Nabucodonosor II (c. ) is probably the governor more known Chaldean dynasty of Babylon . 605  reigned between ; a.

He is famous by the conquest of Judá and Jerusalem, and by its monumental construction activity in Babylon, like famous hanging Gardens of Babylon, that according to account the legend was constructed for their wife who felt nostalgia by the primaveral mountainous atmosphere where she grew.

Traditionally " is called; Nabucodonosor the Grande", but the destruction of temples in Jerusalem and the conquest of Judá caused to a malevolent image in the Jewish traditions and to him Bible, unlike which happens in contemporary Iraq, where it is glorified like an historical leader.

Name

Its name, in Acadian Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, is interpreted like " Oh Nebo, defends my corona", " imperio", " wake ", or " trabajo". In an inscription " names to itself; the favorite of Nebo". In Hebrew is נבוכדנאצר Nəbūkadnệṣṣar (the presence of א ( Alef ) can indicate an early articulation of the Hebrew, Nəbūkadenʾeṣṣar ), and some times (in Jeremías and Ezequiel ) נבוכדראצר, Nəbūkadrệṣṣar . Septuaginta and Vulgata has Ναβουχοδονοσορ, Nabuchodonosor (reflecting an early articulation Nabūkudunʾuṣur ).

Hebrew Nebuchadnezzar can reflect Acadian Nabû-kidin-uṣur, or " Or Nebo, defends to burro".

Biography

Nabucodonosor was the older and successive son of Nabopolasar, that released to Babylon of the dependancy of Asiria and left Nínive in ruins. According to Beroso, contracted marriage with the daughter of Ciáxares, reason why the dynasties of Medos and Babylon were united.

Necao II, king of Egypt, gained a victory before the Asirios in Karkemish . This assured to Egypt the possession provinces Phoenician the empire neon-asirio, including part of Palestine. The remaining provinces were divided between Average Babylon and. Nabopolasar was determined in reconquering of Necao the provinces of the west of Syria, and for this aim it commanded to his son next to a powerful army in the direction of the west. In Batalla de Karkemish in the year 605  a., the Egyptian army was defeated and Syria and Fenicia they fell under the dominion of Babylon. Nabopolasar died 15 of August of 605  a. and Nabucodonosor returned to Babylon to ascend to the throne.

After overcoming to Cimerios and Escitas, all the expeditions of Nabucodonosor were directed towards the west, although a powerful neighbor, the medos, was located in the north; the cause of this was the marriage with Amuhia, daughter of the king of Medos, that assured peace enters empires both.

Nabucodonosor carried out several campaigns on Syria and Judá. An attempt from invasion to Egypt in 601  a. had some misfortunes, caused by diverse rebellions in the area of Levante, including Judá. Nabucodonosor finished with the rebellions, capturing Jerusalem 597  a., and taking to the king Jeconías to Babylon. When the Pharaoh Apries tried an invasion to Palestine again, 589  a., Judá and other states of the region were rebelled. A second siege of Jerusalem happened in 587 / 586  a., finalizing with the destruction of the temple and the city, and the deportation from many citizens to Babylon. These facts describe to the Biblical books of Kings, Chronic Jeremías and . After the destruction of Jerusalem, Nabucodonosor maintained to a siege on Shot ( 585 - 572  a. ), that finished with a commitment, where the city accepted the authority of Babylon.

According to it seems, after the pacification of Shot, Nabucodonosor would have returned to attack Egypt. A clay small board, that is at the moment in British Museum, contains the following inscription talking about to this war:

"In the thirty seventh year of Nabucodonosor, king of Babylon, went to Mitzraim (Egypt) to wage a war. Amasis, king of Egypt, reunited its army, and marched and they dispersed by extranjero."

Completing the subjugation of Phoenician, and after to torment Egypt, Nabucodonosor it was dedicated to adorn the city of Babylon, to construct channels, aqueducts and reserves.

Taking into account its inscriptions and the number of temples constructed or recovered by him, can be said that he was a very devotee man. What it is known of to his shows it history with a human disposition, in showy resistance with the demonstration of gratuitous cruelty of the majority of the asirios sovereigns. It was due to this moderation that Jerusalem was pardoned repeated times, and finally destroyed only when this was a political necessity; the rebellious princes obtained pardon, and the same Sedecías, that by its displeasure against the babylonian king was to him particularly odious, if it had behaved with less terquedad, had received greater indulgence (Jeremías 38:17, 18); Nabucodonosor showed to much consideration Jeremías, leaving it frees it to accompany to the exiled ones Babylon or to remain in Jerusalem, and naming to one of the friendly of the prophet, Godolías, like governor of Jerusalem; he also granted such part of freedom the Jewish exiled ones that some ascended to a position of prominencia in the Court and Baruc thought that was to have to exhort its companions so that they had the well-being of Babylon in the heart and so that they said by his king. The babylonian tradition account that at the end of its life, Nabucodonosor, inspired from the heights, prophesied the imminent ruin of the empire Chaldea (Berosus and Abydenus in Eusebio, Praep.

Nabucodonosor died in Babylon between the second and sixth month of year 43 of its reign.

Construction activity

Nabucodonosor seemed to feel prouder by its works that by its victories in the battlefield. During the last century of the existence of Nínive (s.), Babylon were devastated, not only at the hands of Senaquerib and Asurbanipal, but also as a result of rebellions. Nabucodonosor, continuing with the work of reconstruction of its father, had like intention to turn its capital into one of the wonders of the world. Old temples were recovered; new constructions of incredible magnificencia were constructed in honor to the Gods of the babylonian pantheon ( Diodoro of Sicily, 2.95; Heródoto, 1,183); in order to complete the real palace begun by Nabopolasar, nothing was saved, nor " wood of cedar, bronze, gold, silver, precious stones and raras" ; an underground passage and a stone bridge connected the two separated parts of the city by the Euphrates river; the city became unconquerable with the construction of a triple wall.

The workings of Nabucodonosor were not only ligatures to the capital; it is credited by the restoration of the lake of Sippar, abrir a port in the Persian Gulf, and the construction of a wall between the rivers Tigris and the Euphrates to protect to the country of invasions of the north: in fact, there is no a place in Babylon where it does not appear his name or vestiges of his activity like king. These gigantic works needed an ample manpower: of the inscription in the temple of Marduk, can be inferred that the majority of the captives brought from the west of Asia participated in the construction workings.

Nabucodonosor in Libro de Daniel

Nabucodonosor is more widely known through its description in the Bible, especially in Libro de Daniel, who discusses several events of his reign in addition to his conquest of Jerusalem:

In the second year of its reign (evidently telling of its conquest the Jews), Nabucodonosor dreams about a great image done of several materials (gold, receives, iron, etc) that is destroyed totally. The prophet Daniel interprets it so that she represents the height and the fall of the world-wide powers ('' Daniel '' Chapter 2).

During another incident, Nabucodonosor raises an enormous gold idol to be venerated during a public ceremony in the level one of Hard. When three Jews, Ananías, Misael, and Azarías (Sedrac, Mesac, and Abed-nego) refused to comprise of such act, sent them to the king to throw to an ardent furnace. But at the time of being thrown they were saved by angel and arose unharmed ('' Daniel '' Chapter 3).

Another dream, this time of an immense tree, is interpreted by Daniel the prophet. The dream announced the destiny of the king living next to the beasts and behaving like these ('' Daniel '' Chapter 4).

While it was conceited on his profits, Nabucodonosor is humiliated by God of the Jews . The king loses the sanity and lives in the forest as an animal during seven years (they consider some it as a called attack of madness boantropía clinical). After this, their sanity and position are recovered. Neither the disease, nor the intervening period that must have caused, are registered in babylonian annals; nevertheless, is an absence of acts of the king during 582 - 575  a. Some scholars think that Libro de Daniel was written much later who the events described, during II  Century; a., therefore doubt of the veracity of the descriptions.

Some students think that the description done by Daniel is a mixture of traditions on Nabucodonosor -- he was without a doubt who conquered Jerusalem -- and Nabónido (Nabuna'id), the last king of Babylon. For example, Nabónido was the true father of Belsasar, and the seven years of madness can be related to the demurrage of Nabónido in Tayma in the desert. Evidence of this is in fragments of Written by hand of the Dead Sea where it is described to Nabónido (N-b-n-y) being whipped by God with a fever of seven years in his kingdom while his son prevailed in Babylon.

Successors

After its death in October of 562  a., after to have reigned 43 years, was happened by his son Amel-Marduk, who, after reigning two years, was succeeded by Neriglisar ( 559 - 555 ), that was happened by Nabónido ( 555 - 538 ), at the end of these reigns (less than a quarter of century after the death of Nabucodonosor) Babylon fell under Ciro that led the combination of the armies of Average and Persia .

Epónimo

  • is a type of Iris by day called " Furnace of Nabucodonosor".
  • In the popular trilogy Matrix, the ship of the personage “Morfeo” is called Nabucodonosor .
  • A bottle of Champagne that contains the sum of 20 bottles (15 liters) is called Nabucodonosor.
  • An opera of Verdi is called Nabucco .
  • Sadam Hussein named to one of its military divisions Nabucodonosor.
  • A legend letter in Magic: Encuentro is called Nabucodonosor.
  • Nabucondonsor II is the name of the pig champion of the personage Odorless Pereyra of the Argentine writer Fontanarrosa Robert
  • In the series District Sesame were small beings who lived in a flowerpot of the called Epis Nabucodonosorcitos

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