Mahoma was Prophet ( nabi نبي) founding of Islam . Its complete name in Arab Language is Abu l-Qasim Muhammad ibn `Abd Allāh al-Hashimi al-Qurashi del that, making spanish its colloquial name Muhammad ( محمد ), obtains Mahoma .
According to Muslim religion, Mahoma is considered the “seal of the prophets” ( jātim al-anbiyā
The most credible source on the information of the life of Mahoma is the Corán, the biographies Sira and hadices . The biographies older than are known are the life of the prophet of God of Ibn Ishaq ( 768 ) and written by Al-Waqidi ( 822 ). Ibn Ishaq wrote the biography 120 years after the death of Mahoma. The third source, hadices, contains these and actions of Mahoma, these were written and memorized while it was while still alive, and later compiled.
Arab of the tribe of Coraix ( Quraysh ). Mahoma was born in Mecca (مكة) in 570 Mecca. in present Saudi Arabia is in the region of Hiyaz . Posthumous son of Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib, member of the clan of Hashimí .
The custom of most honorable of the tribe of Quraysh was to send to its children with Bedouin nursemaids in order that grew free and healthful in the desert, to also be able to become strong and to learn of the Bedouins, that was recognized by their honesty and the deficiency of numerous vices, and Mahoma was trusting to Bani S.
The first miracle that narrates on Mahoma in the compilation of hadices is that the Angel Gabriel descended and abrió its chest to remove its heart. Then he extracted a black clot of this one and said “ This was the part by where Satán could seducirte ” soon washed with water to it Zam Zam in a gold container, later returned the heart to his site, the children and game companions with which he was ran towards their airplane and said: “ Mahoma has been assassinated ”. All went to him they found and it in good state except with the pale face. Muslim sees this event like a protection so that it separated from his childhood from the adoration from the idols and probably the reason for which he was given back to its mother. It remained orphaned to early age, by Arab custom, the smaller children did not receive inheritance, reason for which it received it neither from his father nor from his mother, he says that she died when she was six years old, later was welcomed and educated first by her grandfathers Abd al-Muttalib and soon by his paternal uncle Abu Talib, a leader of the Quraysh tribe, most powerful of Mecca, and father of her cousin and future Caliph Ali .
Then Mecca was center commercial prosperous, mainly because several temples existed that contained different idols, which attracted a great number of pilgrims. Merchants of different tribes visited Mecca at the time of the pilgrimage, when the tribal wars were prohibited and could count on a safe trip. In its adolescence, Mahoma accompanied to its uncle by its trips to Syria and other places. Therefore, soon it got to be a person with ample experience in the customs of other regions.
To the twelve years with its uncle went to Bassorah Abu Tâlib and had an encounter with a called monk Bahira, some orientalistas say that this demonstrates that Mahoma learned of him sacred books, but the Muslim students refute this opinion alleging that he could not have learned in lunch time that knowledge and that in addition encounter with this monk is not registered a second, in hadices is narrated that Bahira recognized some signals of the prophecy of Mahoma and warned to him to its uncle on from fear taking it to Syria of the Jews and Romans.
It did not have a specific work in his youth, but it has been reported that work like shepherd for Bani Sad and in Mecca like employee. At the age of the 25 years worked like merchant in the route caravaneer between Damascus and Mecca to the orders of Jadiya, daughter of Juwaylid (خديجةبنتخويلد), a rich retailer widow, had made an impression to Jadiya and this one proposed marriage to him in the 595 year . Ibn Ishaq presents/displays that the age of Jadiya was 28 years, and To the Waqidi presents/displays forty. Some say that when generating Jadiya two men and four women of Mahoma, cause that the opinion more hard is the one of Ibn Ishaq, because is known that the woman arrives at the age of the menopause before the fifty years. Although these information are not established in Hadiz but is something that became famous between the historians. Jadiya had six children with Mahoma, two men and four women. All were born before Mahoma received the first revelation. Their children Al-Qasim and Abdullah died in the childhood in Mecca. Their four daughters were called Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulzum and Fátima . Jadiya would be later the first person in accepting the Islam after the revelation.
Mahoma era of reflective character and routinely spent nights meditating in a cave ( Hira ) near Mecca. The Muslims think that in 610 to the forty years of age, while meditated, Mahoma had a vision of the angel Gabriel. He described this visit like a mandate to memorize and to recite verses sent by God . During its life, Mahoma trusted the conservation of the word of God ( Allah الله), passed on by Gabriel (Yibril, جبريل), to retentive of the memoriones, to memorize untiringly reciting that it. that after his death they would be compiled in writing in Corán due to the fundamental importance of conserving the original message in all their purity, without the smaller neither basic change nor of form. For it they used materials like escápulas of camel, on which they recorded versicles of the Corán. Arcángel Gabriel indicated to him that it had been chosen as last of the Prophets and as so preached the word of God on the base of strict Monoteísmo, predicting Day of the Final Judgment .
In agreement with Corán and the narrations, Mahoma was illiterate ( ummi ), done that the Muslim tradition considers a test that autentifica to Corán (Al-Qur'ān, القران), sacred book of the Muslims, like carrier of the revealed truth. This vision disturbed to Mahoma, but her Jadiya wife assured to him that she was a real vision and first disciple became his. Transformed into a rich one and respected merchant, she received the revelation of the angel Gabriel, whom she invited to him to preach a new religion.
As the followers of Mahoma began to increase in number, he became a threat for the heads of the local tribes. The wealth of these tribes was based on Kaaba, the sacred enclosure of the idols of the Arabs and the religious main point of Mecca. If they rejected to these idols, as Mahoma preached, there would be pilgrims towards Mecca, neither commerce, nor wealth. Repudio to the politeísmo that it denounced Mahoma was particularly offensive to its own tribe, Qurayshí, inasmuch as they were the guardians of the Kaaba. It is by that Mahoma and its followers were persecuted.
In the year 619 passed away Jadiya, the wife of Mahoma, and her uncle Abu Talib . This year is known like " year of tristeza". The clan to which repudió belonged Mahoma and their followers underwent hunger and persecution.
In 620, Mahoma made a trip in one night that Isra and Miraj is known like . Isra is the word in Arab who talks about to a miraculous trip from Mecca to Jerusalem, specifically to the place known like Masjid al-Aqsa . Isra was followed by Mi'rāŷ, its ascent to the sky, where it crossed seven skies and it communicated with prophets who preceded to him, like Abraham, Moisés, Jesus Christ .
The life of the small Arab community in Mecca not only was difficult, but also dangerous. The Arab traditions affirm that there were several attacks against the life of Mahoma, that finally decided to move to Medina, a great agricultural oasis where there were followers his. Breaking its bonds with tribal and familiar loyalties, Mahoma demonstrated that these bonds insignificant were compared with their commitment with Islam, a revolutionary idea in the tribal society of Arabia . This migration to Medina marks the principle of the year in the Islamic calendar. The Islamic calendar tells to the dates from Hégira (هجرة), reason for which the Muslim dates take area code AH (year of the Hégira).
Mahoma arrived at Medina like a mediator, guest to solve complaints between Arab sides of Aws and Khazraj. It achieved east aim absorbing to both factions in the Muslim community and prohibiting the bloodshed between the Muslims. Nevertheless, Medina was also the place where several Jewish tribes lived. Mahoma hoped that to these they recognized it tribes like prophet, which did not happen. Some academic ones affirm that Mahoma left the hope of being recognized like prophet by Jewish and that, therefore, Alquibla, that is to say, the direction in which they say the Muslims, was changed of the old temple of Jerusalem of the Kaaba in Mecca.
Mahoma issued a document that knows like the Constitution Medina (in 622-623), in which specify the terms in which other factions, particularly the Jews, could live within the new Islamic state. In agreement with this system, to the Jews and Christians he was allowed to maintain his religion them by means of the payment of a tribute (not thus to the medical instructors of pagan religions). This system would come to typify the relation between the Muslims and Dhimmis and this tradition is the reason of the relative stability that normally existed in the Arab califatos.
The relations between Mecca and Medina were deteriorated quickly. All the properties of the Muslims in Mecca were confiscated, whereas in Medina Mahoma obtained alliances with the neighboring tribes.
The followers of Mahoma began to assault the caravans that went to Mecca. In March of 624, Mahoma lead to three hundred soldiers in an assault a caravan of merchants that went to Mecca. The members of the caravan managed to repulse the attack and later they decided to direct to a retaliation against the Muslims, sending a small army to invade to Medina. 15 of March of 624, in a called place Badr, both sides hit. Although the followers of Mahoma were numerically three times inferiors to their enemies (three hundred against thousands), the Muslims won the battle. This one was first of a series of military profits on the part of the Muslims.
For the Muslims, the victory of Badr was a divine ratification from which Mahoma was a legitimate prophet. After the victory, and once the Jewish clan of Banu Qainuqa was expelled from Medina, the citizens of this place they adopted all the Muslim faith and Mahoma settled down as of the city runs de facto.
After the death of its wife, Mahoma contracted marriage with Aisha, the daughter of its friend Abu Bakr (that later would become the leader of the Muslims after the death of Mahoma). In Medina also married with Hafsah, daughter of Umar (that soon would be the successor of Abu Bakr). These marriages would seal to the relations between Mahoma and its main followers.
The daughter of Mahoma, Fátima, married with Ali, first of Mahoma. Another daughter, Ruqayyah, contracted marriage with Uzman but she passed away and later Uzman married with its sister Umm Kulzum . These men would arise in the subsequent years like the successors from Mahoma ( caliphs ) and political leaders from the Muslims. Therefore, the four first caliphs were tie to Mahoma by the different marriages. The Muslims consider to these caliphs like Rashidún (الخلفاءالراشدون), that means " guiados".
In 625 a head of Mecca, Abu Sufyan, marched against Medina with 3,000 men. In the battle that got rid the 23 of March, he did not leave victorious sides neither. The army of Mecca affirmed to have won the battle, but it stayed decimated very as persecuting the Muslims of Medina and occupying the city.
In April of 627, Abu Sufyan mounted another attack against Medina, but Mahoma had dug trenches around the city and could successful defend it in what is called War of Trenches .
After this battle, the Muslims, who suspected the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, undertook war against these, defeating them. The men of the tribe were beheaded and the women and children were taken like captives.
After the victory of the War of Trenches, the Muslims expanded their influence through conversions or conquests of several cities and tribes.
In the year 628, the position of Mahoma was sufficiently strong to decide its return to Mecca, this time like a pilgrim. In March of that year, one went to followed Mecca of 1,600 men. After diverse negotiations, a treaty in a town near called Mecca was signed al-Hudaybiyah. Although to Mahoma that year was not allowed him to enter Mecca, the hostilities stopped and to the Muslims the access to the city in the following year was authorized to them.
The treaty only lasted two years, since in 630 you run them of Mecca broke this treaty. As a result of this, Mahoma marched towards Mecca with an army more than 10,000 men, who conquered without he found resistance. Mahoma declared amnesty to the settlers of the city, many of which became to the Islam. Mahoma destroyed the idols of the Kaaba and, therefore, the pilgrimage in future would be to the sacred place of the Islam.
The capitulation of Mecca and the defeat of the enemy tribes Hunayn allowed Mahoma to take the control from Arabia . Nevertheless, Mahoma did not form any government, but it preferred to govern through the personal relations and deal with different tribes.
From 595 to 619, Mahoma only had a wife, Jadiya, a rich woman of Mecca that counted 40 years when it married. After his death it contracted marriage with Sawdah, and soon after with Aisha, daughter of Abu Bakr - that later would happen to Mahoma-. According to some hadices, Aisha had 6 years of age when it was promised to the prophet, that it had 54, although the marriage was completed when it had 9. There are, nevertheless, Muslim students who think that these data are erroneous and that Aisha was considerably greater.
In spite of these modern reinterpretaciones of hadices that would adjudge to Aisha one more a more mature age, a great majority of the Muslim faithfuls continues accepting the traditional interpretations at the moment, without finding in them indication of an immoral behavior of Mahoma. This last one has been used by critics of the Islam, like Ibn Warraq, to maintain that the infantile marriages that are continued practicing in the Islamic countries at present find a favorable argument in this possible historical precedent
Later married with Hafsa, with Zaynab (that was woman of its adoptive son Zaid), Ramlah, daughter of a leader who fought to Mahoma, and with Umm Salama, widow of a Muslim combatant.
Also Mariyah Al-Qibtía married with a Christian of name (Mariyah, copta) had another son with her after mudar to Medina . That seventh and last son was called Ibrahim . Like his brother men, Ibrahim passed away in his childhood; one says that] died to the 17 or 18 months of age and with a bean of Safiah name. Later he had several other spouses, of vague number between these 9 reviewed, who affirm almost all the experts like safe, and more than 20 than some they consider to him. Some of these women were spouses of died followers of Mahoma in battle, whereas others were daughters of their allies.
After one it cuts disease, Mahoma passed away 8 of June of 632 in the city of Medina at the age of 63 years.
Abu Bakr, the father of Aisha, the third woman of Mahoma, was chosen by the leaders of the Muslim community like the successor of Mahoma (caliph), because this one was the favorite of Mahoma. Whatever they have been the facts, the certain thing is that Abu Bakr became the new leader of the Islam. Most of to its short reign passed it fighting rebellious tribes in what is called Ridda Wars.
To the date of the death of Mahoma, it had unified all the Peninsula Arabian and expanded the Islamic religion in this region, as well as partly of Syria and Palestine .
Later the successors of Mahoma extended the dominion of the Arab empire to Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, the North of Africa and Spain .
Mahoma they survived his Fátima daughter to him and the children of this one. Chiíes affirms that the husband of Fátima, Alí and its descendants, is the true leaders of the Islam. Sunníes does not accept this affirmation, although they respect the descendants of Mahoma.
The descendants of Mahoma are met by different names, such as Sayyid and Sharif . Many leaders and noble of the Muslim, present countries and pasts, affirm to be descending of Mahoma with variable degrees of credibility, such as the fatimí dynasty of North Africa, Idrisíes, the present real family of Jordan and the magnets Ismaelitas that uses the title of Agha Khan .
Before its death in 632, Mahoma had established to the Islam like a social, political and religious force and had unified to Arabia. Some decades after their death, their successors conquered Persia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Armenia and great part of North Africa, and surrounded Constantinople twice, although they could not take control of her, which prevented them to advance towards East Europe .
Between 711 and 716 begins an Arab presence of almost eight centuries in the Iberian Peninsula, and in 732, one hundred years after the death of Mahoma, the Arab advance in Western Europe is stopped to the doors of France in battle of Poitiers .
Under Gaznavíes, the Islam extended in Century X to the main Hindu States to the east of the Hindu river, in which is at the moment the north of India. The expansion of the Islam pacifically continued by diverse regions of Africa and the Southeast of Asia . The Islam counts at the moment on more than billion of followers, being the second greater religion of the world, after Christianity .
When speech of Mahoma, always precedes with the title of Prophet and is followed of the phrase " bendígale God and gives his paz" him; (salt-the allahu 'alaihi wa salt-lam صلّىاللهعليهوسلّم) or " La Paz and the oration is with él" ('alaihi ace-salatu wa ace-salam عليهالصلاةوالسلام).
The Muslim perspective is diverse and some Muslims maintain one more a vision more flexible. Some, especially Chiíes of Iran, accept the respectful images, and use illustrations of Mahoma in books and architectonic decoration, like the sunníes at several moments and places of the past, although these last ones at the moment tend towards Iconoclastic positions and to the rejection of any image of Mahoma, including the created ones and published by nonMuslim.
|Random links:||Earl Klugh | Marcelo II | Sahelanthropus tchadensis | Trionychidae | Valdetaus|