Immigration in Peru is an activity that has taken place throughout his republican time with the more important migratory movements of Italy and Asia (mainly from Japan and China, this one last still effective one to the present time), as well as in colonial time with migrations from Spain and Africa .
The immigration of African population took place as a result of arrival of the Spaniards . The first African arrived in condition of enslaved and like gratuitous manpower; its operation in activities in the field ( Agriculture ) and in took place essentially Coast of Peru .
These black of pure race came from chaste or nations Terranovas Sucumas Mandingas Cambundas Carabalíes Cangas Chalas Huachiríes Congos Misangas etc. Brought one Culture own with beliefs magician - religious, mixes of the asylum and the pagan expressing in their songs, dances, dances and customs.
The first black big wave constituted the servitude of the houses properties in the sugar talents, the culture of Cotton, in the constructions, etc. In this new continent the first language was Samaracca or expression the Congo angoleña, later the language Papiamento, black combination of speech in Jamaica where it predominates. appears Cleocle dialect that black Ethnic group is from the mixture of of Haiti and the replana of Peru, combination of several African languages mixed with Spanish Creole.
In Chincha (to the south of Lima ), African pure and the their descendants were catechized by Dominican and Jesuits ; as already Christian and under the hard reality of work, merges their ancestral beliefs and they articulated with the Catholic saints arising therefore the employer from the black: the Virgin of the Carmen.
Agglutinated in the sheds of the properties, the greatness of the black art germinates of Bothers, is of San jOse, San Regis, High Larán, Guayabo, Chamorro, Round Leaf, Low Chincha . In the duro work, the fatigue, the disease, in the solitude, it writes tenth, panalivios ones, dances, celebrations, zamba, landó, gannet, inga, are of the devils, water of snow, fits, the small lizard, the toromata, conga, zamacueca, etc. Thus by more than four centuries the black Chinchano creates for Peru, short cut of pallitas, of negritos, creative black of the tenth black standing up forced, black artists, great sportsmen.
Special ships were brought in, calls " Ataúdes" or " Tumbeiros ". These names were expression of the characteristics of such mercantilistas expeditions, because half of the black arrived alive at America only that had left Africa .
They came enmarrocados (moored), crowded together in the warehouses of the ships, without the minimum conditions of hygiene, adapted feeding ; in these conditions those black were imprisoned easy of diseases and epidemics .
In America, thousands of enslaved black were sold the landowners and Spanish citadinos in the calls markets of try. For this aim they were exhibited chained as soon as they arrived while was very degradingly Auctioned] the prices varied according to Sex, strength, Health and Age . Once acquired they happened to be patrimony of his master, who had of his destiny and its life. They had a value in money and they belonged to somebody they fed and them to use them in tasks and services that the master believed advisable. If the master wanted to undo of the slave he supplied, it in the market of deals with slaves, putting a surcharge, to recover his investment and to remove some dividend.
Women black slaves, in the properties and the virreinales lots, were appointed for domestic workings. Nevertheless, many of them, in the properties, mainly costeñas, made workings of field, like for example, in vineyards and cotton fields, known in this last case, like " apañadoras".
The masters repaid this gratuitous service with the house and the feeding that they provided to them. The slaves could not leave the property of the landlord and lacked freedom. To the slave who infringed some norm, it was punished to him severely, reason why several systems of existed tortures . Whatever punishment decided for the rebellious slave, was taken care of of not disfiguring it, since, of being thus, their sale price in the market, would fall. Nevertheless, the news that is had to the very rebellious or wild black, they cut the ears to him castrated, it and even they cut the hands to him.
Around the year 1710, those rancherías evolved until becoming palenques. Palenques, then was wild, rural rebellious black establishments.
Finally, the 3 of December of 1854, then president Ramon Castile by means of a law dictated from Huancayo decreed to the aim of the slavery and the freedom of the black.
Chinese, arrives at Peru, under the name " culie ". Culies Chinese began to arrive at Peru in 1849. The Chinese workers signed a contract where they committed themselves to work during eight years for the great gentlemen. Generally these contracts signed in Macao ; this document allowed the immigrant, to enter Peru without problems. Also, it assured to Frightful, intermediary Antonio between Chinese and the contractors, the compensation that gave the Be in favor of each worker. Turned the eight years contractual, they retired to the cities where they lived on small businesses, generally of food. It is then in which the mestization of the Chinese food with the Peruvian Creole takes place who would be in popular Chifa .
With one history from its arrival to Peru in the middle of Century XIX, the Chinese culture - cantonesa that was developed in these earth revolutionized the gastronomy of Peruvian, deserving the international recognition for those who has had opportunity to taste it when visiting this country .
At the moment Peru, mainly in Lima, is one of the first places of the world where are more Chinese citizens outside their country of origin.
In Peru, president Brown Manuel (from 1872 to 1876) fomented European immigration, for which he sent commissioners towards the old continent with the intention of promoting his proposal. The denominated “Society of European immigration” began to work with the Supreme Decree promulgated the 17 of December of 1872. This organism was divided in twenty-five members, to represent five sections that corresponded to England and Ireland; France, Belgium and Switzerland; Germany, Austria and Holland; Sweden, Norway and Denmark and Italy, Spain and Portugal. That same year the one had begun to discuss a law project to foment European immigration that was approved the 28 of April of 1873. These good intentions had their aim in 1876, finished the good government of Brown. In " History of the Republic of the Perú", his author, Jorge Basadre, indicates: “Before one took place so lamentable fact arrived at Peru like 4.7000 immigrants from Italy, being included/understood in this number of families and many single men. The cost of this immigration between load of sea, earth trips, aid and others calculated in 600, suns” (Sixth Edition - Volume VII - p 103).
The Italians that arrived at the south of Peru did not arrive take refuging in those legal devices nor to comprise of “official immigration”. They did it, since they make until today the majority of the people who emigrate of a country: calls by a relative, a friend, a countryman.
Presencia in Peru
The history of the communities of the present emigrants in Peru is very old, in the country settle down Italian, tiroleses, Basque, Spanish, Anglo-Saxon, French, Hebrew, Germans and minorities of African descendants who have left some traditions popular. The Italians, especially, have a constant presence in Peru.
At a second moment the true imigración sets out. These migratory flows have been continuous in the time and lifted number more of imigrantes, with the height of the Guano of the island, in Peru. The Italians settled down in the central and southern coastal regions.
Between the first Italians that arrived with the conquerors they are:
The Captain genovés J.Batista Pastene and, especially, who comprised of the clergy and were bound to the Spanish crown. Soon a Virrey, the Neapolitan Nicolò Caracciolo, that governed Peru. Giuseppe Garibaldi, military man and politician whom Peru visits. Time later obtained the Peruvian citizenship.
Very significant it is the contribution in the art introduced by prestigious teachers. And, surely the figure of the Milanese Antonio Raimondi - that crosses Peru by 17 years and it remains about 30 studying his geography, his flora and fauna, his history, his ethnography and its folklore is, without doubt, the most important symbol of the strong brotherhood between both countries. Its work " The Perú" she is one of first where it tries to include and to explain all the wealth of the country thus to look for to create a unitary sense of the Peruvian. He is considered like " The discoverer of Peru moderno".
Why to Peru?
For the following reasons:
• Necessity of new markets where to take the surpluses of production of the metropolis.
• To operate the natural resources and the raw material for the industry.
• Necessity to have the power and his presigio military man and politician. The colonies served as supplying.
• The interest to demonstrate the superiority of the western culture on the others.
• The European, agravated demographic expansion by the economic crisis, mainly brought about the emigration towards strategic geographic territories Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Mexico so that in that time these were the more important European colonies and with more wealth.
Peru was the colony with greater presence of European since he was the main one of all South America and had Spaniards, Italian, French, etc. Italy, especially, it contributed much to the Peruvian culture and its presence was important in some parts of the country as Lima, Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna and Trujillo.
During the last decades of the Spanish colonial dominion a gradual increase of the presence of Italian occurred in Peru. Like in previous centuries, during the first decades of century 19, the majority of them was genoveses. The richest Italian retailers in Peru from the first decades of the past century were related to the marine commerce. According to information of the first Sardinian consuls, of a sample of Italian rich 52% in Peru, 28% took care of the naval commerce, one was doctor, the other moneylender. Of 38% dedicated to commerce four they were vice-consuls in cities of the rear area. Between that they can be considered the pioneers of the modern Italian immigration to Peru are five retailers ligures arrived in the first decade from century XIX: Antonio Dagnino, that are in the Pebble from 1802, and Felix Valega who arrived in 1806. And who along with others " captains of Nao" and crews settled down definitively in Peruvian ground (many sailors deserted of their boats to settle down themselves in Peru and to dedicate themselves to the commerce), Valega was natural of Sportorno small port of the creek the west of the Liguria (the west), and arrived in the same boat that brought to Abascal, ùltimo Virrey of Peru, (Sequi 1911: c-130) and also to the musician genovés Andrea Bolognesi, of the court of the Virrey, that outside father of of the most legendary heroes of Peru, Colonel gift Francisco Bolognesi. One knows that Valega got to own a remarkable fortune and that it financed the Cathedral of the Pebble. Both married with Peruvian ladies in joint ceremony in 1811. He is interesting to observe that Dagnino made spanish its last name trasformando it in " Dañino". The three daughters of Allege married with Guiseppe Canevaro, Pietro Denegri and so I gave Black, all rich retailers, who together to other Italian retailers arrived to comprise of the first Italian enterprise elite in Peru, from half-full of the decade of 1830 and the following, that with the beginning of the time sea bream of the operation of guano, the future comprised of the foundations of industrial development in Peru. However the thickness of the Italian immigrants much more developed modest activities (pulperos, chinganeros, fonderos, craftsmen, etc.) Per 1851 arrived at Peru: Giuseppe Garibaldi next to other many Italians; Giuseppe Eboli, Steban Siccoli, Antonio Raimondi, Arrigoni, etc., who participated in the failed rebellion of Milan in 1849 and like part of the sequel of political the migratory wave as a result of the revolutionary failures of 1848-1849 in Italy. In 1858 the population of Lima 100% of inhabitants inhabitants, of which the foreigners were about 63% and of that amount, the Italian colony was conformed by 19%, that also the German and Spanish colony was most numerous only in the city of Lima, all this while it happened the bonanza of the operation of guano, in 1860 the Italian colony of already distinguished for being the one of greater relative prosperity. An Italian Consul that I visit South America in the middle of the decade of 1860 said that in Peru he had” Italian very rich, very industrious and perhaps most active than in some other country of América" (Galli 1867), and in 1876 they arrived to be but Italian. In a published consular report in Italy in 1883, where the properties of the Italian immigrants in several countries appear stands out the fact that the based Italian immigrants in the Peru turn out to be richest whose capital ascended to about 210 million liras (Gallenga 1883). By those times numerous Italian institutions were created, like the Italian Charity, the Italian Hospital, the school Santa Margherita, the Italian Bank, Companies of Firemen, etc. Italian immigrant average (generally of origin ligur) abría to a small store or pulpería and soon with the product of his savings of several years she established a greater business selling the previous one to another Italian that just she began like retailer. The Italian immigrants whose origin was not Liguria were in favor compound of Piamonteses, to a large extent basically originating of the province of Alexandria (adjacent with Ligurina). Soon there were lombardos and smaller groups of immigrants of other regions, whose presence also was significant. During contingent small century XX they only arrived at the Peru of immigrants of the regions of the south of Italy, those that always have been minorities against ligures. The time end sea bream of the operation of guano and time later the beginning of the war of the Pacific, meant for the Italian colony a hard blow, in this war many Italians that was identified with Peru, got to fight to its side, against an enemy who only wished to destroy the country whatever the cost. Many Italians ofrendaron their lives, as the heroic sailor genovés Pietro Luigui Storace in naval action against the Chileans or like almost the 105 Italians, almost all firemen streamlinings after the fire of Chorrillos, among others also streamlinings in Arica and Iquique by Chileans. Between the list of the Italians affected by the bombings of Chilean on Iquique and Arica in 1879 they appear many last names of immigrants seated in Peruvian Tacna and other ports. The most common last names are: Solari, Macchiavello, Casaretto, Cavagnaro, Canepa, Parodi, Would back water etc., all of them last names of families ligures. After the war the migratory flow was made level and in their majority, the immigrants who arrived were relatives of which was established in Peru. When beginning century XX the Italian immigrants continued arriving. In 1903, they were almost 22,000 without soon telling those that were not registered, the aim of World War I, impels a new amount of Italian towards the Peru that soon is declining until the aim of World War II that shows a slight increase. Laborious people, did not concern that the task was exhausting, many of those immigrants arrived to dream up a future, many of those last names were buried by the time, of I pay a tribute here to them to which they were forgotten, but other thousands subsist and are even part of the Peru of today.
It is just with the independence of the Peru in 1821 in which foreign of diverse parts of the world they begin to emigrate to the coasts of the South Pacific, being Callao and Valparaiso the ports with greater arrival.
Antonio Raimondi crosses Peru by 17 years and it remains thirty studying his geography, its flora and fauna, its history, its ethnography and its folklore. Its work Peru is one of first where it tries to include and to explain all the wealth of the country thus to try to create a unitary sense of the Peruvian. Between its great contributions is the study that did of guano of the island of the islands of Bothers, which just a short time later it will give an economic height that renews the legend of gold of the Incas.
In 1851, Giuseppe Garibaldi, at that time guerilla Italian, visited Peru and prepared bonds for the Mazzini loan, to obtain bottoms for the campaign by the unification of Italy. The Ricardo writer Palm (author of the Peruvian Traditions) wrote the tradition " Between Garibaldi and yo", where he tells to some facts and anecdotes of this visit.
The height from immigration to the Peru unties as of 1840, in which it happens the rage of guano. Peru became world-wide the exporting major of guano of the island, main fertilizer that was used to try to increase the agricultural production in Europe.
During the reign of Carlos V one occurred privileges of free circulation to all the subjects of the kingdoms of his empire, among them to the Italians. Some participate in the discovery of America like pilots, cartographers and retailers. At this time they emphasize Américo Vespuccio, Juan Caboto (discoverer of Newfoundland) and Verrazano. One says for example that first the Italian that wanted to arrive at the Peru he was one of which they protested against Francisco Pizarro in the Island of Rooster in 1520: Antonio Rovaldi. Nevertheless, from 1549 it was declared totally prohibited the arrival of nonpeninsular to the virreynatos, had principalemente following a proposal by jealous Spanish civil servants of the foreign competition.
An example is the expedition that Italians that wanted to arrive at the Peru that was realized in 1537: they started off from Cadiz but the ship ran aground in the Argentina coast and they could not arrive. Other that yes could arrive were Nicolao of Benino (miner and cronista that accompanied to the pacificador Pedro of the Gasca in the civil wars), Girolamo Benzoni (travelling and writer of History of the world nuovo) Bernardine father Bitti, Francesco Carletti (merchant of slaves that was in Lima in 1593 and other travellers.
THE WAR WITH CHILE During the war with Chile (1879-1882) many Italians immolate themselves defending to Peru.
Luigi Zolli died the 2 of November of 1879 in the capture of Pisagua by the Chileans. Francisco Bolognesi commanded the Peruvian troops in the battle of Arica and died in the heat of battle. Domingo Pescetto was mayor of Arica before the invasion of the Chilean troops, and he was in charge to negotiate the surrender of the city without he was destroyed. Pedro Luis Storace Merlini died on board the boat " Urcos" in a combat against the Pebble the 16 of September of 1880.
Before the imminent arrival of the Chilean troops to the capital, the Italian residents in Lima decide to remain in the city. They defend it like voluntary firemen in Italian the companies previously founded by (" Rome Nº 2" and " Italy Nº 5" in the Pebble and " Garibaldi Nº 6" in Chorrillos). Before the attack of the Chilean troops and the fire of the spa of Chorrillos the 13 of January of 1881, the firemen of the company Garibaldi Nº 6 try to take care of the emergencias: 34 of them are assassinated by Chilean troops. In the following days other 56 firemen suffer the same fate.
AFTER THE WAR WITH CHILE
After the war with Chile Peru begins its reconstruction. In few years Lima it recovers his splendor of long ago and it returns to turn into one to der the centers cultural in South America. They emphasize the painting, sculpture, Italian music and architecture and many artists arrive at the capital to show their works or to teach their technique. The first Italian institutions begin to be based: " Società Cannotieri Italia" (1901) it grouped the Italians that they practiced oar in the spa of the End. " Circolo Sportivo Italiano" one is based on 1910.
As of 1914 the crisis in Italy does that many Italian families are themselves forced to emigrate. Many arrive at Peru to have here bows of compadrazgo with relatives distant or of the same country help who to take them the first step. Initially the migration is " of roundtrip ", that is to say that when the things improved in Italy returned by a time and some of the family remained taking care of their properties in Peru. Great part of that they come is of the towns of the environs of Genoa, main port of Italy.
In just a short time whole families they settle down in Lima, the Pebble, Tacna, Arequipa, the Favor, Trujillo, Piura and other cities. They honor Emilio Sequi, founding journalist of the Voce d'Italia, Juan Agnoli Baptist, doctor whom the fight against the bubonic plague organized, Boggiano Aquilles, founder of the Italian hospital, Jose Mazzini, doctor psychiatrist, among others.
The Italian community begins to acquire importance in number and being able economic: they acquire properties, inaugurate factories, warehouses, restaurants, bakeries, banks, et cetera. In addition, they appear the Italians of second and third generation.
OF THE POST WAR TO OUR DAYS
From the beginning of World War II, Italian immigration to Peru is descending gradually to almost disappearing. It because the situation in Europe does almost impossible to secure a way to travel and because all the young people are sent to the war. Then many Italian or their descendants break away from enemy with their relatives in Italy, some by years and others for always.
Finished the war, the reconstruction of Europe begins. In Italy a crude debate is developed that argues that the Italians must remain in their country " in order to reconstruct patria". The fast reconstruction of the economy caused that the migrations fell considerably.
At the moment the Italians are very few that emigrate to Peru. They do if it he must to academic or professional or familiar reasons mainly. On the contrary, due to the economic recession that affects the country, many Peruvians have settled down in several Italian cities by the same one that have but facilities so that it has Italian descendants.
THE ITALIANS IN PERU Ever since they arrived at Peru, the Italians have played an important role in the economic, social and cultural life in the country. From the independence of Peru, at beginnings of century XIX, people of different nationalities they migrated towards the country. The economic apogee due to the height of güano half-full of century XIX did that a big wave arrived from emigrants of different latitudes, being Chinese, Japanese, Italian and African the most numerous ones. Each group specialized in different offices from the society; the Italians emphasized mainly in the commerce and the industry.
Italian immigration was a phenomenon that lasted approximately one hundred years, from mid century XIX until shortly after begun World War II. The period of greater immigration was during the two world wars, between years 1918 and 1938. Many Italian families were themselves forced to send to their smaller children where their distant relatives in diverse parts of the world due to the economic crisis. Thus, the main places of Italian emigration were in America, towards the USA, Argentina, Brazil Peru, Venezuela, Chile. Through the years we have seen how the old Italian immigrants have been developed becoming one of the most important communities of the country. Its influence note day to day in the world of the businesses, the architecture, the kitchen and the technology. In this news article we will present/display a glance to them of the Italian community in Peru, with its history, its main personages, their customs and the main settled down Italian institutions in Peru.
ITALIAN THAT HIZIERON HISTORI IN PERU Many of Italian or the their descendants have played a fundamental role in the history of Peru: heroes, biologists, investigators, industralists, artists, writers, historians… Next we presented/displayed a gallery to them with the main ones.
The music of our towns that us brother and - from its Italian composers and interpreters like Paolo Beccaria (Pablo of the $andes), Fernando Sannicandro, or the descendants of Italian origin like Chabuca Granda, Mario Cavagnaro and many unite and allow to us more to strengthen friendship bows and also he allows us to know us more.
In order to remove a visa: patience and the good humor
One decade ago, to remove a visa was a proceeding that delayed much to about three days. Now, with luck, it can delay three weeks. If one wanted to demonstrate that it had Italian ancestors to remove the nationality, between red tape, interview, payments and a long list of others it delayed between a year and year and a half. Now it delays approximately eight years… The problems of the Italian institutions
In spite of being one of the most important colonies in the country, the settled down Italian institutions in Peru happen through diverse problems. From the lack of budget to the bureaucracy, many happen due to a basic subject: the little communication between the institutions and the Italian government.
The Italian kitchen in its table The Italy kitchen influences much in our national food by this the Peruvian gastronomy is one of three richer and appreciated of the world. From tallarines to the dessert,
Italian restaurants in Lima
In Lima an abundant supply of restaurants of Italian food for all the tastes and prices exist.
The 4 of April of this year 1999 turned 100 years of the beginning of Japanese immigration to Peru. Also, President Fujimori undertakes another trip to Japan, from the 18 to the 22 of May, on the occasion of celebrations by that date in the country of the Rising Sun. This visit of President Fujimori, eleventh from 1990, attests the narrow existing bows of friendship between Peru and the Eastern country.
The arrival of Japanese immigrants has contributed to the multirracialidad of the country, and the descendants of those immigrants, after undergoing some initial problems, adapted to our country and have gotten to form a mighty community, contributing to the development of Peru. The fact that the present President of the country, Ing. Alberto Fujimori, is a descendant of those immigrants, testifies the development that community has reached.
Without a doubt, the previous thing has done that the Peru relations - Japan is at present at a good moment. Japan collaborates in much to the economic development of the country, the economic aid of Japan stays in a good level, although the investment deprived from that country has not increased as it had been desired. In any case, there is an ample margin so that the economic relations are continued expanding enters countries both, especially by the side of the commerce and in this depends much on the Peru, that must deliver attacks necessary to take advantage of the great Japanese market for our products.
In which it follows was reviewed to the state of the relations Peru - Japan in different fields. Thus, in this article the first antecedents of the relations of Peru with Japan will be approached, especially in the political aspect, soon will be reviewed to the state of the relations between both countries in the subjects of the official economic aid, the foreign investment, the commerce and the tourism. In the end the perspective of this relation will be seen.
|Random links:||Jean Louis Marie Poiret | Psorothamnus | Territorial organization of Sierra Leone | Valencian Esquerra | Weak The You Know (Stargate SG-1)|