Jose Ortega and Gasset ( Madrid, 9 of May of 1883 - Madrid, 18 of October of 1955 ), Philosopher and Spanish essay writer, main exponent of the theory of Perspectivismo and historical vital Reason and.


Been born in a accommodated Madrilenian family pertaining to the circle of the high bourgeoisie of the place, between 1891 and 1897 would study in the School Jesuit of San Estanislao de Miraflores of the Wood, in Malaga . His Galician maternal grandfathers, Eduardo Gasset and Artime, had founded the newspaper Impartial, that later his father, Jose Munilla Grouse, would happen to direct.

Thus, he is possible to emphasize that Ortega and Gasset grew up in a cultured, very tie atmosphere to the world of the media and the policy. Its university stage begins with its incorporation to the studies of University of Deusto, Bilbao (1897-98) and continues in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of Central University of Madrid ( 1898 - 1904 ).

Doctor in Philosophy of the University of Madrid ( 1904 ) with its work the terrors of year thousands. Between 1905 and 1907 realized studies in Germany : Leipzig, Nuremberg, Colony, Berlin and, mainly, Marburgo . In this last one, one was influenced by Neokantismo of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, among others.

From return to Spain permanent professor of Psicología, Logical is appointed and ethical of School Superior of the Teaching of Madrid ( 1909 ), and in October of 1910 gains by opposition the Metaphysical chair of of the Central, vacant University after the death of Nicholas Salmerón .

After marrying with Pink Spottorno, in 1914 is born in Madrid its daughter, Solitude Spottorno Grouse, who in 1978 will create Foundation Jose Ortega and Gasset, of that will be its president of honor. In 1918 will be born its son Jose Spottorno Grouse, that will be Engineer Agronomist .

Collaborator of the newspaper the Sun from 1917, where he publishes under the form of folletones two important works: invertebrate Spain and the rebellion of the masses . During II Republic is chosen deputy by Province of Leon, position in which remained during a year. On 1923 founds Magazine of the West, being its director until 1936 . From this publication it will promote the translation and commentary of the most important philosophical and scientific tendencies in names such as: Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, Bertrand Russell and others. (On the matter he sees himself, of Evelyne Lopez Campillo, the Magazine of the West and the formation of minorities (1923-1936), Taurus Editorial, Madrid, 1972).

When Spanish Civil War began in July of 1936, Grouse was patient in its address; hardly three days after the beginning of the fight, several Communists armed of pistols appeared in their address that demanded their company/signature on the foot of a manifesto against the revolt and in favor of the republican Government. Grouse refused to receive them and was its daughter the one that in a conversation with them - conversation that, as she herself related later, got to be very tense, was able to convince them to write up another politicized very short text less and than, indeed, finished being signed by Grouse, along with Gregorio Marañón, Ramon Perez de Ayala and other intellectuals. In his Prolog for English, written already in I exile, talks about Grouse to this episode. In that same month of July and in spite of its serious disease, it left Spain (what Eduardo obtained thanks to the protection of his brother, person of valimiento near diverse political groups of left) and it was exiled; first in Paris, soon in Holland and Argentina, until to 1942 determined its residence in Lisbon . From 1945 its presence in Spain was frequent, but being prevented him to reclaim its chair, it chose to found a “Institute of Humanities” where it gave its lessons. During these years, and until their death in 1955, it was outside Spain - on everything in Germany, where it received the credit and the opportunities of expression that corresponded to their prestige.

Ortega and Gasset exerted a great influence in the Spanish philosophy of century XX not only by the thematic one of its philosophical work, but also by its agile literary style, described by some like next to Quijote, that allowed him to arrive easily at the general public.



In the world

The world of century XX is characterized to walk between technological progresses, concentration of capitals, different imperialistic appetites and their warlike consequences, contradictions between the liberal and apparently parliamentary regimes and the resistance of already been out of phase social, political and ideological structures of Old Regime .

During this century the cinema, is born Cubism of Picasso . The great German companies begin to sweep several European sectors of market whereas in America the Americans overflow to France in the production of the automobile.

The labor movement grows, and consequently they are born Divided from Germany Social-Democratic and Labor Party British. France already has become definitively the model of bourgeois, democratic and lay state, whereas in Russia explodes Revolution of October .

The scientific thought takes huge steps that foretell the new era: Max Planck develops its quantum theory, Einstein his Theory of relativity, Landsteiner discovers human the sanguineous groups, Ramon and Cajal demonstrates in 1901 the structure of the nervous weave and the neurons, and in the same year Freud publishes its work Psychopathology of the daily life .

Since there are saying, one is a time of imperialistic anxiety. They appear numerous colonial empires. The great powers annex more than 17 million squared kilometers of other continents, with million populations.

In Spain

But Spain is not at the same level that these powers. In fact, more than to gain territories it loses, them, in the 98 Desastre of, beginning therefore a new time of political and ideological crisis.

From the birth of Grouse in 1883 to their death in 1955 forms from State follow one another in Spain different. is born during the reign from Alfonso XII in the heat of Bourbon restoration. Two years later, in 1885, the king dies and begins the stage of regency of his second wife, Maria Cristina. In this period the turnista system proposed by Cánovas of the Castle stays back years. This system would bring a stage of growth and development to the country, but it meant a great political corruption that would accelerate the crisis. Since there are saying, in 1898 the call takes place the 98 Desastre of, the loss of the Spanish colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. This, next to the political crisis, will start up a movement, Regeneracionismo that proposes to appear again ideological and political of the country for a later economic reform.

But Grouse is not properly regeneracionista, but Generation of 14 or novecentista belonged to, generation with a point of view more positive than the one of its antecedents of the 98.

In 1923 the commander in chief of Catalonia, Miguel Primo de Rivera revolts against the government and gives a coup d'etat endorsed by the crown. This blow tried, officially, to end the war of Morocco, that already had become a considerable problem. Nevertheless, it did not persecute this aim, Desastre de Annual solely, or defeat of Annual, in more impersonal terms, was object of investigation on the part of the government, with the purpose of to clarify the causes of the event, the causes aimed directly at I exercise and the monarchy, substance in this, next to possible ideological interests against the height of the socialism after the Revolution of 1917, that Primo de Rivera carried out the coup d'etat in 1923.

After the economic crisis of 1927, accentuated in 1929, the violent repression of workers and intellectuals and the lack of syntony between the bourgeoisie and the dictatorship it will be the object at issue from which all the opposition in August of 1930 in the call is united Pact of San Sebastián . After the resignation of Primo de Rivera, the governments of Dámaso Berenguer (denominated “dictablanda”) and of Juan Baptist Aznar-Cabins will not make another thing that to prolong the decay momentarily, until in the municipal elections of 1931 the king, still having left victorious, decides to march, proclaiming the 14 of April Second Spanish Republic .

This one will happen through different government formation. It begins with the stage of the social-azañista biennium, a period of numerous reforms of all nature; after this stage the biennium arrives radical-cedista, characterized by the cancellation of the previous reforms and a series of measures of repression for the different revolutions, among them the one of Asturias in the 1934.

Following you rule of Komintern, several parties of lefts are united in denominated In front Popular, that is conceived like an antifascist front. It will govern, officially, from the 1936 to the 1939. But the 17 of July of 1936 the coup d'etat in Melilla takes place, whose ambiguous result, which had mainly to the resistance of the popular classes, will give rise to Spanish Civil War .

This one was an introduction of World War II that shortly after would take place in the rest of Europe, given the confrontation between the two main ideologies that coexisted at the moment. Aside from the drama that supposed the civil conflict, the triumph of the incited to rebellion forces directed by the Frank general supposed the establishment of a dictatorship of the army that would last 36 years.


In the century XX Europe one struggled between two currents of thought: Vitalismo and Historicismo . From the vitalismo it is considered that the essence of the reality is not reduced to the pure reason, but to a fundamental original principle, that is the life. The historicismo, arisen in Germany maintains that history is the most important element them human beings, happening of the things referred to the individual being or the community generally. The human being is history, and he is constituted throughout the time. As a result of these tendencies the concepts of vital reason and historical reason arose in the orteguiana philosophy.

In Spain Krausismo acquired special importance, movement of cultural renovation promoted by Giner of the Rivers and Free Institution of Education . This it followed the generation to him of the 98, characterized by its preoccupation by Spain. In this respect, they left from a pessimistic vision of the present Spanish, caused by its deep moral crisis. Of this generation it honors an original thinker, asystematic and solitary, Miguel de Unamuno, that picks up in its works subjects of Kierkegaard when this era practically unknown in Europe.


is united to the word “Circumstance ”, that Grouse makes famous in its expression: “ I am I and my circumstance, and if safe it to her I to me do not save ”. ( Meditations of the Quijote, 1914). Perspectivismo maintains the essential principles of his in later periods of its thought.

From the subject of our time develops “ Raciovitalismo ”, theory that founds the knowledge on human Life like radical Reality, one of whose essential components Reason is own .

For Grouse, the human life is the radical reality, that is to say, that one in which other reality appears and arises all, including any philosophical, real or possible system. Each human being Life takes a concrete form.

Vital Reason denominates “ ” to a new type of reason - in the rigor, the oldest and primary, and “raciovitalismo” to the way of Pensar that it leans in his new concept of reason. The vital reason is a reason that is realized constantly in the life to which he is inherent.

The perspectivismo

Perspectivismo or “indoctrinates of the point of view” is a philosophical doctrine that maintains that all perception and ideación are subjective. The individual sight from a concrete point of view, in an own direction.

For Grouse, the perspective is the form that adopts the reality for the individual. This does not make him fall in the subjetivismo, because for him each subject has its own form to accede to the reality, its own part really, that even can be contradictory with the one of the others.

The absolute, absolute truth, is the sum of the individual perspective, that, that is why, are true partially. This absolute truth would reside in which we called God .

Vital reason

vital Reason is the reason that raises Grouse, replacing cartesian pure Reason of the philosophical tradition. This Integra reason all the exigencies of the life, teaches to the priority of this and its fundamental categories to us. Each culture peculiarities of or subject does not do without, but it makes the rationality with the life compatible.

The vital reason is the key principle of Raciovitalismo .

I and my circumstance

With the phrase “ I am I and my circumstance ”, Grouse insists on which is around the man, everything what it surrounds to him, not only the immediate thing, but the remote thing; not only the physicist, but the historical thing, the spiritual. The man, according to Grouse, is the problem of the life, and understands by somewhat concrete, incomparable, unique life: “ the life is individual ”; that is to say, I in the world; and that world is not properly a thing or a sum of them, but a scene, because the life is tragedy or drama, something that the man does and happens to him with the things. To live is to deal with the world, to go to him, to act in him, to take care of him. In other terms, the surrounding reality “ forms the other half of my person ”. And the reprinting of the surrounding thing is the radical and concrete destiny of the human person.

The man is a being who is immersed, submerged in a circumstance (or nature), which presents/displays different conceptions to him from his physical and mental state. Therefore he lets to the man the mission satisfy them. In the fulfillment of such task, he adds Grouse, he is that the man creates Technical, that, according to this great author, we can define as “ the reform that the man imposes to the nature in view of the satisfaction of his needs ”. Ortega and Gasset defined the man as “ to be composed of circumstantial realities created by the opacity in the form to think and the sedentarismo like inspiring source of the neothinking cultures incapable to forget the tenseness that usurps the set of the wisdom ”.

Influence in other thinkers

It exerted remarkable influence in investigators, theologians and writers like Antonio Machado, Luis To marry, Ignacio Ellacuría, Manuel Garci'a Morente, Pedro Digging Moor, Joaquin Xirau, Xavier Zubiri, Jose Gaos, Luis Recaséns Siches, Manuel Granell, Francisco Ayala, Maria Zambrano, Pedro Laín Entralgo, Jose Luis Lopez-Aranguren, Miguel Reale, Julian Maria, Francisco To be accustomed to Displeasure (1924-1982), Antonio Rodriguez Huéscar, Juan David Garci'a Bacca, Jorge Miles Jiménez, Martin Bristle, Hernán Larrai'n Coins, Arthur Gaete, passed away in 2007, Arthur Garci'a Astrada, Adela Curtain, Felix Schwartzmann, Jose Ferrater Mora, Octavio Peace, Mario Vargas Llosa, Antonio Skármeta, Luis Sanchez Latorre (Filebo), passed away in 2007, Albert Camus, Paulino Garagorri, (1916-2007), Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, and on the currents of new metafilosofía, denominated “ Metaphysical of being ”, based on Perspectivismo ( Olavo de Carvalho ). In addition, when he was in prison, the German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer commanded to request the versions in book German of Ortega and Gasset; specifically, History like system, Of the Roman Empire and Around Galileo. Scheme of the historical crises (cfr. Letters of love from the prison, Ed. Trotta, Madrid, 1997).

Main works

  • Meditations of the Quijote (1914)
  • Old and new policy (1914)
  • psychological Investigations (course explained between 1915-1916 and published in 1982)
  • People, works, things (articles and tests written between 1904 and 1912: “Renan”, “Adam in the Paradise”, “the social pedagogy like political program”, “cultural Problems”, etc.) (1916)
  • the Spectator (8 volumes published between 1916 and 1934)
  • invertebrate Spain (1921)
  • the subject of our time (1923)
  • the Atlantises (1924)
  • the dehumanization of the art and ideas on the novel (1925)
  • Spirit of the letter • Mirabeau or the politician (1927, 1928-1929)
  • What is philosophy? (1928-29, course published posthumously in 1957)
  • Kant (1929-31)
  • What is knowledge? (published in 1984, picks up three courses explained in 1929, 1930 and 1931, titled, respectively: “Life like execution (the executive being)”, “On the radical reality” and “What is the life? ”)
  • the rebellion of the masses (1930)
  • Rectification of the Republic.redemption of the provinces and the national decency (1931)
  • Goethe from within (1932)
  • Alive the Republic (1933)
  • metaphysics lessons (course given between 1932 and 1933 and published in 1966)
  • Around Galileo (course explained in 1933 del that published some lessons in 1942 under the title Scheme of the crises ) (1933-1934)
  • “Prolog for German” (prolog to the third German edition of the subject of our time . The own Grouse prohibited its publication “by the events of Munich of 1934”. Finally it was published in Spanish in 1958)
  • History like system (1ª edition in English: 1935. The Spanish version is of 1941 and includes its test on “the Roman Empire”)
  • Absorption and alteration. Meditation of the technique (1939)
  • Ideas and beliefs • On the historical reason (course given in Buenos Aires and published in 1979 next to another dice in Lisbon on the same subject) (1940)
  • Theory of Andalusia and other tests • Guillermo Dilthey and the life idea (1942)
  • On the historical reason (course given in Lisbon, see supra) (1944)
  • Idea of the theater. An abbreviation (conference given in Lisbon, April, and in Madrid, May of 1946; published in 1958, although in number 62 of the National Magazine of education it offered a version of the sharp one in Madrid)
  • the idea of principle in Leibniz and the evolution of the deductive theory (1947, but published in 1958)
  • an interpretation of universal history. Around Toynbee (1948, but published in 1960)
  • Meditation of Europe (lecture given in Berlin in 1949 with the title: “Of Europe meditatio quaedam”. It is published in 1960 next to other compatible unpublished texts)
  • the man and people (course explained in 1949-1950 in the Institute of Humanities; he publishes himself in 1957.)
  • Papers on Vela'zquez and Goya (1950)
  • Past and future for the present man (title published in 1962 that reunites a series of conferences that Grouse pronounced in Germany, Switzerland and England in 1951-1954 and was published next to a “Commentary to the Banquet” of Plato)
  • Goya (1958)
  • Vela'zquez (1959)
  • Origin and epilog of the philosophy (1960)
  • the hunting and the bulls (1960)
  • the sport origin of the state (1966)

Complete works

  • complete Works, Editorial Alliance Magazine of the West, Madrid. Edition of Paulino Garagorri.
  • complete Works, Taurus Editorial, Madrid, 10 volumes (Santillana General Editions/Foundation Jose Ortega and Gasset, in coedition). In publication process (2004 in future). Until October of 2008, the 8 first volumes have been published.
Tomo I: {ISBN 9788430605682, 2004}
  • Volume II: {ISBN 9788430605644, 2004}
  • Volume III: {ISBN 9788430605804, 2005}
  • Volume IV: {ISBN 9788430605927, 2005}
  • Volume V: {ISBN 9788430606054, 2006}
  • Volume I SAW: {ISBN 9788430606160, 2006}
  • Volume VII: {ISBN 9788430606245, 2007}
  • Volume VIII: {ISBN 9788430606672, 2008}

    It is also seen

    • Novecentismo
    • Perspectivismo
    • Philosophy of Jose Ortega and Gasset


    Random links:Club Grammar school | Cogoteros | Nicholas Kanabos | Shabeellaha Hoose | Statute of Autonomy of Aragon (1982)

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