Red Brigades (in Italian Brigate Rosse ) were an organization of armed warfare revolutionary Italian founded on 1969, that was gradually becoming terrorist Group . Dividing of marxist-leninist a theoretical formation, had like objective to be attracted a part of Proletariado towards its insurrectionary positions against the reformist policies of PCI . One of its original objectives era to retire to Italy of Treated about the North Atlantic, that influenced the Italian policy through denominated Gladio Operation . Its symbol is an asymmetric star of five ends.
The history of the BR begins with some students of the University of Trento, that during the student revolts of 1968 part of the CUB (basic Unitary Committees), mixed battalions of students and workers form who organize the revolts, strikes and meetings of that one year. In these groups they excel the personalities of Marco Boato, Mauro Rostagno and mainly of Renato Curcio and its future wife Margherita " Mara" Cagol . Curcio is editor of the magazine " I toil Politico" of inspiration marxist-leninist, criticism at first with armed warfare, but that little by little is changing of position influenced by the repression of the police in the manifestation of Avola ( Siracusa ) where 2 laborers die and are 50 wounded, as well as by the increase of the neofascist violence of groups like Ordine Nuovo . Curcio and Cagol marry in August of 1969 and and Paola Besuschio move to Milan next to Giorgio Semeria, futures charter members of the BR.
At the end of 1969 the CPM organizes a congress in the hotel Stella Maris of Chiavari in which they participate around 60 delegates and where the hypothesis to happen to the armed warfare takes shape in the call Libretto Giallo, a document of 28 pages titled social Lucha and organization in the metropolis . The congress of Chiavari also indicates the necessity to transform the CPM into an organization who gathers militants of different groups. Most important " is the call; Gruppo dell'appartamento" of Reggio d'Emilia, formed by other historical ones of the BR, Alberto Franceschini, Tonino Paroli, Lauro Azzolini, Fabrizio Pelli, Frank Bonisoli, Prospero Gallinari, Ognibene Robert ., ex--members of the FGCI (communist youths), disillusioned with the do-nothing policy of the PCI that it even prevented to demonstrate against the base of NATO them in Rimini .
The experience of continuous Proletarian Left paralelamente to the first brigadistas actions, announcing the 20 of September of 1970 with a titled bulletin cominciato L'autunno rosso è già (the red autumn has begun), the end of the SP and the birth of the magazine " Nuova Resistenzia" spokesman of the neoborn group Red Brigades . The name was chosen after long discussions between Curcio, Cagol and Franceschini with reference to the Brigade Garibaldi and Red Army . The star of five ends was related to the flag of Vietcong and to the guerilla detachment Tupamaros of Uruguay, the true reference of the armed band.
The first action of the BR was the fire of the car of Giuseppe Leoni, leader of the Sit- company Siemens in Milan the 17 of September of 1970 within the working fights within the factory. That same afternoon appears in the window of Ferrari of another head of the company (Giorgio engineer Villa) appears pasquín with the message: Even when your Ferrari lasted? Until we decide that it is hour to end her and with the blacklegs. The 20 of October in the bulletin of Proletarian Sinistra greet the birth of the BR: the appearances of organizations self-employed workers (Red Brigades) indicate the first moments of proletarian autorganización to fight to the patrons and their servants in their same land and with the same means that they use against the working class.
The first brigadistas actions were limited to set afire the automobiles of diverse heads of the great Milanese companies, as well as to members of Italian Social Movement (MSI). Its first mediatic success was the attack of Lainate ( Milan ), where 8 incendiary pumps in the facilities of Pirelli were placed, although three only exploded, the raised stir was sufficient like so that the press it began to speak of the new armed group. Although Corriere della Sera described to the BR as " phantasmagoric organization extraparlamentaria" and the newspaper of own PCI, L'Unita would label, it as " provocation of facist style ", the BR had secured their objective to occur to know between the working claiming groups. At the same time several actions in Rome take place vindicated by BR-Rome, independent and spontaneous group related to the original BR, that deny their relation and scorn the actions in which explosive devices and threats of death are involved.
The 2 of May of 1972, the Italian police gives the first blow against the BR, is discovered the brigadista base of Via Boiardo, where is stopped Marco Pisetta, in fact infiltrating of the customs officers in the organization. The documents confiscated in soothe allow to send to the judicature a mandate of look for and capture against Mario Moretti and other brigadistas accused of property armed band. The BR are specialized in the kidnapping lightning, in which the brigadistas make a species of judgments to the retained ones and later they release with proclamations, like the engineer of Alpha, Michele Mincuzzi : BRIGADES ROJAS-MINCUZZI MICHELE FACIST LEADER OF ALPHA ROMEO-PROCESADO BY THE BR. NOTHING WILL BE IMPUNE-GOLPEAR TO ONE TO EDUCATE TO CIEN-TODO THE POWER FOR TOWN ARMADO-POR THE COMUNISM
The kidnapping of Ettore Armerio of FIAT, is a new step forward in the propagandistic scaling of the BR, during its retention become public three official notices: " No commitment with FIAT fascism! ", " The dismissals will not be unpunished! " and " We are not who must have miedo". The official notices are distributed in the main Italian factories Ansaldo ( Sampiderena Genoa ), SIT- Siemens ( Milan ), Breda ( Porto Marghera and Sesto San Giovanni ), Alpha ( Arese ) and in the same FIAT, also in Modena, Piacenza, Varese and other many places, which demonstrated the dangerous extension of the brigadista phenomenon. The secretary of the Department of the Interior, Ernesto Pucci, observes that: " the episode represents a manifestation of the expansion of a certain type of criminality, that it imposes the mobilization of all the energy of estado".
More serious it was, nevertheless, the events of the autumn of 1974. The SID had been able to introduce in the organization to infiltrated Silvano Girotto, " Brother metralleta", an rebellious assumption of the guerilla of Latin America. After several contacts, Girotto was able to be photographed the 31 of August with Renato Curcio and Mario Moretti, arranging an appointment for the 8 of September. That day the customs officers were waiting for and were stopped in Pinerolo to them ( Turin ), Renato Curcio and Alberto Franceschini, two of the most important members of the cupola of the BR, Moretti manages to elude the capture. By the declarations of Girotto, supposed head of the BR is arrested the 9 of October in Like to ex--partisano Giambattista Lazagna (although it did not militate in the organization), also day 10 falls soothes of Via Amendo it in Robbiano I gave to Mediglia ( Milan ), and arrests to the Faustus Tommei and Aldo Bonomi . Day 13 in Robbiano, the 14 falls Pietro Bertolazzi, Pietro Bassi and on the following day Ognibene Robert is severely wounded by the customs officers in a shooting during its halting in which the lieutenant dies customs officer Felice Maritano.
The kidnapping of Sossi, the fall of Curcio and the increase of the violence spiral (besides the BR by other armed groups) are going to mark an important strategic change in the armed warfare of the BR that already venia being developed from towards time in the organization.
Nevertheless the BR cross his first crisis, them force of the state have reduced their active members to a dozen of cash. The strategic axis had replaced Curcio and Franceschini in the executive by Giorgio Semeria and Mara Cagol, that decides to give an impressive blow, the liberation of the penitentiary of Casale Monferrato of Renato. The operation scrupulously was prepared and its action was in certain surprising easy way, which takes to think to certain sectors of the left, like Working Vanguard or the newspaper L'Unita, that BR has relation with the secret services. BR in a new document emphasizes that the action of liberation of the prisoners is framed in the context of " propaganda armada" in the sense that has produced a deep disarticulation in the state and has created the premises to organize the revolutionary vanguard, which must face now completely against the state that represents fascism of white shirt .
In April of 1975 is emitted Resolution of the strategic axis in which reference to acronym SIM is made for the first time (Been Imperialistic of Multinational ) the true cause of the antiproletarian and contrarevolucionaria violence. The fight needs therefore a intesificación the attack to " heart of Estado", the increase of urban Guerilla and the expansion of the assemblies self-employed workers. The objective no longer is the facist groups, in what BR does not see a real danger, but their objectives directly point at Christian Democracy the true sostenedores of the state, to the yellow unions that match to the SIM and their bodies of repression.
The relation with other armed groups increases, in Naples with Proletarian Armed Nuclei (NAP) (split of Continuous Lotta ), ferment of the new Neapolitan column, with which collaborates in the kidnapping in Rome of judge Giuseppe De Gennaro, or in the same Rome with the split ones of To be able Working (POTOP), that will form the Roman column, being united to already existing in Milan, Turin and Veneto .
In the direction of the BR, Renato Curcio is seen little by little isolated due to the wall that maintains the police around him, and its ideological spacing with Mario Moretti . The actions of BR go to take a step made forms nearer the terrorism. The money necessity causes that " is created; In front logístico", ordered to assault finacieras organizations (revolutionary expropriations) and also in charge to obtain arms and the ammunition. A jump in the kidnappings occurs, that pass to be punitive actions by means of gambizzazione, that is to say it is hurt in the leg to the kidnapped one like punishment method (used previously by WRATH ), and in fact it is begun to raise the political murders for the first time as form of armed warfare. This new form of fight well is not received by some members mainly of " In front of Great the Fábricas", of this form the first split of the Brigades takes place. Corrado Alunni, Fabrizio Pelli and Susanna Ronconi lead a new group more related to the fight within the factory, is born Combatant Communist Formation (FCC).
In autumn of 1975 the police and the customs officers begin an offensive against the BR. The 4 of September in Ponte of the Brenta a shooting takes place in which the police Antonio Niedda dies and are stopped the brigadistas Car it Picchiura and Luigi Despali . The 30 of the same month are hurt and captured in Altopascio ( Lucca ) an historical one of the group, Paola Besuschio . The 24 of December customs officers arrest in Pavia to Fabrizio Pelli and finally in January of 1976 they are able to close the wall on Curcio. The police controlled a floor in Milan in which lived Nadia Mantovani which it had seen with Renato some months it before, when, Silvia Rossi and Angela Basone tried to accede to the house were stopped the brigadistas Vicenzo Guagliardo . The police tries the assault and in the shooting Brigadier Lucio Prati and own Renato Curcio are hurt, that is stopped along with Nadia Mantovani. Later they are arrested Giuliano Isa, Adriano Colombo and Antonio Morlacchi and four days later is stopped and severely wounded another historical one, Giorgio Semeria . It is the first great success of the police against the BR. That same year, the 17 of May Turin begins in a process against twenty-three brigadistas, between which they are some of the leaders: Curcio, Franceschini, Gallinari, Ognibene, Bassi, Bertolazzi, Levati, and against that never it even was of the BR, like Giovanbattista Lazagna .
In the judgment of Turin against the brigadistas, the defendant Probut Gallinari tried to read an official notice centres armed of the Red Brigades have yesterday assassinated to the minion of the state Francesco the Coco and two mercenaries that had to protect it…, interrupted it to the judge and the customs officers retired the writing to him, Gallinari continued: Ajusticiar to the Coco is not an exemplary retaliation, with this action abre a new phase of the war of classes, today next to the Coco has been judged also you, Lordship . What indicated the clear change of attitude of the brigadista in its new step did Terorismo politician. In the process the acusadoos rejected " justice burguesa" and they challenged to the appointed counsels, declaring itself political prisoners. BR threatened of death to any lawyer or magistrate who acted like defender, and the threat was not in vain, the lawyer Fulvio Croce was the president of advice of the order of Turin, the one in charge to designate to the lawyers. The 28 of April of 1978 shortly before beginning the judgment (3 of May) are assassinated in the entrance of their house.
For many authors with the murder of the Coco the period begins more it last of " years of plomo", that would have its zenith in secuetro of Aldo Moor . After the political elections of 1976, in the new parliament, for the first time from 1947, PCI does not vote against the government of Christian Democracy, this fact and the defeat of the radical left ( Continuous Lotta, Working Vanguard ) in the eleciones produces a radicalization with the appearance of multiple groups armed of revolutionary left: in September is constituted Forward edge (PL), in October appear in Turin Proletarian Escuadras Armed (SPA), the same month are born Revolutionary Communist Committees (CoCoRi), November (ST) appear the abbreviations of Without Truce and Lucha Armed by the Comunism (LAC) that would convergeran in the calls Combatant Communist Brigades (BCC) yen January of the 77 revindican his first action Communist Committees by the Working Power (CCPO).
In spite of the haltings, Mario Moretti, is able to reconstruct the organization, and the actions multiply during year 1977. They are " gambizzados", Valerio Traversini (justice civil servant), Dark brown Diotti (head of FIAT ), Guglielmo Restelli (head of the Breda), Alberto Mammoli (doctor of the jail of Pisa, Dark brown Vittorio (director of Il Secolo XIX ), Indro Montanelli (historian and journalist, director of Il Giornale Nuovo ), Emilio Rossi (director of the TG1), Antonio Granzotto (director of Il Gazzetino ), these last ones in a campaign against the journalists (with the intention of to disarticulate the cotrarevolucionaria function developed by great means ), Mario Perlini (regional secretary of Lazio of Communion and Liberation ), Maurizio Puddu (president of the DC in Turin), Rinaldo Camaioni (civil servant of FIAT ), Car it Arienti (adviser of the DC in Milan), Antonio Cocozzello (adviser of the DC in Turin), Publio Fiori (member of the DC), Car it Casalegno (director of the Stampa ), Giorgio Coda (neuropsiquiatra). Besides innumerable assaults, burning fire of vehicles and attacks to police station, newspapers, you soothe of the DC and military facilities. Also the flights of Prospero Gallinari are well-known actions of the jail of Treviso with twelve stopped more and the one of Antonio Savino with other nine, of the military prison of Forlì .
The atmosphere during year 1977 is terrible, follow one another strikes, manifestations and confrontations. The 11 of March faces in University of Bologna, independent groups against militants of Communion and Liberation, with the intervention of the police dies Francesco Lorusso of Continuous Lotta, which produces a revolt of 50,000 young people, suffering the city a day of street guerilla. The minister of the interior, Francesco Cossiga, prohibits the manifestations, although these continue, in Rome dies Giorgiana Massi, in an act of the PRI (Partido Italian Radical). Months depues is assassinated the militant of Continuous Lotta, Walter Rossi, by a neofascist group, as well as the student Crescenzio Robert.
Red Brigades alone or next to other groups extend their actions by all the country, at organizational level are established in 1977, six main-body columns:
Bonisoli saw Moor by chance going to the church of Santa Clara, I inform to the strategic group that it came preparing in Rome, formed by brigadistas of all the columns and was put in observation. The brigadista verified that it realized the same route all the mornings, discarded to attack near the church the salary too much people and after a long study it was indicated like the place indicated the Way Mario Fani to the northwest of the city more. The action was fast and organized very well, to the 9:00 in the morning Moor traveled in FIAT 130 next to the marshal of customs officers Oreste Leonardi and the conductor (also customs officer) Domenico Ricci. To this automobile Alfa Romeo escorted one to him Alfetta with three police of the state, the Giulio conductor Creek, Brigadier Francesco Zizzi and the guard Raffaele Iozzino. A FIAT 128 leaves reverse gear from the Way Stresa and blocks to the car of Moor and the Alpha of the escort hits against him, the left part of the street leaves several brigadista dressed (up to 10) in uniforms Alitalia and removes its submachine guns, they shoot first against FIAT and depués they pester with the Alfa Romeo of the escort del that is able to leave Iozzino pistol in hand but it is lowered, of FIAT remove to Moor they raise and it another car to leave fleeing along with other two cars disappearing in the streets Rome more .
The 18 of March to the 12:00 after the funerals of the escort, Il Messaggero is received in the newspaper a telephone call from BR in which it is indicated that in Fotomatón within the subterrano passage of the place of Argentina Tower will be a stock market, that contained the first official notice of the band and the photo of Polaroid, in which is seen Moor in shirtsleeves and that will give the return to the world. In the official notice BR announces the beginning of the process to Aldo Moor, by which and after several official notices " will be considered him more; culpable" and person under sentence of death.
Some years later Moor would speculate on itself on the true responsibility of the murder of Aldo . Those are not few that insinuate that behind that one action Gladio Operation could have been the preservative paramilitary organization, founded on years 50 with objective to prevent the access to the Italian government of the Communist Party.
In 1981 the organization kidnapped to the brigadier general of the American army James Dozier, that later was rescued in a police operation. The Italian police arrested several members that would provide valuable information on other activists, leading to new haltings.
In period 81-82, the Column Walter Alasia, of Milan, split of the BR promoting a return to the obrerista line of the first years and, next, the thickness of the organization was divided in two factions: the majority one of Divided to Communist Combatant, well-known also under the abbreviations BR-PCC (without clear political direction, beyond an orthodox leninista rhetorical appellant) and the minority one of Divided of the Guerilla, also well-known like BR-PG. At the same time the top leader was lengthy Mario Moretti, after seven years in he looks for and he captures.
In 1984, the Red Brigades vindicated the murder of Leamon Hunt, American person in charge of the Group of International Observers for Peninsula of the Sinaí .
In 1985 some terrorists put in a home in France returned to Italy . At the same time the haltings were increased. In February of 1986, faction BR-PCC assassinated to the ex- mayor of Florence, and tried to kill to an adviser of prime minister Bettino Craxi . In March of 1987, the other faction (BR-UCC) assassinated to the general Lycean Giorgieri in Rome . Also 1987 were in, with an almost nulea activity, when históric@s militant and leaders of the organization (like Curcio, Moretti, Cruel Balzeranni, Anna-Laura Braghetti and otr@s) gave by finalized the history of the Red Brigades and demanded the aim of the attacks and the opening of a stage of social and political reflection on the errors and successes of " years of plomo". The 16 of April of 1988 the BR-PCC assassinated to the senator Ruffilli Robert . After it, the activities of these groups stopped because of the arrest of their leaders.
In spite of " desautorización" of a possible continuation of attacks BR after 1987, the authorities have imputed to supposed reconstructions of the Red Brigades the following actions, without still an entailment with the historical brigadista militancy has been demonstrated:
|Random links:||Allium ascalonicum | Chaparral (Tolima) | Larus michahellis | Rishab Aiyer Ghosh | Tula (Tamaulipas)|