With the term Russian Literature alludes to not only to the Literature of Russia, but to the Literature written in Russian also by members of other nations that became independent from extinct USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) or by e'migre's who were welcomed in her. With the disintegration of the USSR several cultures and countries have protested to several exsoviéticos writers who, nevertheless, wrote in Russian.
Russian Literature began, like all, as an oral Literature without culture written until the introduction of Christianity in 989 and, with him, of Alphabet adapted to welcome it. The creators of this alphabet were the Byzantine missionaries Cirilo and Metodio ; they took different Spellings from Alphabets Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and devised others. At the outset the written language Russian used two graphical systems - Cyrillic Alphabet and glagolítico Alphabet -; the glagolítico alphabet, supposedly invented also by Cirilo and Metodio, was left, and Russian Literature we know as it at the moment writes and reads in Cyrillic Alphabet .
In century XI all the tribes of the Eastern Slavs comprised of Rus de Kiev . One unique Language, Russian old, began to form with some territorial Dialects . Only in century XIII, when the unique Russian state was divided, Russian Language, Ukrainian Language and Language bielorruso began an independent development. For that reason these three nations own a period common in the history of their Literatures.
In Average Age Russian was no Military orders of cavalry nor universities until was created, or in century XVIII, the one of Mijaíl Lomonósov . The training centers in medieval Russia were Monasteries
Whatsoever, in old Russia much alphabetized people lived, as they demonstrate to the numerous documents of Nóvgorod conserved in crust of Birch that date from centuries XI-XII: problems, notes, certificates, exercises of students etc. The first book known in Russian is the wax manuscript Codex of Nóvgorod or Salterio of Nóvgorod, that contains Psalms 75 and 76 (around the year 1030 ).
Even in today, the old Russian is easily comprehensible for the native Russians. Still a few works of old Russian Literature survive, as well as great number of manuscripts aggravated by the effects of multiple invasions and wars. These works, of hand-written elaboration, were generally anonymous. Thematic appellant in old Russian Literature was the glorification of the beauty and the Russian power, the denunciation of Autocracy of the Russian princes and the defense of the principles morals.
It can say that an own system of sorts existed, that was divided mainly in two great groups: secular Literature and ecclesiastical Literature . In them we found the following sub-groups:
It is difficult to classify these works under a unique sort - many chronicles are not homogenous, since they contain parts pertaining to all the sorts previously mentioned - historical narrations, historical legend, treaty extracts of propagandistic intention and even hagiographal pieces.
The first period of Russian Literature, constituted mainly by the work of clergymen of Russian principalities that wrote in a called language Link or Slavic ecclesiastic, and aristocrats consecrated to the war, who wrote in Russian old, that is not due to confuse with the link. is denominated Period of Kiev, and arrives until 1240 . One is essentially Hagiografías and epic poems.
The Russian Literature of the period is put under the influence of Byzantine Literature . Diverse translations are important ecclesiastical works: Gospel de Ostromir (1056) and Florilegios (extracts of Parents of the Church, lives of saints, rules morals) composed in century XI by the prince Sviatoslav II of Kiev, works of Basilio Great, Juan Malalas, Juan Crisóstomo . The profane text translations include Novel of Alexander, founded on the history of Great Alexander, and Action of Devgenis (of Basilio Digenis) ( Devgenievo deyanie ), you will sing of military deeds, Physiologists .
Of 1240 to 1480 Russian Literature slowed down its growth because of Mongola Invasion of Russia in 1223, that brought about the decay of Kiev along with the sprouting of new cultural centers like Nóvgorod . Stories write military in prosa rythmical, as anonymous Canto of disaster of the Earth Russian ( Slovo or pogíbeli zemlí Rússkoi ) ( Century XIII ) (in this Lyrical work and tragic the anonymous author laments by the destiny of Russia, pisoteada by mongoles of Batu Jan and makes a call to the Russian princes so that they are united and they repelled the enemy), or Cycle of Kulikovo ( Zadónschina ) (final of century XIV - century XV): four stories that evoke the great defeat of the tartars in 1380 . " Ciclo" it gives to fame to Batalla de Kulikovo and has similarity to Cantar of the Followers of Igor .
most outstanding ecclesiastical Works of the period are:
Kíevo-Pechérsky Paterík (first half of Century XIII ) - lives of first Russian saints of the Pechérskaia Lavra de Kiev, also known like Monastery the Caves of Kiev ;
Plea ( Molenie (slovo) Daniíla Zatóchnika ) of Daniil Zatochnik (Daniel the Prisoner) ( Century XIII ). In this document, Daniel denounces the arrogance of the rich ones and demands less the most favored Charity for, besides dedicating a hymn to human intelligence;
the biography of Aleksandr Nevski ( Zhitié Aleksandra Névskogo ) ( Century XIII ) that mixes Hagiografía and realistic chronicle.
In 1480 is unified Russia and are expelled Mongoles for always; the cultural center passes to be Moscow . The advances of Renaissance Laicism in Century XV bring about turbulent religious and political conflicts that generated an ample controversial Literature in Prosa (works by Nil Sorski - Nil of the river Sora - and Iósif Volotsky (Iósif de Volokolámsk) and their respective followers. Iósif Vólotski tries to impose the Church on the State being pleaded to extend its power and its wealth. Nil of the Sora river, on the contrary, proposes that the church and the monks resign to the secular wealth and reorganizes the life of the clergymen according to the Christian ideals of poverty, work and simplicity.
Within lay Literature emphasizes Viaje beyond the three seas ( Viaje beyond the three seas - Jozhénie za tri mórya ) by Afanasi Nikitin . He was this merchant, traveller and writer whom, in century XV, India discovered to the Russians traveling to her from the city of Tver . The trip was developed between 1466 and 1472 and forms notes of their impressions and observations that took during their itinerary.
The sovereign Iván IV of Russia was also a remarkable writer. Its more outstanding work is Epistles to the prince Andréi Kurbski . This personage had deserted during Livona War to Great Duchy of Lithuania and blamed Iván IV to be a tyrant in several epistles who directed to his exsoberano. Iván IV responded to him that the authentic enemies of the S-state Boyardos who tried to divide Russia in small principalities. The controversy extended during two decades, but Iván IV also left written its opinion on the style of the language written in this period and composed in addition some poems and musical canons to ecclesiastical subject. lay profane Literature or of Century XVI is represented by following works:
• Domostrói (century XVI), attributed Wild Arcipreste, confessor of Iván IV of Russia. Domostrói reunites the diverse norms that regulated the current life of a Russian family of this period. In the book one is having of a citizen respect to the czar and the church. The man must be head of household and responsible for the life of all close friends and the true Christian education of the same. Domostrói proclaims that the woman entirely is subordinate the husband and recommends to punish the cases of bad conduct with physical or corporal punishments. Also is one domestic Encyclopedia that estatuye how an exemplary property must be administered or how to carry out the homemade works. In century XIX the word domostrói happened to denote in Russian everything what there was of slow and old fashioned in the familiar life.
• History of a young person and a young person ( Póvest or Petré and Fevróni ) by Ermolai-Erast (half of century XVI). History mixes Hagiografía and sentimental Novel . Some men of science think that he is the first novel completely profanes in Russian Literature.
Lyrical other is not cultivated that the one of subject sacrum, and the used form continues being rythmical Prosa used in military narrations as anonymous Story of the taking of Pskov ( Pskóvskoye vziatie ) ( 1510 ).
Also Story of Pain emphasizes in this period the anonymous costumbristas narrations /Bad Luck ( Póvest or Gore i zloschasti ) (second half of century XVII), Story of Savva Grudtsin ( Póvest or Sávve Grúdtsyne ) (1670) and satirical Relation of the court of Shemyaka ( Póvest or Shemiákinom I sweated ) (century XVII).
The Russian Literature of the period is put under the influence of western Literature already. In 1569 western Russia it is under the influence of Poland and the culture of this nation exerts a certain influence. To the death of Iván IV of Russia occurred to beginning to a civil wartime well-known like Tumultoso Period . Diverse wars follow one another: the one of Pole-Lithuanian Community against Russia, the one of Dimitríadas ( 1605 - 1606 ), the one of Ingria and War of Smolensko ; from all this chaos it arose as Russian czar in fact Ladislao IV Base, that governed between 1610 and 1612 .
In the Ukraine Rebellion of Jmelnytsky lead to the disintegration of Pole-Lithuanian Community . The revolt released Cosacos of the Polish dominion and they were allied with the Russian Empire. Bogdan Jmelnytsky, the Hetman of Cosacos of the Ukraine, had to decide with Moscovia a treaty of protection, Treated about Pereislav ( 1654 ) and since then the Ukraine establishes closer relations with Russia. Through Ukrainian Literature and bielorrusa some works of sorts arrive at Russia and western authors, like the humorous cuentecillos of Liber facetiarum of the humanist Poggio Bracciolini, Biographies of you will stop Roman, chivalrous novels, picaresque novels, novels of adventures, Miscellaneous and Polish poems were retraducidos and rusificados from the versions in Polish language and bielorrusa.
The verse in the heat of appears XVII with Simeón Pólotski (1629-1680) by influence of Polish Literature. This splits the metric Russian in two arts, one of prosa metric rythmical, popularizante one and felt like more national, and other more similar to the western one and considered more cultured. emphasizes in this period the multicoloured garden ( Vertográd Mnogotsvetni ) ( 1677 - 1678 ) of Simeón Pólotski (1629-1680) and Epitafio ( Epitafion ) of Wild Medvédev (1641-1691).
Simeón Pólotski was also the founder of Russian Theater . It wrote and it put in scene the comedy of allegory of the prodigal son ( Komidia pritchi or bludnom syne ) and Of czar Nabucodonosor ( Or Navuhodonósore zaré ) ( 1673 - 1678 ), in the theater of the court of Alejo I of Russia, that was a great fan of theater.
Like other western Literatures of this century, Illustration entered the Russian culture, that had in this century its classic period. This Clasicismo had its pillars in the dominion of the reason and the experience, reason why the period is also known like " Century of the Luces" or " Century of razón".
The first remarkable writer of century XVIII is Antioj Kantemir (1708-1744), son of Dmitri Kantemir . She was important satirical poet and its masterpiece is Satire in verse to seem: on that they blame to the education ( Na juliaschij uchenie - 1729 ), against which they wanted to annihilate the cultural legacy of Pedro I and other nine satires.
The main literary controversy of this century was on the poetry, and faced Lomonósov and Vasili Trediakovski. Vasili Trediakovski (1703-1769), a poet and translator, published in 1735 its theoretical work New and concise method of Russian poetry composition ( Novi i kratki sposob k slozheniyu stijov rosiyskij ). Opposed the traditional syllabic foot, it standing up introduced the slight knowledge metric and of trocaico Rate (_U) and yámbico (U_). Lomonósov in his Test on Metric of Russian poetries ( Pismo or pravilaj rossiiskogo stijotvorstva ) ( 1739 ) it introduced three types of rates: dactílico (_UU), anfibráquico (U_U) and anapéstico (UU_), as well as level Rhymes and esdrújulas.
The scientist Mijaíl Lomonósov (1711-1765) founded modern Russian Literature when being becoming the norms that were to govern the good taste of the literary Russian; he distinguishes three styles, the nobleman, of vocabulary link for the epic poem, Tragedy and Oda ; the means for Satire and Dramas and vulgar (with popular vocabulary) for the Comedy and Song . It wrote odas sacred, Panegíricos and one Epistle on the utility of the glass ( 1752 ).
The most important work of Aleksander Sumarokov is the tragedy Jorev ( 1747 ), although wrote other eight, 13 comedies, 3 libretos of opera and also some verses.
Esteem that the masterpiece of Mijaíl Jeraskov is its epic poem Rossiada ( 1778 ), but also composed 9 tragedies, 2 comedies and 5 dramas for the theater between 1758 and 1807.
Other remarkable writers of the period are poets Iván Jemnitser (1745-1784), Vasíli Kápnist (1758-1823), Iván Dmítriev (1760-1837), and the dramatist Yákov Kniazhnín (1742 (1740) - 1791). Denís Fonvizin (1745-1792) is a shining comediógrafo that in addition achieved important successes and replacements, winning at its same time a great popularity. The their best ones and more celebrated comedies are the Brigadier ( Brigadir ) ( 1768 ) and the minor ( Nedorosl ) ( 1782 ). These pieces ridicule the vanity, galomanía or rash copy of all the French and the laziness and delay of the landowners, as well as its avidity, gluttony and brutality; many appointments of their works were transformed into proverbial phrases and they are even used in the Russian language of nowadays.
Zarina Catherine II of Russia also owned literary talent and wrote some pieces of theater, for example Or tempora! ( Or vremia ), the engañador ( Obmanshchik ), seduced ( Obolschenny ), Chamán of Siberia ( Shaman Sibirski ) and some pieces but. In addition elaborated with good intelligent style Memories.
As far as the lyrical, they emphasize Derzhavin and Karamzín.
Gavrila Derzhavin (1743-1816) was influenced by Lomonósov and Sumarokov and was interested in the renovadores CONATO of Jeraskov; loving of the classic forms, its lyrical breath is sincere. Their works remember Felitsa ( 1782 ), God ( 1784 ), The thunderclap of the victory resonates! ( Grom pobedy, razdavaysya!, hymn nonofficial of imperial Russia) ( 1791 ), the cascade ( 1798 ) and the Life in Zvansk ( Zhizn Zvanskaya ) ( 1807 ). Derzhavin also underwent with different types rates and rhymes, sounds and images. Masón Nikolai Karamzín (1766-1826) reformed the literary language introducing many Gallicisms and suppressing to elements links, and so it abrió to a certain distance between the cultured Russian and the popular one. He was also an important historian and it modernized the Russian poetry. Thanks to Karamzín, the Russian sentimental novel was developed as of century XVIII. Their masterpieces are Poor Heddle ( Bednaya Heddle, the first sentimental novel in Russian Literature) ( 1792 ), the letters of a Russian traveller ( Pisma russkogo puteshestvennika ) ( 1791 - 1792 ) and History of the Russian State ( Istoriya gosudarstva Rossiyskogo ) ( 1816 - 1825 ), where it is for the first time tried to make history of Russia with the critical rigor and the method of the scientific historiography.
More indicated poetic manifestation in the Russian Literature of century XVIII " is the work; revolucionaria" of Aleksandr Radíshchev (1749-1802) Viaje from San Petesburgo to Moscow ( Puteshestvie iz Peterburga v Moskvu ) ( 1790 ). In that book its miserable life got along with the servants farmers describing and denouncing the cruel treatment whereupon the authorities and they treated them to the landowners; it used the compassion like revolution means and social transformation.
In century XVIII they appeared the first Russian literary magazines published by Nikolai Novikóv .
The literary life of first half of century XIX was very animated and varied. The Russian society of the time deeply was influenced by the Napoleonic wars and the victory of Russia in first first Patriotic War of 1812 . The ample layers of the population underwent the height of the patriotism and they were interested in the ideas of the French revolution. At this time they appeared diverse political and literary magazines: the Messenger of Europe ( Karamzin ), the Polestar ( Ryléyev ), the Contemporary (Pushkin) and, something later, the Telegraph of Moscow ( Polevoi ), the Telescope ( Nadezhdin ), etc. The spiritual life of the time exerted influence in the main literary currents. Romanticism in Russia was developed of two different ways: the supposed progressive romanticism represented by Kondrati Ryléyev, Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Aleksandr Bestúzhev (Marlinski), Aleksandr Odoyevski, Denís Davýdov (a hero of the War of 1812 ), Nikolai Yazýkov, Dmitri Venevitinov and Yevgeni Baratynski . The main subjects of their poetry are some of the events keys in Russian history, the Russian freedom, patriotism and some reasons folkloric. The blow in 1825 lasts more for the idealistic aspirations of the progressive romanticism was aimed by the defeat in rebellion of the decembristas, as a result of which many participants of the rebellion, like members of the noble families of Russia, public poets and figures, were executed or deportees to Siberia . The passive or traditional romanticism is represented by works of Vasili Zhukovski . Also, there is an authentic fight between western eslavófilos and.
Aleksandr Pushkin is raised on all the other Russian poets. It owned a universal genius; it reformed the literary Russian language breaking with the tradition of the century XVIII, esribía consomme's lyrical poems, epic poems ( Poltava, the bronze rider, Eugene Oneguin ), powerful verse plays ( Borís Godunov, Small tragedies ), prosa shining ( Stories of the deceased Iván Petróvich Belkin, the lady of goads, the daughter of the captain, Dubrovski ), verse stories ( Ruslán and Liudmila, Cuento of czar Saltán, Cuento of the dead princess and the seven horsemen ). One became the central figure of the Russian poetry of century XIX, eclipsing to other poets, talents that in other circumstances could have been the honor of any national Literature. Influenced by Pushkin, a series of poets assumed its missing voice just: Antón Délvig, Piotr Pletniov, Piotr Viázemski, Pável Katenin and some others, the call pushkiniana Pleiad .
After the tragic death of Pushkin the torch of Russian poetry by hand passed of Mijaíl Lérmontov . In his first poems imitated to Pushkin and Byron, but its poetic style held fast immediately, is perceived clearly in the change of subjects like, for example, in the poem the candle in which it speaks of a well-being that is only obtained fighting. In other poems it reflects with vehemence the thought and the feelings of the young students who rebel and show their indignation before the situation of the servant, the rejection of the czarist despotism and the enthusiastic aspiration by the freedom. Their more outstanding works are their lyrical verses, Valerik, Borodinó, the demon, the beginner, the drama the dance of masks, the novel a hero of our time .
Other remarkable poets of first half of century XIX are Iván Krylov the fabulista, poet and dramatist Aleksandr Griboyédov, poets Yevgeni Baratynski, Konstantín Bátiushkov, Alekséi Koltsov, Iván Kozlov, Piotr Pávlovich Yershov .
Prosa of first half of century XIX is represented by great novels of Pushkin, Lérmontov and by works of a genius but of Russian Literature - Nikolai Gógol . Their more outstanding works are the evenings of Dikanka, Tarás Bulba, the dead souls, the comedy the inspector .
Second half of century XIX saw emancipation of the servants of 1861, the national humiliation in War of Crimea and the triumphal victory in War Russian-Turk, 1877-1878 releasing to the Slavic people of the Balkan Mountains of the Turkish yoke. Altogether, the society deeply was influenced by the democratic and human ideas of the century.
The poetry of second half of century XIX is mainly philosophical and realística. The most remarkable poets of the moment are Nikolai Nekrásov, Fiódor Tiútchev, and Afanasi Fet . Other remarkable poets are Alekséi Konstantínovich Tolstói (that also wrote prosa and theater dramas), Apolón Maikov, Iván Nikitin, Alekséi Pleschéyev .
If first half of the century were the golden age of the Russian poetry, second half of the century was the golden age of prosa Russian. The giants of the time are Lev Tolstói, Fiódor Dostoyevski, Nikolai Leskov, Iván Turgénev, Mijaíl Saltykov-Shchedrín, Iván Goncharov, Dmitri Mamin-Sibiriak, Vladímir Korolenko, Antón Chéjov . Other remarkable writers are Sergéi Aksákov, Aleksandr Gertsen, Nikolai Chernyshevski, Kozma Prutkov (pseudonimo collective) the satirista, Dmitri Písarev, Alekséi Písemski, Gleb Uspenski, Konstantín Staniukovich, Vsévolod Garshin, Fiódor Reshétnikov . The most remarkable dramatist was Aleksandr Ostrovski . The advertizing Literature of century XIX was represented by works of Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolai Dobroliubov, Aleksandr Gertsen and Nikolai Ogariov .
In the last years of the century Nikolai Garin-Mijáilovski, Aleksandr Serafímovich, Aleksandr Kuprin, Iván Bunin, Leonid Andréyev left to literary scene.
The literary currents more known this period are Symbolism (represented by the traditional mystical Symbolism and young Symbolism - it is to say, works of Innokenti Annenski, Vladímir Soloviov (1853-1900), Vasili Rózanov (1856-1919), Dmitri Merezhkovski (1866-1941) and Zinaida Guippius, Konstantín Balmont (1867-1942), Valeri Briusov (1873-1924), Fiódor Sologub (1863-1927), Andréi Beli (1880-1934) and Aleksandr Blok (1880-1921), Viacheslav Ivánov and poets analogs by its spirit to symbolists - Maksimilián Voloshin, Mijaíl Kuzmin ), Futurismo ( David Burliuk, Velímir Jlebnikov, Alekséi Kruchiónij, first Vladímir Mayakovski, Vasili Kamenski, Igor Severianin (Igor Lotarev), first Nikolai Aséiev, Borís Pasternak ), Acmeísmo (first Ajmátova Anus, Nikolai Gumiliov, first Ósip Mandelshtam, Sergéi Gorodetski, Georgi Ivánov, Irina Odoyevtseva ). Poets of the called current `new farmers' - Nikolai Kliúyev, Sergéi Klychkov (1889-1937), Piotr Oreshin (1887-1938), Aleksándr Shiriayevets (1887-1924) - also deserve mention. They combined wealth of popular images and religious characteristics of the cosmovisión of the Russian farmer with a reckless search of innovation and revolutionary changes. There are numerous poets who cannot be given to some different literary current, for example Vladislav Jodasevich, or first Marine Tsvetáyeva .
The Russian symbolists used the ideas of Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche and Oswald Spengler, indicated interest by Mysticism and Occultism, by the religious disputes and the popular sects of Russia. The ideas of poets, writers and philosophers of the time varied of the acceptance of the superman of Nietzsche to the profession of animates mundi, of individualsmo extreme to “sobornost” (collective spirit). What all of them shared was an intensive search of new artistic forms and of a renewed poetic language. The symbolists put emphasis in the verbal aspect of the arquetípicos symbols, looking for the new harmony. futurist pleaded for a radical innovation of the language, trying the symbolism of the sounds and resorting to audacious experiments with the language. acmeístas advocated the clarity of the poetic images, announcing that a balance between the sense and the sound had to be reached. Different artistic groups arose with numerous literary manifestos. The most well-known and scandalous manifesto of the time was Slap to the taste of the public by the futurist ones (1912).
In prosa, the Russian writers of the period ( Andréi Beli, Leonid Andréyev, Fiódor Sologub, Alekséi Remizov ) used the technique of Flow of brings back to consciousness, alógica succession of episodes of disarticulated grammar and interlaced imagery raw, imitating new ways of the organization of texts similar to the rules of the cinematographic assembly.
The realistic writers ( Antón Chéjov, Iván Bunin, Aleksandr Kuprin, Iván Shmeliov, Borís Zaitsev, Alekséi Nikoláyevich Tolstói, Mijaíl Osorgin, Maksim Gorky ) also looked for new ways of expression and new literary forms. According to Vikenti Veresáyev, a literary theoretician of the time, its objective one was not it representation of the daily life and customs, but the understanding of the essence of the life through representation of the daily life, to find a life philosophy new. From you are, prosa got to be but lyrical, and the writers used the synthesis of prosa, music and philosophy (symbolist), prosa and social action (futurist).
Traditionally the philosophers of the Century of Silver are Nikolai Berdiáyev, Sergéi Bulgákov, Borís Vysheslavtsev, Semión Frank, Nikolai Loski, Fiódor Stepun, Piotr Struve, Vladímir Ilin, Lev Karsavin, Pável Florenski, Lev Shestov, Sergéi Trubetskói and Yevgeni Trubetskói, Vladímir Ern, Alekséi Lósev, Gustavo Shpet, Dmitri Merezhkovski and Vasili Rózanov . The works of Helena Blavatsky were read and known well in Russia of the period.
The Century of Silver was finished with the arrival of the new era - with the formation of first been Soviet that proclaimed new ideals and was intolerant to all who `did not go to the step'.
After October of 1917 most of the writers of the Age of Silver did not approve the new regime Bolshevik and left the country, the majority for always. These writers began to the Russian Literature of I exile ( is seen Russian Literature of I exile ).
Who on the contrary chose to remain in Russia to share the destiny of the country and its compatriots arrived at the apogee of their creative freedom; but it happened just a short time so that their convictions and hopes in the future of the country entered collision with the reality of the ordinary life and many were executed or assassinated slowly by the terrible lack of almost everything that was during Russian Civil War, not being able to publish nothing or undergoing intimidation to be condemned a total silence. The writers who do not support the revolution of unconditional form are eliminated, put in a corner, emigrated, marginalized or ninguneados. Of a way or another one, the new Soviet state was responsible for the death of Aleksandr Blok, Velímir Jlebnikov, Nikolai Gumiliov, Ósip Mandelshtam, Nikolai Kliúyev, Lev Karsavin, Pável Florenski, Marine Tsvetáyeva and many others. The circumstances of the death of Sergéi Yesenin and Vladímir Mayakovski until now have still not been clarified and are today suspicious.
At the same time, the first period of the new Soviet time was characterized by the great proliferation of diverse esthetic currents, poetic voices and literary experiments. In this time numerous literary groups coexisted that discussed, competed and changed their members, generally, in a short time. Inside also from the historical Vanguards, arose Imaginismo founded by Vadim Shershenevich (1893-1942), that vindicated the priority of the image or Metaphor on Symbol and the return to the traditional poetry; was cultivated by Borís Pasternak (whose poetry emphasizes over his prosa), Sergéi Yesenin, Rurik Ivnev (1891-1981) and Anatoli Mariengof ).
imaginistas proved new unexpected Metaphors, thinking that the surprise of the images was the final mission of the metaphorical art. The talents of Yesenin and Borís Pasternak arrived at their summit. The prerevolutionary poetic current of Acmeísmo still continued. Ajmátova Anus still wrote poems, although their publications were little and later they stopped. followed Futurismo and Kubofuturismo (" Guiléia") ( Vladímir Mayakovski, Velímir Jlebnikov, Borís Pasternak, Víktor Shklovski, Alekséi Kruchiónij (1886-1968)) they bloomed until certain time. They appeared new groups like OBERIU ( Nikolai Zabolotski, Daniíl Jarms ) and dadaístas “nichevoki”. In the humanity history the writers could for the first time take part in the creation from a completely new world, and they took the opportunity. For example, Velímir Jlebnikov created Poetry zaum or transmental Poetry (magic, enchantment to the way of the Asian wizards). It is necessary to notice the mammoth figure of the poet and dramatist Vladímir Mayakovski, that put its talent to the service of the Revolution. Marine Tsvetáyeva in continued the tradition of Ajmátova much and their poems were the last manifestation of Age of Silver . The poetry of geniuses like Mayakovski, Yesenin, Ajmátova, Pasternak, Tsvetáyeva exceeds the limits of groups or literary currents.
Outside these famous groups they also existed " brothers Serapión” ( Vsévolod Ivánov, Mijaíl Slonimski (1897-1972), Mijaíl Zoschenko, Veniamín Kaverin, Konstantín Fedin, Nikolai Tijonov ), “Pereval” (headed by the literary critic Aleksandr Voronski and including poet Eduard Bagritski, writers Mijaíl Prishvin and Andréi Platónov and many others), and associations of proletarian writers pro-communistas - Proletkult, RAPP (for example, Dmitri Furmanov, Aleksandr Fadéyev and many others), LEF (Ósip Brik, Nikolai Aseiev, Alekséi Kruchiónij, by some time Borís Pasternak and some others).
Those groups differ from the previous ones in the following thing: The brothers Serapión and “Pereval” pleaded for human values in the art universal and common to all the nations, whereas other groups as RAPP and LEF defended the existence of a criterion of social Class in Literature.
Members of Proletkult, RAPP and LEF thought that Literature and art had a clasista character, and, consequently, the works of art created by nonproletarian artists had to be left and to be forgotten, because they were other people's to the new society and " people nueva". Constructivism (1923-1930) ( Iliá Selvinski (1899-1968); Vladímir Lugovskói (1901-1957)) it sang the transition of the capitalist State to the Socialist and the triumph of the proletariado one and was first esthetic lyrical own of Proletkult or " culture proletaria" ; this tried to create an essentially proletarian art and that raised the collective work; the poets sing to the Revolution, the machines and the workers. The members of “Pereval”, on the contrary, proclaimed that the main function of art was the knowledge of the world, the main merit of a literary work is not the clasista content, but the artistic quality; they proclaimed the continuity of the art from the old times to the present time.
From 1925 two literary groups face: `poputchiki' or writers who attended and accompanied the revolution, and grouped in the well-known Association panrusa by the abbreviation of RAPP, maintained by the State. These last ones fight against the group of " Serapión" brothers;, against constructivist and the diverse schools of vanguard, protesting less formalista and more vulgar and reasonable Literature to the masses in bottom and it forms. Something as well as the schools of sandalwood and the cabbage in the Literature of the Socialrealismo of year 1955 in Spain. In 1932, however, the groups practically were prohibited and all the writers received " proposición" to get up in Union of Soviet Writers, and the bureaucratic administration in the literary world began. In thirty Russia was isolated of the entire world by steel Curtain, and began the physical extermination of the writers and disagreeable artists for the regime, without outside possible no other emigraсión.
Main the literary currents of the period were New realism (the difference again realism and the classic Realism of the century XIX consists of which those realists despised the calmed private life, a man is integral part of the social life, man changing the world actively. The main representatives of the current are Maximum Gorky, Mijaíl Shólojov, Alekséi Nikoláyevich Tolstói, Konstantín Fedin ), normativismo (social utopia, the social thing is superior to the personnel, an ideal man in ideal circumstances, the reality must be scorned and be destroyed for the beautiful future. The main representative of the current is Aleksandr Fadéyev ), modernismo or postrealism (looking for the sense of the human life in the existential horror of the world, that opposition of the man and chaos being tragic, but revealing the essence of the man and its price) ( Yevgeni Zamiatin, Yuri Olesha, Borís Pilniak, Andréi Platónov ). They continued the traditions of the modernismo of the Age of Silver and affirmed the right of the man to the private life). In 1932 the new term - ` socialist Realism ' appeared, fusing the ideas of the realism new and normativismo.
However, between prosistas writers more outstanding of the time among (the 20-30) can appoint the following writers outstanding works of those who are of interest for the humanity: the writer and publicist Iliá Erenburg, prosistas Maximum Gorky, Borís Pilniak, Mark Agéyev, Mijaíl Bulgákov, Olga Forsh, Alekséi Nikoláyevich Tolstói, Konstantín Fedin, Andréi Platónov, Borís Lavreniov, Yuri Olesha, Valentin Katáiev, Veniamín Kaverin, Pável Bazhov, Borís Shergín, Gleb Alekséyev, satiristas and humorists Mijaíl Zoshchenko, Ilf and Petrov, writers whom in essence they described acts of Red Army in the Russian Civil War Isaak Babel, Dmitri Furmanov, Aleksandr Fadéyev, Nikolai Ostrovski, Aleksandr Serafímovich, writers of the science-fiction and social fiction Aleksandr Beliáyev, Yevgeni Zamiatin, Vladímir Obruchev, Aleksandr Chaianov, tragic and romantic Aleksandr Grin . They appeared writers who described to the rustic life and the nature of Russia, for example Mijaíl Prishvin, Yevgeni Charushin . Some writers now put to infantile Literature - and works of Kornéi Chukovski, Arkadi Gaidar, Kasil Leon, Andréi Nekrasov, " The three gordos" of Yuri Olesha and " Solitaria" whitens the candle; of Valentin Katáiev, poems of Samuil Marshak, Sergéi Mijalkov are between more favorite infantile books. The historical novel was developed by Vasili Yan, Alekséi Nóvikov-Priboi, Sergéi Sergéyev-Tsenski, Anatoli Stepanov, Yuri Tynianov, Viacheslav Shishkov, Maria Marich . Those writers explored the relations between history and the person, analyzing the paper of person in history. The most met dramatists the period Nikolai Pogodin is, Vsévolod Vishnevski .
In thirty first poems of Aleksandr Tvardovski and Mijaíl Isakovski appeared.
During the time, most of the emigrated writers embraced temporarily the cause of Russia given the difficult circumstances that the country crossed.
In this period he returned to Russian Literature the current man like literary personage: modest heroes and of contradictory character.
The best works of the period are Vasili Tiorkin, of Aleksandr Tvardovski ; the calm Don, of Mijaíl Shólojov ; the son of the regiment, Valentin Katáyev ; the Young Guard, of Aleksandr Fadéyev ; Invasion and the car of gold, Leonid Leonov ; the star, of Emmanuil Kazakevich; the Dazzling poem of Pulkovo, Inber Side; the story of a true man, Borís Polevói; the drama Russian people and the poem books With you and without you and War, of Konstantín Símonov; the poem Son, of Pável Antokolski, Zoya, of Aliger Daisy ; the piece of theater Dragoon, Yevgeni Shvarts ; and the historical novel young Russia, of Yuri Guerman . After the war the authorities exerted one lasts repression, and until the death of Stalin the State took part frequently in the literary creation.
The famous novel Doctor Zhivago of Borís Pasternak was published, and the prohibited poets of the Age of Russian Silver and the Twenties, including Yesenin, Zamiatin and Nabokov, gradually recovered the readers.
In the poetry, we can speak of some new currents and new groups:
• Supposed `poetry of the stages', whose representatives are Yevgeni Yevtushenko, Andréi Voznesenski, Robert Rozhdestvenski and Beautiful Ajmadulina . Those poets look for the life and the poetry that call conscientiously, gentleness, firmness of the soul, energy, and the truth of the life. Its poetry was the social poetry directed mainly to the young people of the Sixties, that deeply wanted changes.
• `Poets (cantautores) with guitars' - `translates into Romance of the cities' ( Bulat Okudzhava ) proclaiming humanitarismo, gentleness, heard to the daily life with its deprived comedies and tragedies, and `bards (cantautores) with knapsacks' ( Yuri Kukin, Yevgeni Kliachkin, Aleksandr Gorodnitski, Yuri Vizbor and others). “Bards with knapsacks” called to the independent life, to take to the practice romantic values and… to escape from the comfortable cities to the life in the nature, where a man is freer than in the city and proves his forces and capacity to be alive and determines his inner resources.
Those currents also pleaded for romantic values, friendship, mutual aid, personal responsibilidad of each man living for the evil of the world, pleaded for ardent character, moral maximalismo, resigning all moral commitment, in the social life and the private life.
• `Represented low poets', first of all, by Nikolai Rubtsov with its interest to the life of the village, raízes historical morals and of the nation, tradition and nature, popular philosophy.
• Neovanguardia - neofuturismo ( Vladimir Kazakov, Victor Sosnora, Gennadi Aigi and others) and Lianozovo group (neon-OBERIU) ( Oleg Grigoriev, Igor Jolin, Vsévolod Nekrasov ) that ways drew up to conceptualism.
In prosa, we can also emphasize some currents, more or less, or rather, some courses of the development.
• Some remarkable epic novels were written to the end of the socialist realism - alive and deads ( Zhivye i Miortvye ), the trilogy of Konstantín Simónov (during 60-s the first two parts (the best ones) were published), the destiny of a man ( Sudbá cheloveka ) of Mijaíl Shólojov, Life and destiny ( Zhizn and sudbá ) of Vasili Grossman .
• A new tendency in the representation of WORLD WAR II appeared - supposed prosa lyrical of the front or prosa of soldiers. The main representatives of the tendency are Yuri Bondarev, Grigori Baklanov, Víktor Astáfiev . They raised the question of the price of a single human life during the War between piles of the victims and losses, directed to the human values and studied the depths of moral decay of a man in the cruel conditions of the War.
• Prosa of the village - Brother and brother ( Bratia and siostry ) of Fiódor Abrámov, the first story collections of Vasili Shukshin and the first novels of Piotr Proskurin . • Neosentimentalismo or classic realism (the known representative more is Yuri Kazakov ) that had finally kind representation of movements of the soul, intense psicologismo.
• Movismo (mauvism) of Valentin Katáyev .
• Postrealismo - a day in the life of Iván Denísovich, the first circle, the pavilion of the cancer of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the first books of Varlam Shalamov .
• Fantastic realism, whose representatives are Andréi Siniavski (Abrám Terts) and Yuli Daniel (Nikolai Arzhák).
We can mention works of the writers who belonged to the other national cultures, but also wrote in Russian - a great writer in Russian and kirguís Chingiz Aitmatov and a great writer of Belarus Vasil Bykau . Their works in Russian became an organic part of Russian Literature.
The Russian science-fiction also raises the new height in the Sixties with almost publicísticas novels of Iván Yefrémov and first books of Arkadi and Borís Strugatski .
In publicística Literature, of the Sixties and deserve mention books of Valentin Katáyev Strength of Brest ( Bréstskaia krepost ) of Sergéi Smirnov .
Infantile Literature is representeada by the favorite books of Ágnia Bartó, Vitali Gúbarev, Nikolai Nósov, Lev Davydychev, Borís Zajoder, Anatoli Rybakóv, Valeri Medvédev, Yevgeni Veltistov that resist time.
In dramatic art, the best dramatists of the period are Aleksandr Vampilov, Yevgeni Shvarts, Víktor Rozov, Alekséi Arbuzov .
In poetry one several dog speak of new trends and groups:
• Neoacmeismo - represented by Aresni Tarkovski, Semion Lipkin, Beautiful philosophical Ajmadulina and continuing the, complex, Word-perfect tradition of the Silver Age. They preached universal personnel ties with everything, explored the visages of culture and its role in forming and `keeping to together' to human personality.
• `Poets with guitars' - Vladímir Vysotski, Aleksandr Galich . These poets often used the method of grotesque to criticize the contemporary life, but sometimes to their poetry is marked with unprecedented tragic lyricism, psicologismo and total identification with heroes of their verses (welded of WORLD WAR II, artists, gamberros (Vysotski)). They were the country' s conscience of the 70s. Galich was forced to emigrate, Vysotski died prematurely.
• The trend of the `quiet poets' was continued, first of all, by Yuri Kuznetsov exploring the tragedy of the traditional Russian village life and its VALUEs, and to their gradual passing away. Their poetry is marked with melancholy lyricism and searches of God in the daily life.
• Neovanguardia - neofuturismo (V.Aigi) and Lianozovo group (neon-OBERIU) (Oleg Grigoriev, Igor Jolin, Vsévolod Nekrásov) that paved the way to conceptualism continued to their creative search.
• First verses of poets of Russian rock (principles of 1980-s) - `young angry' striving for their right to differ in views, aesthetics and style from the officially recognized models.
We dog also single out Igor Guberman, an outstanding poet, who resorted to grotesque in his poetry too. Satirical His biting cuartetas also made him person non burnishes in the literary world, and there am had to leave for Israel.
We dog also speak of to trend in poetry that dog roughly sees called neoromaticism - Bulat Okudzhava, Yuri Vizbor, Yevgeni Bachurin, Aleksandr Dolski, Yunna Morits, Tatiana and Sergéi Nikitin and some others. Intellectual Theirs is to “quiet” poetry, sometimes to bit sad and ironic, to clever, very lyrical, and exisiting mostly in the form of songs, well-known and much loved even now.
Yevgeni Yevtushenko and Andréi Voznesenski continues writing, but to their poetry gets less social resonance than in the 60-s.
In prose one dog speak of the evolution, or to rather gradual disintegration of the socialist realism and return to critical realism.
• On this wave there appeared to new trend in prose - `popular epic' ( Anatoli Ivanóv Вечныйзов, Piotr Proskurin, Fiódor Abrámov ). Several Their works explored the lives of generations of Russian families, mostly peasant ones and to their fate in the Russia `reared' by the revolution and martyred in WORLD WAR II and the modern cotodiana life. These writers closely look AT the moral moral nerve and VALUEs that enabled the people to survive and win, but they gift' t idealize the people. They were the first to see that to satiated life harbors its own dangers - `cardiac insufficiency', looks for of benefits, forgetfulness of values ether to us, moral deafness. Close to this trend is `prosa of the village' represented now by Vasili Belov, Valentin Rasputin, Víktor Astáfiev, Vasili Shukshin, with to their characters intensely searching for `something dwells', for the sense of life, for justifying its existence.
• Prosa military is now represented by Borís Vasíliev, Vitali Zakrutkin, Víktor Astáfiev, Yuri Bondarev, Viacheslav Kondratiev . Possible The writers try to find what made it to stay human amongst the bloody slaughter of to war, pay to their homage to ordinary people who didn' t let themselves become dehumanized.
• We dog also speak of to further development of movismo (mauvism) represented by to later and dwells mature works of Valentin Katáyev . Mauvism is to curious blend of quasi-documentary parts, vision, dreams with the free movement through Time in any direction.
It' s hard to label the prosaics of the Time ace belonging to this or that literary trend. Nevertheless, we should single out such outstanding writers ace Vladímir Voinovich, Fazil Iskander, Vasili for Aksiónov who preferred the method of grotesque studying the absurdity of to totalitarian myths, advanced Yuri Trifonov and Gavriíl Troepolski in his white Bim black ear intelligently exposing and exploring the moral deafness, depreciation of values in the homemade life, Vladímir Tendriakov and Yuri Dombrovski with to their brave revelation of the injustice of the Soviet regime with almost realistic methods but being used parabolas, mystical postrealism of Vladímir Orlov and Anatoli Kim . The theme of "Gulag" archipelago; is to further explored by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Varlam Shalamov . Historical Prosa is represented by the novels of Valentin Pikul, Dmitri Balashov, Alekséi historical Yugov examining the progress of Russia.
Pedagogical There also appeared the under-called trend in prose - these plows novels and adolescent stories examining the psychology of, to their maturing and socialization and problems of to their interaction with the adults. For These works also present the question of the adults' responsibility adolescents' failure and lack of VALUEs. This trend is represented by the works of Albert Lijanov, Simon Soloveichik, Borís Vasíliev, and Vladímir Zheleznikov .
We dog also say that the period gave rise to Russian postmodernism in literature, the most outstanding postmodernist writers of the Time being Venedikt Yeroféyev, Sasha Sokolov and Andréi Bitov .
This is the Time of science blossoming fiction socila and filoslofica - mature works of Arkadi and Borís Strugatski, Olga Larionova, Kir Bulychov, Sever Gansovski, space fiction of Sergéi Snegov . These works stand Officers' Club of Revolutionary Armed Forces stupefies pastime reading, analyzing human nature untimely, raising philosophical issues and exploring different social models.
Children's literature is represented by the well-loved books by Vladislav Krapivin, Kir Bulychov, Eduard Uspenski who created Cheburashka .
In dramatic art the best dramatists of the Time were Aleksandr Vampilov, Grigori Gorin, Aleksandr Gelman, Edvard Radzinski, Georgi Polonski, Aleksandr Volodin, Mijal Shatrov .
Literature in Russian of the Time created by non-Rusiian writers is represented by mature works of Chingiz Aitmatov and Vasil Bykau, ace well ace by new documentary prose of Ales Adamovich and prosa military confesionaria and of multitude of voices of Svetlana Aleksiévich, both Bielorussian. Their works not only have become to treasured part of Russian literature, but have influenced Russian literature greatly.
In the second half of the 80-s the crisis of the Soviet ideology became very acute and all-embracing, giving rise to new post-Soviet literature. In this period the iron curtain went down to altogether and Russian literature in emigration returned to Russia. It dog sees said that the streams of Russian literature and Russian literature in emigration join from that Time on.
Usual ace in the crisis periods, literature turns to exposing ills and pathologies bordering on physiological naturalism and to carries far pessimism and dissecting every manifestation of life into components. That is why literature of the mid 80s- beginning of the 21st century there are earned in Russian the yam of `chernuja and pornuja' - black Literature and of pornographic. There appeared to neon-naturalistic trend in prose represented, e., by Anatoli Azolski and Sergei Kaledin. Texts denouncing the Soviet official system and ideology were under numerous that one could almost speak of to new `ideology', opposite to the Soviet one. But gradually, with new hopes for Russia, literature becomes dwells variegated.
In poetry the most noticeable trends plows:
• Conceptualism ( Dmitry Prigov, Lev Rubinstein, Timur Kibirov ). Verbal The underlying principle of conceptualism is `playing' with realities and cliches of socialism and to their reductio ad absurdum.
• Neobarocco, which is best represented by the works of Yelena Shvarts, Ivan Zhdanov and Aleksei Parschikov .
• There appeared to new artisitic group “Mitki” - Vladimir Shinkariov, Mijail Sapego, Olga and Aleksandr Florenski, Dmitri Shagin, Boris Grebenschikov cultivating naïve sentimentality, deliberate simplicity and triviality. Most of the leading rock poet of the 90-s were dwells or less associated with the group. Mitki wrote prose and poetry, painted and cultivated to special style of life.
• Poets of Russian rock - but known they are Aleksandr Bashlachov, Boris Grebenschikov, Yuri Shevchuk, Víktor Tsoi, Yanka Dyagileva .
• Of interest also plows poems by Karen Dzhangirov, Dmitri Bykov, Ivan Ajmetiev, Bajyt Kenzheiev, Vladimir Vishnevski .
In the recent years the Internet community is developing fast in Russia and to new phenomenon - literature interactivates Net there are appeared.
Post-modernist prose is prevailing in this period - the trend is best represented by the novels of Tatiana Tolstoi, Valeria Narbikova, Víktor Pelevin, Viacheslav Pietsuj, Viktor Yerofeiev, Dmitri Lipskerov, Pavel Krusanov, Vladimir Orlov, Anatoli Koroliov, Anatoli Kim, Vladimir Voinovich, Vasili Aksiónov, Dmitri Bykov . The pleases of Boris Akunin among post-modernists dog sees argued, but AT the same Time the critics agree that his is to quality prose masking ace detective stories. Russian post-modernists in their poetics reflected the end of century crisis of literature. The crisis manifested itself in the loss of trust in different things - culture, language, utopia, AT the same Time post-modernists experience to certain for nostalgia the beliefs lost.
Realist writing is going through to radical change, which dog sees proven by the last novels of Víktor Astáfiev, Anatoli Rybakov (Deti Arbata) and Georgi Vladimov .
Post-realism is represented by the works of Ludmila Ulitskaia, Rubina Dyne, Olga Slavnikova, Sergei Dovlatov, Vladimir Makanin, Ludmila Petrushevskaia, Fridrich Gorenshtein, Aleksei Slapovski, Galina Scherbakova, Efraim Sevela .
The most doubtful and scandalous serious writers of the Time plows Yuz Aleshkovski, Yuri Mamleiev, Vladimir Sorokin wallowing in all sorts of bodily fluids, atrocities, and obscene language.
Historical Nobel is mostly developed by Dmitri Balashov and Boris Vasiliev, who turn to their gaze to the early epochs of Russian history, examining the country' s rises and falls.
Social philosophical And science fiction is also flourishing, represented by the works of Arkadi and Borís Strugatski, Aleksandr Gromov, Oleg Divov, Henry Oldie Lemon, Yelena Jaietskaia, Viacheslav Rybakov, Vladimir Mijailov, Yevgeni Lukin, Sviatoslav Loginov, Eduard Gevorkian, Boris Shtern, Sergei Siniakin, Jolm van Zaichik, Vladimir Jlumov, Dmitri Bykov, Andrei Stoliaróv, Aleksandr Yetoev, Leonid Kaganov . This is quality literature, that shouldn' t sees discriminated against just because of the genre, ace it' s often difficult to say where post-modernist or post-realist games end and mass literature begins. To very popular sci-fi to writer is Sergéi Lukiánenko, but there are is gradually becoming dwells and dwells commercially oriented. One could also mention the marvelous pairable novels of the Marine Ukranian writers and Sergei Dyachenko, writing mostly in Russian. The genre of fantasy there are sprung up in Russia, in the sub-genre of the under-called `Slav fantasy' Maria Semionova is the leading to writer.
Children's literature is represented, first of all, by the well-loved books of `bad advice' by Grigori Oster .
The drama of the Time is represented by post-modernist theater of Venedikt Yerofeiev, Young Sadur, neonaturalism of Nikolai Koliada evolving in the direction of neosentimentalism, post-realistic plays of Ludmila Petrushevskaia .
|Random links:||Church of San Agustín (Valladolid) | Day of the three governors | Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo | Nexus (cómic) | Windows for Fundamentals Legacy PCs|