National Factories of Aeronautical Constructions or TNCA was a Mexican company created in 1915, during the government of Venustiano Carranza, in the creative height of aviation in Latin America. Supported to a great extent by the federal government, who was his main client, also it got to export some airplanes to Central America .

History

At the beginning of century XX, aviation began to expand around the orb and the political and military events, like World War I, contributed to their development and improvement. In Mexico, the revolutionary movement brought with himself a severe shortage of arms, this situation took to the belligerent groups to a strong dependancy of the foreign markets. In order to obtain equipment, food supplies and park, the revolutionary factions resorted to the contraband and the black market.

Between 1915 and 1917, the constitutionalist group raised the urgent necessity that the army was self-sufficient in its supplyings, which took to the re-opening of the factories of Arms, of Powder, etc. For this same reason the work of the pioneers of aviation was retaken. It was as well as they settled down in 1915 the Military school of Aviation and the National Factories of Aeronautical Construction, with soothe in City of Mexico, their facilities occupied what previously it was the property of Balbuena.

TNCA began simply as factory of maintenance of the small and old fleet, but were growing gradually until having a considerable capacity and culminating with the total manufacture of airplanes and equipment in Mexico.

Soon it got to count on the following sections: Technique for projects, Drawing, Carpentry with mechanical and electrical tools, Mechanical equipped with electrical winches, Chemistry with laboratories for tests of diverse materials, Smelting equipped by four forges, a Krupp ventilator, and a steam hammer, as well as Motor and Clothes.

Gustavo Saline with the aid of the engineers Juan Guillermo Villasana and Francisco Santarini, managed to integrate a select group of people magnificently enabled who included sketchers, designers, aeromodelistas, smelters, turners and mechanics.

Concerning production of airplanes in Mexico, fundamental work of the Factories, the first success had with an airplane type " parasol" equipped with motor Gnome of 80 Saline HP that flew Gustavo. This airplane gave to origin to the futures Series H.

The 20 of November of 1916 flew the biplane successful Series To number 1 manned by captain Felipe S. By instructions of gift Venustiano Carranza, this airplane flattered to the Republic of El Salvador to him, and was transported by boat with a special mission headed by the lieutenant Saline colonel Alberto Carranza .

In its quality of Head of the Aeronautics, Alberto Saline Carranza organized the first transport of airmail in Mexico by means of a flight between Pachuca and the Capital of the Republic realized with an airplane Series To manned by the lieutenant Horacio Ruiz Gaviño that brought two coats with correspondence on board. This occurred the 6 of 1917 July.

The 24 of August of the same year flew a biplane Series To equipped with Mexican motor Azatl (white heron, in Nahuatl ) and helix Anáhuac, manned by Horacio lieutenant Ruiz Gaviño. It was the first time that pilot, airplane, helix and motor, all of them Mexicans, furrowed skies of Mexico triumphally. At the end of October was finished to the manufacture of an airplane Series To with double control. In the factories Series continued taking place totally Mexican airplanes like the biplanes, parasol Series H and the microplanes Series C . At the end of the war of Revolution, in 1920, the “Air Weapon of the Constitutional Forces” had produced with approximately 50 airplanes TNCA.

The engineer Angel Lascurain and Osio was commissioner in 1920 as Director of the TNCA and other designs were produced, like the airplane battle of a seat E' Series “3-E-130”, also known like the “Tololoche” and “Quetzalcoatl”, made in 1924 . This airplane was designed by Antonio Is and was a wood monoplane in configuration of parasol and took mounted a motor rotario Him Rhone air-cooled. Four Tololoches were constructed.

In spite of their remarkable advances and performance, the TNCA entered a decay stage and manifolds factors contributed to their disappearance. The lack of investment and few clients the reasons for its decline.

Motors

The motor Aztatl was the first aeronautical motor done in Mexico and dates from 1917 . The design era of radial type air-cooled. It was constructed in versions of three, six (80hp), and ten cylinders, as well as the motors FOLL Mexico and Clover of 3 cylinders and 45 HP. Also, Gnome, and Hispanic Switzerland were constructed Anzani under license, and some airplanes equipped with motors Wright and Renault .

General factories of Aeronautics

Towards 1941 the facilities of the TNCA passed at the hands of the company Canadian Car and Foundry . Robert Villalobos Iron, in that same year and due to the incapacity of Canadian Car to produce a single airplane, realized the necessary managements so that the facilities returned at Mexican hands, consequently the old project was retaken to equip to Mexican Air Force with national airships. In this period the facilities were known like General Factories Aeronautics or TGA.

The TGA obtained an order of 50 machines Teziutlan, for the Air Force, of which the construction of four equipment was obtained, because the times military forced Mexico to establish agreements of participation and aid with the United States, consequently only was reinitiated the armamentística dependancy.

From then, the legendary National Factories of Aeronautical Construction, happened to comprise of history, since the arrival of originating airplanes of the neighbor of the north, marked the aim of the construction of Mexican airplanes and the workings were limited the maintenance of the airships that gradually were acquired.

Produced airships

Between the main airships that produced they find:
  • TNCA Series To - biplane.

  • TNCA Series C - monoplane, this mounted a Hispanic-Switzerland motor. Airplane also called Quick Microplano or Microbe .
  • TNCA Series D, F and G - derived from the airplanes Blériot XI .
  • TNCA Series and - biplane sesquiplane.
  • TNCA Series H - bombing parasol monoplane, double control.
  • 3-E-130 - parasol monoplane battle also known like Tololoche or Quetzalcoatl.

Use of the Airships

The airships mainly were used for the instruction of the cadets in the national school of aviation, as well as for the patrolling of the country.
Random links:Ana Magnani | Beverly Road (Line of the Nostrand Avenue) | Bursa (desambiguación) | Manuel Queipo Abbot | The Palaces and Villafranca

© 2007-2008 speedlook.com; article text available under the terms of GFDL, from fr.wikipedia.org