of Argentina Tower will be a stock market, that contained the first official notice of the band and the photo of Polaroid, in which is seen Moor in shirtsleeves and that will give the return to the world. In the official notice BR announces the beginning of the process to Aldo Moor, by which and after several official notices " will be considered him more; culpable" and person under sentence of death.

Militarista Deriva (1978-1980)

Turbulent the 1979

The sorry one

The splits

The strategic withdrawal

The murder of Moor was the principle of the aim of the BR, because it made possible a considerable hardening of the policies of control of the Government. It was decreed, among others measured, the obligation on the part of the educational college students to lend " Oath of Loyalty to the República", thus disabling any position, not only of support of the revolutionary organizations, but of critic to the State. The death of Aldo Moor did that the murder was criticized not only by some of the personalities of the Italian radical left, but even by the prisoners of the organization. The Italian police would make massive haltings the 7 of April of 1979, between which Autonomy would acquire fame the one of a group of intellectuals of the area of Worker, collaborator of the magazine Metropolis, between which was told Paolo Virno, besides Toni Negri, Oreste Scalzone, Luciano Brave Ferrari and others. After years of prison, finally one was clear that they were not tie to the organization.

Some years later Moor would speculate on itself on the true responsibility of the murder of Aldo . Those are not few that insinuate that behind that one action Gladio Operation could have been the preservative paramilitary organization, founded on years 50 with objective to prevent the access to the Italian government of the Communist Party.

In 1981 the organization kidnapped to the brigadier general of the American army James Dozier, that later was rescued in a police operation. The Italian police arrested several members that would provide valuable information on other activists, leading to new haltings.

The other Red Brigades (1980-1988)

BR-WA. Walter Alassia

Vittorio Alfieri, Pasqua Betti Aurora, Maurizio Biscaro, Adriano Carnelutti, Stefano Ferrari, Caterina Francioli, Nicola Giancola, Walter Pezzoli, Pizzarelli Aryan, Serafini Robert, Patrizia Sotgio, Giuliano Varchi

BR-PCC. The Combatant Communist Party

Giuseppe Armante, Cruel Balzerani, Alberta Biliato, Nicola Bartone, Maria Cappello, Umberto Catabiani, Tiziana Cherubini, Antonio De Luca, Mauro I gave Gioia, Antonio Fosso, Galloni Franc, Claudius Giorgi, Simonetta Giorgieri, Antonio Giustini, Enzo Grilli, Franc the Teacher, Flavio Lori, Rosella Lupo, the Faustus Marini, Cecilia Massara, Fulvia Matarazzo, Michele Mazzei, Stefano Miguzzi, Gianni Pelossi, Car it Pulcini, Fabio Ravalli, Francesco Sinchich, Vicenza Vacaro, Car it Vendetti, Venturini Frame. The Party of the Guerilla Pasquale Aprea, Vittorio Bolognese, Antonio Chiocchi, Annamaria Cottone, Ennio I gave Rocco, Natalia Ligas, Emilio Manna, Antonio Morocco, Vicenzo Olivieri, Maria Rosarina Perna, Giovanni Planzio, Sarnelli Navy, Teresa Scinica, Giovanni Senzani, Clotilde Zucca. The Union of the Combatant Communists Massimiliano Bravi, Paolo Casetta, Geraldina Colotti, Claudia Gioia, Fabio Liberti, Maurizio Locusta, Francesco Maietta, Fabrizio Melorio, Daniele Mennella, Wilma Monaco, Claudius Nasti, Paolo Persichetti.

In period 81-82, the Column Walter Alasia, of Milan, split of the BR promoting a return to the obrerista line of the first years and, next, the thickness of the organization was divided in two factions: the majority one of Divided to Communist Combatant, well-known also under the abbreviations BR-PCC (without clear political direction, beyond an orthodox leninista rhetorical appellant) and the minority one of Divided of the Guerilla, also well-known like BR-PG. At the same time the top leader was lengthy Mario Moretti, after seven years in he looks for and he captures.

In 1984, the Red Brigades vindicated the murder of Leamon Hunt, American person in charge of the Group of International Observers for Peninsula of the Sinaí .

In 1985 some terrorists put in a home in France returned to Italy . At the same time the haltings were increased. In February of 1986, faction BR-PCC assassinated to the ex- mayor of Florence, and tried to kill to an adviser of prime minister Bettino Craxi . In March of 1987, the other faction (BR-UCC) assassinated to the general Lycean Giorgieri in Rome . Also 1987 were in, with an almost nulea activity, when históric@s militant and leaders of the organization (like Curcio, Moretti, Cruel Balzeranni, Anna-Laura Braghetti and otr@s) gave by finalized the history of the Red Brigades and demanded the aim of the attacks and the opening of a stage of social and political reflection on the errors and successes of " years of plomo". The 16 of April of 1988 the BR-PCC assassinated to the senator Ruffilli Robert . After it, the activities of these groups stopped because of the arrest of their leaders.

The Red Brigades today

In spite of " desautorización" of a possible continuation of attacks BR after 1987, the authorities have imputed to supposed reconstructions of the Red Brigades the following actions, without still an entailment with the historical brigadista militancy has been demonstrated:

  • 20 of May 1999 : murder of Massimo D'Antona, adviser of the centroizquierdista cabinet of Massimo D'Alema .
  • 20 of March of 2002 : the same pistol used for this murder was also used for the one of Marco Biagi, another economic adviser, in this case of the centroderechista government of Silvio Berlusconi, and key figure in the present policies of Italian market of work. The Brigades assumed the responsibility.
  • 3 of March of 2003 : two activists, Mario Galesi and Nadia Desdemona Lioce, initiate a shooting with the police in a train parked in the station of Terontola. Galesi and Emanuele Petri (one of the police) died.
  • 23 of October of 2003 : the Carabinieri arrests to six members of the Brigades in simultaneous casts in Florence, Sardinia, Rome and Pisa, being this operation related to the murder of Massimo D'Antona .

Activities

The original nucleus of the Red Brigades specialized in murders and kidnappings of members of the government and Italian industralists. His Modus operandi was to shoot to the victims when they left its address or its work. The group had long been inactive since French the Italian authorities and arrested to the majority of their members in 1989 . At present it counts on limited resources and militancy. The majority of the terrorists is not assets.

Cash

Mauro Acanfora, Vincenzo Acella, Adamoli Robert, Sergio Adamoli, Francesco Aiosa, Walter Alassia " Luca", Vittorio Alfieri, Rita Algranati " Marzia", Corrado Alunni " Federico", Andriani Norm, Vittorio Antonini, Gloria Crane, Renato Arreni, Lauro Azzolini, Giorgio Baiocchi, Libyan Baistrocchi, Cruel Balzerani " Sara", Pietro Barone, Paolo Baschieri, Angelo Basone, Pietro Bassi, Beautiful Enzo, Cecco Belosi, Francesco Berardi " Cesare", Susanna Berardi, Pietro Bertolazzi, Leonardo Bertulazzi, Paola Besuschio, Lorenzo Betassa " Antonio", Elio Blasi, Stefano Bombaci, Frank Bonisoli, Anna Laura Braghetti " Camilla", Car it Maria Brioschi, Alfredo Bonavita, Giulo Cacciotti, Margherita Cagol " Mara", Caliandro Frame, Fabio Caliandro, Enzo Calvitti, Roberta Cappelli, Marcello Capuano, Lorenzo Carpi, Attilio Casaletti, Alessio Casimirri

Air side

As much their bases as their objectives are in Italy . Some members live hidden or sheltered in other European countries, especially in France where were prote'ge's by the call " Doctrina Mitterrand ", and in Algeria, Angola and Nicaragua .

International supports

At present they are not known. The Red Brigades of the first stage self-financed themselves, although probably received supports of Organization for the Liberation of Palestine and other groups armed of Western Europe.
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