Jose Ortega and Gasset ( Madrid, 9 of May of 1883 - Madrid, 18 of October of 1955 ), Philosopher and Spanish essay writer, main exponent of the theory of Perspectivismo and historical vital Reason and.
Thus, he is possible to emphasize that Ortega and Gasset grew up in a cultured, very tie atmosphere to the world of the media and the policy. Its university stage begins with its incorporation to the studies of University of Deusto, Bilbao (1897-98) and continues in the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of Central University of Madrid ( 1898 - 1904 ).
Doctor in Philosophy of the University of Madrid ( 1904 ) with its work the terrors of year thousands. Between 1905 and 1907 realized studies in Germany : Leipzig, Nuremberg, Colony, Berlin and, mainly, Marburgo . In this last one, one was influenced by Neokantismo of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, among others.
From return to Spain permanent professor of Psicología, Logical is appointed and ethical of School Superior of the Teaching of Madrid ( 1909 ), and in October of 1910 gains by opposition the Metaphysical chair of of the Central, vacant University after the death of Nicholas Salmerón .
After marrying with Pink Spottorno, in 1914 is born in Madrid its daughter, Solitude Spottorno Grouse, who in 1978 will create Foundation Jose Ortega and Gasset, of that will be its president of honor. In 1918 will be born its son Jose Spottorno Grouse, that will be Engineer Agronomist .
Collaborator of the newspaper the Sun from 1917, where he publishes under the form of folletones two important works: invertebrate Spain and the rebellion of the masses . During II Republic is chosen deputy by Province of Leon, position in which remained during a year. On 1923 founds Magazine of the West, being its director until 1936 . From this publication it will promote the translation and commentary of the most important philosophical and scientific tendencies in names such as: Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, Bertrand Russell and others. (On the matter he sees himself, of Evelyne Lopez Campillo, the Magazine of the West and the formation of minorities (1923-1936), Taurus Editorial, Madrid, 1972).
When Spanish Civil War began in July of 1936, Grouse was patient in its address; hardly three days after the beginning of the fight, several Communists armed of pistols appeared in their address that demanded their company/signature on the foot of a manifesto against the revolt and in favor of the republican Government. Grouse refused to receive them and was its daughter the one that in a conversation with them - conversation that, as she herself related later, got to be very tense, was able to convince them to write up another politicized very short text less and than, indeed, finished being signed by Grouse, along with Gregorio Marañón, Ramon Perez de Ayala and other intellectuals. In his Prolog for English, written already in I exile, talks about Grouse to this episode. In that same month of July and in spite of its serious disease, it left Spain (what Eduardo obtained thanks to the protection of his brother, person of valimiento near diverse political groups of left) and it was exiled; first in Paris, soon in Holland and Argentina, until to 1942 determined its residence in Lisbon . From 1945 its presence in Spain was frequent, but being prevented him to reclaim its chair, it chose to found a “Institute of Humanities” where it gave its lessons. During these years, and until their death in 1955, it was outside Spain - on everything in Germany, where it received the credit and the opportunities of expression that corresponded to their prestige.
Ortega and Gasset exerted a great influence in the Spanish philosophy of century XX not only by the thematic one of its philosophical work, but also by its agile literary style, described by some like next to Quijote, that allowed him to arrive easily at the general public.
During this century the cinema, is born Cubism of Picasso . The great German companies begin to sweep several European sectors of market whereas in America the Americans overflow to France in the production of the automobile.
The labor movement grows, and consequently they are born Divided from Germany Social-Democratic and Labor Party British. France already has become definitively the model of bourgeois, democratic and lay state, whereas in Russia explodes Revolution of October .
The scientific thought takes huge steps that foretell the new era: Max Planck develops its quantum theory, Einstein his Theory of relativity, Landsteiner discovers human the sanguineous groups, Ramon and Cajal demonstrates in 1901 the structure of the nervous weave and the neurons, and in the same year Freud publishes its work Psychopathology of the daily life .
Since there are saying, one is a time of imperialistic anxiety. They appear numerous colonial empires. The great powers annex more than 17 million squared kilometers of other continents, with million populations.
From the birth of Grouse in 1883 to their death in 1955 forms from State follow one another in Spain different. is born during the reign from Alfonso XII in the heat of Bourbon restoration. Two years later, in 1885, the king dies and begins the stage of regency of his second wife, Maria Cristina. In this period the turnista system proposed by Cánovas of the Castle stays back years. This system would bring a stage of growth and development to the country, but it meant a great political corruption that would accelerate the crisis. Since there are saying, in 1898 the call takes place the 98 Desastre of, the loss of the Spanish colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. This, next to the political crisis, will start up a movement, Regeneracionismo that proposes to appear again ideological and political of the country for a later economic reform.
But Grouse is not properly regeneracionista, but Generation of 14 or novecentista belonged to, generation with a point of view more positive than the one of its antecedents of the 98.
In 1923 the commander in chief of Catalonia, Miguel Primo de Rivera revolts against the government and gives a coup d'etat endorsed by the crown. This blow tried, officially, to end the war of Morocco, that already had become a considerable problem. Nevertheless, it did not persecute this aim, Desastre de Annual solely, or defeat of Annual, in more impersonal terms, was object of investigation on the part of the government, with the purpose of to clarify the causes of the event, the causes aimed directly at I exercise and the monarchy, substance in this, next to possible ideological interests against the height of the socialism after the Revolution of 1917, that Primo de Rivera carried out the coup d'etat in 1923.
After the economic crisis of 1927, accentuated in 1929, the violent repression of workers and intellectuals and the lack of syntony between the bourgeoisie and the dictatorship it will be the object at issue from which all the opposition in August of 1930 in the call is united Pact of San Sebastián . After the resignation of Primo de Rivera, the governments of Dámaso Berenguer (denominated “dictablanda”) and of Juan Baptist Aznar-Cabins will not make another thing that to prolong the decay momentarily, until in the municipal elections of 1931 the king, still having left victorious, decides to march, proclaiming the 14 of April Second Spanish Republic .
This one will happen through different government formation. It begins with the stage of the social-azañista biennium, a period of numerous reforms of all nature; after this stage the biennium arrives radical-cedista, characterized by the cancellation of the previous reforms and a series of measures of repression for the different revolutions, among them the one of Asturias in the 1934.
Following you rule of Komintern, several parties of lefts are united in denominated In front Popular, that is conceived like an antifascist front. It will govern, officially, from the 1936 to the 1939. But the 17 of July of 1936 the coup d'etat in Melilla takes place, whose ambiguous result, which had mainly to the resistance of the popular classes, will give rise to Spanish Civil War .
This one was an introduction of World War II that shortly after would take place in the rest of Europe, given the confrontation between the two main ideologies that coexisted at the moment. Aside from the drama that supposed the civil conflict, the triumph of the incited to rebellion forces directed by the Frank general supposed the establishment of a dictatorship of the army that would last 36 years.
In Spain Krausismo acquired special importance, movement of cultural renovation promoted by Giner of the Rivers and Free Institution of Education . This it followed the generation to him of the 98, characterized by its preoccupation by Spain. In this respect, they left from a pessimistic vision of the present Spanish, caused by its deep moral crisis. Of this generation it honors an original thinker, asystematic and solitary, Miguel de Unamuno, that picks up in its works subjects of Kierkegaard when this era practically unknown in Europe.
Meditations of the Quijote, 1914). Perspectivismo maintains the essential principles of his in later periods of its thought.
From the subject of our time develops “ Raciovitalismo ”, theory that founds the knowledge on human Life like radical Reality, one of whose essential components Reason is own .
For Grouse, the human life is the radical reality, that is to say, that one in which other reality appears and arises all, including any philosophical, real or possible system. Each human being Life takes a concrete form.
Vital Reason denominates “ ” to a new type of reason - in the rigor, the oldest and primary, and “raciovitalismo” to the way of Pensar that it leans in his new concept of reason. The vital reason is a reason that is realized constantly in the life to which he is inherent.
For Grouse, the perspective is the form that adopts the reality for the individual. This does not make him fall in the subjetivismo, because for him each subject has its own form to accede to the reality, its own part really, that even can be contradictory with the one of the others.
The vital reason is the key principle of Raciovitalismo .
The man is a being who is immersed, submerged in a circumstance (or nature), which presents/displays different conceptions to him from his physical and mental state. Therefore he lets to the man the mission satisfy them. In the fulfillment of such task, he adds Grouse, he is that the man creates Technical, that, according to this great author, we can define as “ the reform that the man imposes to the nature in view of the satisfaction of his needs ”. Ortega and Gasset defined the man as “ to be composed of circumstantial realities created by the opacity in the form to think and the sedentarismo like inspiring source of the neothinking cultures incapable to forget the tenseness that usurps the set of the wisdom ”.
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