Horacio Zeballos Gámez ( Carumas, 20 of March of 1943 - Moquegua, 7 of March of 1984 ) was a Peruvian professor founding of the SUTEP (Only Union of Workers of the Education of Peru)


It was born in Carumas 20 from March from 1942, secondary study in the National School the Freedom. Study in the National University of San Agustín arriving to be leader of its federal center.

I participate in the First National Congress of the Peruvian Teaching. Day 6 of July in which the DAY OF the TEACHER is celebrated, the SUTEP was based (Unique Union of Workers of the Education of Peru), chosen their first Secretary General along with the leader Arthur Armacanqui.

It fought by the vindication of the teacher in the days of the military dictatorship. Consequence it was committed in KNOWS (1973) where it published his poem book of the prison. He was an innate fighter by the social causes during the government of Fernando Belaunde and the military government. In 1980 deputy of Arequipa was chosen.

Horacio wrote articles and poetry. Between its works we can mention “Joys of the prison”, “enslaved Pen”, “the echo of my voice”, “the slaves of necktie”, between all.


Horacio Zeballos Gámez, was born in the district from Carumas, Province of Marshal Nieto, Department of Moquegua, Thursday 20 of March of 1942. Their parents were gift Cerelino Zeballos Medina and Do6na Sabina Gámez Melgarejo, whose home was constituted by 8 children, of which Horacio was the third party.

He was baptized in the parish San Felipe de Carumas the 10 of 1942 July. Their studies realized primary them in the School of Men Nº 973, of their native town, where it emphasized like declamador, actor, and where it initiates his poetic creation with his first verses. From very young it shared the school with the work; he is as well as to the 11 years doorman conductive of the Radiotelegraph station of Carumas is appointed receiving a monthly pay of s.

In 1955 he travels to Moquegua to study Secondary in National Formation force “Simon Bolivar”. To the 15 years Corporation works in Toquepala like worker of the Souther Peru Copper, knowing and identifying with the work and the fight of the miners.

In March of 1961 it travels for the first time to Arequipa, city which arrives with the purpose of to follow studies superiors, obtaining to enter the Normal School of Men of “the Salle”, receiving a special religious formation that was worth to teach catechesis to him to groups of originating children of young towns. In the Normal School they went developing its poetic restlessness, being integral assets of the National Association of Writers and Artists of Arequipa (A.

In 1962 it publishes its first poemario of lyrical sort titled “the Echo of my Voice”, of oriented marked poetic sensitivity towards a romantic attitude. In 1963 it appears its “Enslaved Pen”, presents/displays a poetry of deep social content. The 30 of December of 1963 “Juan XXIII” graduates as professor forming part of the promotion.

The 10 of April of 1964 initiate their race of professor to the being appointed like Unidocente Director of the Primary School Mixed Nº 9678 of the town of Pitay, district of Santa Isabel de Siguas, to 110 km of the city of Arequipa. It carries out his workings in deplorable conditions, but for Celebrations Mother countries of the same year already it inaugurated the new constructed scholastic premises with the support of the town and under its direction.

Union fight

In 1965 matriculation in the Faculty of Letters of the National University of san Agustín of Arequipa and later in the one of Right, whose studies do not culminate due to their determined incursion in the field of trade unionism and the political fight.

In 1966 he is reasignado to the Primary School of Men Nº 968 of Sabandía. That same year contracts nuptials with Do6na Amanda Valdivia Landlord. It had six children: Horacio, Marine Light, Fernando, Ines Amanda, Mónica Sutita, this one last one takes name of its dear union, the glorious SUTEP and Javier Horacio.

It forms for the first time the Distrital Union of Primary Teachers of Sabandía, of where it is promoted for the elections; holding the position of Undersecretary and later Secretary General of the Union of Professors Primarios of Arequipa. In 1969 jointly with other clasistas teachers he forms the Independent Movement of Magisterial Unification of Arequipa.

In 1970 one moves to the City of Arequipa to work Educative N° 943 in center. In this same year it appears his work “the Slaves of Necktie” in which he sets out the reality, order and protest of the Peruvian teaching.

Participation in the SUTEP

In 1971 we found like an important piece in the formation of the Unique Union of Professors of Arequipa - SUPRA, being Horacio its first Secretary General.

In 1972 it heads Huelga by the repatriation of the teachers and popular leaders who had been deportees as a result of magisterial Huelga of the previous year by the government of Juan Velasco Albarado; which were: Julio Pedro Armacanqui (Huanuco), Lipa Peruvian bark (Cusco), Riva Ollarza (Iquitos), Arnaldo Walls (Arequipa), Arthur Sanchez Vicente (Lima) and Rolando Scrub, President of the federation of Students of Peru. Obtaining that was repatriates soon to be received from multitudinal way by the town arequipeño the 15 of April of that year.

In 1972 July, in the great National Congress of Unification carried out in the Cusco, he is chosen like the first Secretary General of the Unique Union of Workers in the Education of Peru SUTEP having begun a new practical stage and consolidation of clasista trade unionism in the Peruvian teaching. Between the years of 1972 y1973 are crossing Deep Peru organizing the SUTE bases, the Teachers march past in tight rows, fighting by its right vindications, by a future future.


As a result of National Unemployment of the 24 of October of 1973, Horacio next to 96 teachers was shut in the Penal colony of Sepa, where they remained imprisoned near 8 months as if they were delinquent common, were transferred from the Potao to the Jail of the Pebble, being put under in a Military “Political” opinion being taken of mazmorras the 13 of June of 1974 due to the strong national and international pressure that was exerted to obtain its freedom.

In 1973 Red Mother country” under one enters to the communist Party of Peru “signs conviction that the mere union fight could not lead us to the National Liberation and the Socialism and that the workers had to tell on a political vanguard he presents/displays that them and he directs. In Red Mother country it militated until his death under the pseudonym of Amaru.

Horacio headed the monthly dialogs that from the 8 of July of 1974 occurred to being the SUTEP and the dictatorship of Velasco. Of that form Trato with the street fighting was combined Direct.

In 1975, in the First National congress of Trujillo it is designated like Secretary of Pedagogical Subjects of the CEN of the SUTEP, position from which founds the first Popular University “Jose Carlos Maria'tegui”.

The 5 of August of 1975 the military dictatorship publishes a relation of social, union and political fighters, who would be deportees of the country by their firm antidictatorial position, between which he appeared Horacio Zeballos, but they did not find it. Horacio entered wing secrecy and thence it continued fighting. For when the National Congress of the SUTEP in Fist takes caobo III is chosen Horacio Secretary General, it is here where it is called on to direct with greater firmness and capacity to him of fight the most significant strike of Peruvian teaching 1978 - 1979. Not only they are the teachers of the SUTEP but all the town they endorse its acts of justice, understanding that “it is not begged for but is conquered”. The 8 of May of 1978 head General Huelga Indefinida that lasts 81 days, which concludes with the company/signature of a act between the government of Bermúdez Morals and the SUTEP, by which the dictatorship was, among other things, committed to recognize the union, to raise receso of the Cantuta, to appoint to the engaged and temporary professors and the creation of a Special Bottom to increase the pay of the professors. The 4 of June of 1979 the previous year is reinitiated the strike suspended before the refusal of the dictatorship to give fulfillment to the act. From before of the measurement of imprisoned fight it was even tried to leave without a leader the magisterial movement taking his leaders, among them to Horacio, that by his delicate state of health it had to be lead to the prison of the Hospital of Police. Strike lasted 120 days, after which it was suspended before the weakness of the movement, the lack of disposition of the government to solve it and the great amount of subrogated teachers to national level.

In the heat of it idles of the 79 in the month of June, when one was directing an assembly of delegates in the canchita of San Fernando, Horacio is captured and shut in the Hospital of Police since one was delicate of Health.

The 30 of November of 1979 die their father Don Cerelino in an automobile accident, when it returned of Lima after visiting his son prisoner in the Hospital of Police. Landázuri cardinal intervened so that the Department of the Interior grant leave to him to the prisoner in order that it can attend the burial.

Her mother, always combatant Savin, passes away in Moquegua of a cardiac infarct the 28 of December of that same year, days after Horacio recovered its freedom; nevertheless, no longer she could see it with life.

In 1980 candidate to the Presidency went of the Republic by UNITING (National Union of Revolutionary Left), occupying the fifth place in the voting. In the same electoral fight he was elect like Deputy by Arequipa.

The 31 of May of 1980 travels to Germany invited by the Committee of Essen to be dealed with their problems of health, demurrage that also was useful to give a series of conferences on the situation of the country and the teaching. On 1982 it founds the quincenario “Mass”, the same that stopped having continuity by its unwell health.

Its poemario “Joys of the Prison”, published and presented/displayed in the Large house of San Marcos in 1980, is a set of 30 poems dedicates that them to its party and, as to his it indicates it title, were written in the prison expressing in them its commitment with the town and the teachers. In them, to a great extent, it also expresses his loving, amical vocation and the filial affection.


One of the greatest leaders of the national teaching, dies in Lima the 7 of March of 1984, to 11,30 a., as a result of cardiac unemployment by “hiperglucémico comma”, being buried in Arequipa in the General Cemetery of the Barrow being deposited its coffin in niche 455 of the Pavilion Santo Olivia. Time later their rest were transferred to a Mausoleum located in the left part of the main access from enter the field santo, to where every year they are realized fervent romerías in tribute to his life dedicated to the national teaching, the workers and the town.


" The Echo of my Voz" (1962) " Mother mía" - " Alas" - " The sadness of poeta" - " Falsedad" - " The Ticsani" - " The echo of my voz" - " When vuelvan" - " Afloración" - " The Centauros" - " Carestia" - " The Pleba rimada" - " Primavera" - " Flower of the Misti" - " Moquegua" - " To the Maestro" - " The legion of Arica" - " Afloración" - " Indiano" - " Tintinear". " Loving swan or Moon of the Cisne" (1963) Chapter I: The Memory - Chapter II: The promise and my desición - Chapter III: My mother and the game - Chapter IV: The Way and the arrival - Chapter V: My city and the lake - Chapter I SAW: The Swan - Chapter VII: The moon - Chapter VIII: The moon and the Swan. " Pen esclava" (1963) " Feline blind bailan" - " Partida" - " Mouth without lengua" - " Poem of pan" - " Espiga" - " The black vultures are esclavos" - " Lantern of light negra" - Pen esclava" - " The memory is ave" - " The Partida". " The Slaves of Corbata" (1970) (Reality, Protest and Order of the Peruvian Teaching)

The National Division and its Present Consequences, the Union Currents and the World-wide Panorama, the Historical influence of Trade unionism the International, Social Characterization of the Professor and its Contradictions of Class with the Bourgeoisie, the Organized Teaching: Danger for the Dominant, Magisterial Parallelism and the Peruvian State, Perspective Classes for the Theoretical Overcoming and Practices of the Professor, Columns Vertebrales de Unidad and Integración.

" Joys of prisión" (1979) " Of the prisoners soy" - " We do with my value puño" - " Old grape dulce" - " Your passages of guerilla" - " Cielo" undresses; - " In mar" - " I am a corderito For Yrma and Olinda" - " Teacher in your book of lucha" " Joys of prisionero" (2000) " your talle" - " You extraño" - " I want to continue your camino" - " Town combatiente" - " Patria" - " Oda to Túpac Amaru verdadero" - " You do not clear my to me ideas" - " Children of Perú" - " Mírame" - " Espinas" enters more; - " Viaje" - " Song to Arequipa" - " Under alba" - To the triumphal mother and eterna"


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