Nationalistic Movement Tacuara was a Political organization of Argentine Extreme right, that acted between 1955 and 1965 using Terrorism . 4 of April of 1964, Federal Police informed that of January to November of 1963 the members of the Nationalistic Movement Revolutionary Tacuara had carried out forty and three terrorist facts. Tie to the sectors most preservative of the Peronist movement and inspired directly by preaches of the catholic priest Julio Meinvielle and of the French sociologist Jaime Maria de Mahieu, Tacuara defended ideario of strongly cuts Nationalistic, Catholic, Facist, Anti-communist, Anti-semitic and Undemocratic .

Origin

The origin of the name of this organization comes from tacuaras, used strong canes as lances, instrument characteristic of the Indians who in Century XIX became a typical weapon of federal caudillos of the rear area.

Tacuara was created officially at the end of 1957 . The majority of their members was young, children of families of the average discharge and Bourgeoisie of Buenos Aires, that as soon as they had finished the secondary one and they militated in Nationalistic Union of Secondary Students (YOU UNITE) - branch of Alliance of Nationalistic Youth . It inherited the forms YOU UNITE of it, that a treatment similar to European the facist parties had esthetic and . They were not on familiar terms, but they were groups of comrades. They used the very short hair and they used a gray bracelet adorned with Cross of Malta .

At first, the weight of Catholicism was central in the constitution of the group. Their main leaders were Alberto Ezcurra Uriburu, Jose Joe Baxter, Oscar Denovi and Pink Eduardo . Although the majority of the militants of Tacuara was of Buenos Aires, at the time of greater height, this organization had many commandos in diverse points of the country, especially in Rosary, Santa Fe and Tandil . At national level, their ideas were spread essentially through asked for own publications and of in different nationalistic publications from the country.

Ideology

The traditionalistic Tacuara was formed by young people originating in its majority of military grammars school and religious schools, had acquired relief in the disturbances brought about against those in favor of lay Education around the sanction of the education law few years before. The group - almost exclusively made up of originating young people in its immense majority of districts of high Calm spending power like, North District, Belgrano and Flowers - lately promoted the restoration of religious Education abolished of the government of Juan Domingo Perón and the restoration in Argentina of State National-Unionist-Catholic as understood the Pro-Franco model to it, as well as the combat against Judaism and left . They proclaimed the supremacy of the nation on other questions and they were against to which they called " liberal Democracy ", and Benito Mussolini admired to figures like Adolf Hitler, maintained the existence of international Jewish conspiracies to dominate to the world (such as the Protocols of the Wise people of Sion ), whereas in felt a deep pain by the defeat of Axis World War II . Violence raised as form of permanent mobilization. The contact with some Nazi criminals exiled of Germany after 1945 reinforced the Nazi ideology of the grouping. Their members owned a noticeable Anti-imperialist feeling, Anticapitalist, Corporativista and Militarista . Also the traditional cultural values stood out that Hispano-America had inherited of Spain, whereas despised French Culture which they raised the conservatives and liberal Argentineans. As well, the grouping maintained historical Revisionism that vindicated to Juan Manuel de Rosas (discredited by the traditional historiográfica education) and defended Terrorism of state that practiced during the period rosista, at the same time as repudiaba to próceres such as Vine shoot and Belgrano to consider them " masones and liberales".

revolution in Cuba of 1959 represented a point of flection for the Latin American political movements and Tacuara was not the exception. This event generated different sensations within the movement. The tension between Cuba and the United States brought about much expectation. Joe Baxter felt fascinated by the Cuban phenomenon and began to consider that was the way that it wanted to follow. Nevertheless, 1961 were not until that Fidel Castro announced its option by Socialism . Ezcurra and followed that it more close by turned into that then into enemies of Cuban Revolution .

In the elections of 1962, Tacuara presented/displayed candidates for Nationalistic Civic Union (UCN) in Between Rivers . The UCN was a small nationalistic party founded on the decade of 1940 in Cordova by the brothers Irazusta . This one lent to Tacuara the old premises in the Street Tucuman Nº 415, that was transformed into his soothes " histórica". Nevertheless, a group led by Baxter chose to support to Peronism proscripto.

Its relation with Arab Liga

In 1962 Arab Liga settled in Argentina with Hussein Triki at the top to begin to realize an advertizing campaign of harassment against Israel and Zionism . For the fulfillment of its intention, it managed to establish an alliance with Tacuara and Nationalistic Restauradora Guard (GRN), subsidizing to its structures and activities. It was the bridge between foreign neoNazi the local Nazis and and introductory of the idea that the “fight” of these Argentine was the one of the Arabs.

In 1964, in an act organized by Arab Liga in a Buenosairean theater, militant of Tacuara shouted " Mueran the Jews " and " Nasser and Perón, a single heart ".

Divisions

Nevertheless, between 1960 and 1963 the organization would be split by ideological questions. The massive arrival of young people with different visions from the world - hardly united by a vague nationalistic conception and a fort action desire it went what submerged to the movement in a complicated process. Many of the new militants got along with Peronism, whereas at the same time some of the old woman escepticistas leaders began a slow process of ideological transformation towards the Peronism and left .

Many militants fought along with union and they were associated with Peronist Youth . This well was not seen by certain sectors of Tacuara. In March of 1960, Meinvielle priest could not tolerate the idea that the movement ties to the Peronism and demands social Justice to increase its popularity, blaming its original nucleus of " deviations Marxist ", reason why created still more Reactionary a parallel organization baptized like Nationalistic Restauradora Guard (GRN), that demanded to its members European ancestry and more than five generations of residence in Argentina . It was the first division of the group and the one that the line maintained hardest, ultracatholic and Anti-semitic, whose motto was " God, Mother country and Home ", whereas its source of central inspiration was the founder of Spanish phalange, Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera . Etchenique Robert and Estrada Robert was the first heads of the new movement but soon after happened in the position August Moscoso.

Little later, another group led by Cabo Dart separated of Tacuara to form Movement the New Argentina (MNA), that fought by the return from Perón to Argentina. in Argentina was one of the first Peronist organizations of right . The official launching of the new group happened 9 of June of 1961, commemorating the rise of the general Juan Jose Valley five years before.

Finally, in 1963, took place the rupture of greater importance. A sector led by Joe Baxter and Jose Luis Nell, created Nationalistic Movement Revolutionary Tacuara (MNRT), that, without leaving his Nationalism, broke with Church, right and Anti-semitism, to migrate towards positions more and more near Marxism and the Peronism of left, from where Peronist Armed Forces would come many of the pictures of (FAP) and basic Peronism (PB) and, to a lesser extent, of Montoneros and ERP .

The Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano already had observed in 1967 in an article published in the weekly magazine March of Montevideo :

Operations

Tacuara had some contacts with the police and some ex- Nazi civil servants sheltered in Argentina . By such reason, it had a easy access to the arms, that at that time he was envied by other organizations. The collection of " also existed; tax revolucionario" to many Jewish retailers of Eleven the Buenosairean district of when they were assaulted, although soon these were organized to face Tacuara.

In his Tacuara beginnings it was characterized by the street fights with other students of different ideologies. The fights abounded in the secondary ones, largely in the lay conflict between and free that faced that they wanted an obligatory catholic education and those that no.

In 1959 desecrations in the Jewish cemetery took place the Tablada, you accompany by inscriptions and esvásticas on the tablets. The kidnapping in Argentina on the part of the Israeli intelligence services ( MOSSAD ) of ex- jerarca German and criminal military Nazi Adolf Eichmann, increased the wave anti-semitic of Tacuara. They denied to be anti-semitic for racial reasons, but they admitted to be enemy of the Judaism in the Argentina, which they blamed of crew members of " imperialism israelí". This situation I take DAIA (political organ of the Argentine Jewish community) to press the government so that it acts.

The greater tip was 17 of August of 1960, when tacuaras of the National School Vine shoot attacked their Jewish companions and hurt of a shot to Edgardo Trilnik, of 15 years, during the act of tribute to San Martin . They followed interminable months of pumps - of the explosives and those of tar against synagogs, schools and Jewish institutions, hundreds of guinea fowl, volanteadas and threats to him.

On the other hand, certain groups arose gradually that acted especially in the name of Tacuara in Buenos Aires and inside the country, but that in fact were not under the control of the power station of Tucuman 415 nor its members had taken the corresponding oath to comprise of the movement. In this Ezcurra sense it realized several tours by the interior with the difficult mission to discipline under the national commando to the groups that were called to themselves Tacuara. In fact, in own Buenos Aires the growth and the fame of the grouping were like sometimes was not possible to control all the individuals that copied the clothes, the greeting and slogans of the organization. Many tried to act under their name without authorization to simply intimidate or as a sample of revolt against the society.

In 1963, in the government, by means of decree 3134/63, as much prohibited in the national territory all activity of Tacuara as of GRN. If embargo, the influence of the services of security did little practical east decree. In fact, Tacuara counted in many occasions with the total collaboration of the senior officers of Armed Forces, that saw in this new combative facist grouping a species of instrument that served as " wall of contención" in front of the advance of " danger comunista" and the youthful movements of left, which caused that often the group of Ezcurra received arms and the ammunition of the army. On the other hand, the complicity of some nationalistic pictures of the police was evident when they let act freely to the organization.

The kidnapping of Graciela Sirota

One of the most serious cases of anti-semitism was the kidnapping of Graciela Sirota, 21 of June of 1962 . The young person of 19 years was struck, raised a car when she hoped the group to go to the faculty and tortured crudely with burns of cigarettes by all the body. In order to finish, they recorded with a knife one to him Esvástica in the chest. This case brought about great indignation in the society and many criticisms by impunity on which Tacuara and GRN counted.

The reaction of the DAIA was forceful. paralyzed 28 of June all the Jewish commerce in the country, with political, trade union and intellectual adhesion of students and several sectors.

After the Sirota case, the fame of Tacuara grew enormously. In New York, World-wide Jewish Congress denounced before United Nations that the Nazi leader of the United States, George Loncoln Rockwell, looked for to connect itself with Tacuara. To the same tiemop, the representative of Saudi Arabia before the international organism greeted " the crossed one of Tacuara against sionismo" and it expressed its desire of which the movement extended by all Latin America.

The assault to the Banking Policlínico

On the other hand, a fraction of the group that had turned to the Peronism and formed the Nationalistic Movement Revolutionary Tacuara (MNRT) acquired national fame 29 of August of 1963 after the bloody assault to Banking Policlínico (called internamente Rosaura Operation ), when a group commando killed two employees, hurt to other three and, the equivalent to 100,000 dollars, a fortune for the time took to 14 million of weights. In the blow they participated to Jose Luis Nell, Horacio Rossi, Jorge Caffatti, Ricardo Viera, Rubén Rodriguez, Carlos Arbelos and Mario Duahy.

With time part of this money recovered and it paused to some of the authors of the holdup. As the numeration of tickets were noticeable, it was possible to follow the sign of the money, until finally the police discovered the true executors and practically it dismantled the organization. The majority of the catched ones and condemning by the fact was in freedom in May of 1973, when the Peronism returned to the power and the president Héctor Cámpora decreed ample Amnesty for Imprisoned politicians .

This was the first political action armed carried out by an exclusively civil group in Argentine history. In one interview that made the magazine Companion in September of 1964 to the protagonists of the assault to the Banking Policlínico imprisoned in the jails of Homemade Devotee Villa and, the members of the MNRT defined to the sector that remained with Ezcurra in the original Tacuara like “an assault group of the regime, characterized by a antiMarxist hysteria”, that actually was transformed “into a collateral of the repression organisms”. The prisoners, who autodenominaban " Peronists revolucionarios", they took distance from the right nationalism:

“Is absurd to transplant the facist solution (including within the capitalist system, in which the right nationalisms are fitted) to Latin American countries, dependant and not industrialized countries, neo-colonial countries. nationalistic of right is preservative and not revolutionary . They try to change the political institutions with the intention of recovering or preserving the economic system and to maintain the delay cultural of the great masses, so that the culture is exclusive expression of the reduced privileged elites”.

The murder of Raul Alterman

In 1964, like revenge by the death of two militants of the MNRT and one of Peronist Youth in a confused union incident in Plenary of CGT in Rosary, was assassinated in the door of its house Raul Alterman, a young Jewish militant of left. It never was very clearly why white Alterman as of the attack was chosen, although it assumes that its election, was only by its condition of Jew and Socialist.

After the murder, the organization sent a letter to the parents of Alterman, saying: " Nobody bush because yes just; to its they have killed it son because it was a communist Jewish dog. If they are not approvals that retire all the Jewish dogs and orerators to their native Judea What do in our country? ".

The crime was a national scandal and inclusively Joe Baxter, old militant of the MNRT, left in the program Bernardine Neustadt to repudiate the Nazi ideology of Ezcurra and its ex- companions of militancy.

Interview to the leaders of Tacuara

In October of 1962 the magazine Israelite World both realized a joint news article to main leaders of the movement Tacuara, Ezcurra and Baxter. The journalist who carried out the interview, Arie Zafran, was accompanied by his colleague Rogelio Garci'a Lupo, that was joined a relation with Baxter from which this one, in his work like international operator by the turn nocturne by the state company by communications would connect, it with means of press of the outside.

The note, written with an intimist climate, described all the sensations that Zafran had in the house of Tacuara:

The interview had such repercussion that was completely reproduced by the North American newspaper The New York Times . But the amiable tone of Zafran journalist and only done of which Israelite World lent its central pages so that the leaders of Tacuara expressed themselves caused to indignation in some sectors of Argentine Jewish community . The magazine New Sion answered in a cover note that any eagerness conciliator with respect to Tacuara would generate that the Jews lowered the guard, which would entail a serious danger, at the same time as express in one of its articles doing reference to Holocausto : " Recuerden that all those Jewish prisoners of Nazism that, even of good faith, believed in the possibility of negotiating and of being understood with, in completes instance took as flock to the slaughter house to hundreds of thousands of brothers and was as well victims of their blind illusions " ; and Tacuara was noticed that " uses the tactics of the aggression so far, because does not have sufficient force to resort to extermination ".

Declivity

After the assault to the Banking Policlínico and the murder of Raul Alterman, many militants of the fractions of Tacuara were stopped or entered in secrecy. Joe Baxter, one of its founders, after knowing Perón, fighting in Vietnam and to know China, turned towards the revolutionary left and finished being one of the founders of ERP, along with Mario Santucho Robert . Just a short time later died in a plane crash in France.

Later Jose Luis Nell added to the Officers' Club of Revolutionary Armed Forces Montoneros . Nell would be cuadripléjico after which two shots perforated the back to him in Massacre of Ezeiza the day of the return of Perón and two years later it would commit suicide of a firing in the mouth.

By the end of 1964, Alberto Ezcurra Uriburu was made priest and left in charge of the organization to Patricio Collins. Soon Ezcurra derived in manpower for the state services of repression and, missing Tacuara like organic nucleus, also for Triple To and Battalion 601 of Intelligence of the Army. The majority of the members of the original nucleus of Tacuara, after to leave the organization, would quickly become agents of the parapoliciales groupings of right that would exert the state repression during Decade of 1970 or would be collaborating direct of intelligence service during the period of dictatorship .

Cabo dart later would be joined with vandorista trade unionism and Operative Condor would become famous by, where 28 of September of 1966, next to other seventeen militants, kidnapped to an airplane of Argentine Airlines to take it Falklands Islands and to plant four Argentine flags. Later Cabo would be assassinated by Military staff, while he was prisoner, Friday 6 of January of 1977 .

In the article “the facist young people discover their country”, published in the magazine March in 1967, Eduardo Galeano aimed:

" From the same original trunk tacuaras that finished in the left Peronism and those come that they were added to the right Peronism, those that they embraced the marxism-leninismo and those that celebrate of bodyguard of certain union bureaucrats; those that paints in the walls, still, esvásticas crossings and advice: “Degüelle a Communist per day”. The same source the Hitlers left the widows of and devotee of Perón, Mao and Fidel .) Defining itself reason why he rejected, but without a clear idea than he looked for, of given ideology, vague and contradictory, Tacuara continued giving off, until the aim, sub-groups that went separating as a result of the internal fight of tendencies. Almost all the terrorist groups of right that have survived, they come from that one matrix, and within the Peronism there are nuclei of all the shades, from Marxist to rosistas, that left Tacuara: all the positions and all the attitudes reflect today, from the disintegration, which was that one heterogenous congregation of furious young people united by its myths and his estilo".

The journalist Bardini Robert, that in its adolescence was supporting of the MNRT, wrote: " Safe in its beginnings, Tacuara never was an ideologically homogenous organization. In spite of its iron codes, in its interior they coexisted - while it was possible several nationalistic currents. There were semiaristocratic tendencies with nostalgia of the Thirties and “plebian” tendencies; antiPeronist catholics and catholic Peronists; “fascistoides” and “socializantes”; military coup participants pro and insurrectionary Populists. They did not lack the supporters of anarcosindicalismo" either;.

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