Hernani is one Villa of Guip'uzcoa, pertaining to Donostialdea, in the community independent of Basque Country, ( Spain ) and located to a distance of 9.2 km of the capital, San Sebastián . The municipality of Hernani occupies an approximated extension of 42 km ² and limits with San Sebastián, Astigarraga, Arano, Elduayen, Rentería, Lasarte-Oria and Urnieta . Its population, to 1 of January of 2007, promoted 19,138 inhabitants.
From his urban helmet (described like Cultural Good with the Monumental joint category), to the skirts of the mount Santa Barbara, it is possible to descry to an ample zone of the fertile valley of Urumea . Their supervisory celebrations, are celebrated between 23 and 27 of June, in honor to San Juan Baptist ; and between his celebrations it is to emphasize the popular “Azeridantza” (also celebrated in celebrations of Carnival ).
The districts of Hernani are the following:
Aquerregui (valley) ( Akerregi Bailara ): it is the name that receives the level zone located in the right margin of Urumea from the helmet of Hernani towards the district of Ergobia of Astigarraga . The zone mainly is occupied by industrial pavilions as Ibaiondo (was here formerly the steel mill of Orbegozo), but also is a series of houses more or less aligned throughout the old highway, where they live little more than 100 people.
Anciola ( Antziola ): This district comprises of the urban plot of Hernani. It arose in the years of growth of the city between the decades of 1950 and 1970. It is the district located throughout the highway that leaves Hernani and goes towards the hospitals, by the well-known one as costs of the death . It has more than 1,300 neighbors.
the Port ( Portu ): district located in the left border of the Urumea and a little to the south of the Old Helmet of Hernani. Its name must to the location in its environs of an old fluvial port, already disappeared. The routes of separate it to the train of the neighboring district of Elizatxo. It has about 250 neighbors.
Elizacho ( Elizatxo ): Its name means small church in euskera and it must to the hermitage located in the place. It was a district that grew in the years of great expansion of Hernani and it extends between the old helmet of Hernani and the routes of the railroad that separate of the district of the Port-Portu . It has about 500 neighbors.
Epele (valley) ( Epela Bailara ): it is a remote district that is located in the highway that unites Hernani with Goizueta to 4 km of the urban helmet and 2.5 km before arriving at Ereñozu, coming from Hernani. It is a district smaller than Ereñozu, with about 125 neighbors. The industrial estates of Hernani following the shore of Urumea arrive until Epele where there is installed several chemical industries (Pol.Industrial de Epele), although the district maintains a strong stamp rural.
Ereñozu ( Ereñotzu ): located to 6.5 km of the urban helmet, in the highway that Hernani with Goizueta unites and with more than 400 inhabitants; Ereñozu is one of the districts of Hernani with more strong personality and aspect of small town. The district arose to borders from the Urumea in Century XIX around the small village Ereñozu and to a near hermitage, that soon would become the parish of the district. Later the highway was constructed that united Hernani with Goizueta that crossed Ereñozu and that contributed to give height and to populate it. Of this district was natural famous bertsolari Txirrita .
Etxeberri: its name means in Euskera new house . Are blocks of houses constructed in the decade of years 70 in the neighborhoods of the district of Florida that are raised by a hill. Almost 800 people live.
Florida: he is one of the main districts of Hernani. Located after the old helmet of Hernani following the left margin of the river Urumea and the routes of the railroad. The district grew around the station of train that was located in Century XIX in this location, moved away like 1 km of the old helmet of Hernani. The zone of Florida consolidated like an industrial area where from 1930 houses began to build themselves. Later, during the great city-planning and demographic growth of Hernani between years 50 and 80, the urbanization of the zone would be completed until knitting with the rest of the urban helmet. At present industry and house in the zone coexist, although plans exist to dismantle it and to transfer it to other areas of the municipality. The population goes up to around the 1000 inhabitants.
Galarreta: it is a set of houses of little altitude located next to the roundhouse of Galarreta, where the fronton of the same name is located and a well-known discotheque; in the highway that unites Hernani with the district donostiarra of Ayete . It does not arrive at the 100 neighbors. In fact it is not more than a quarter of the valley of Jáuregui.
Lime ( Karobieta ): It is a zone that is placed between of the Elcano street and the Marieluts District, Their known zones more are the place covered with Atxeguindegui and the Ikastola Langile.
Carabel ( Karabel ):
Jáuregui (valley) ( Jauregi Bailara ): it is a zone located to the northwest of the municipality, being contiguous with San Sebastián, that forms a valley that unlike the rest of the municipality does not drain towards the river Urumea but towards a stream system that directly spills their waters to the sea (regatas of Añorga and Ibaeta). Traditional district of small villages of Hernani where some industries have been located, as well as the most modern district of Galarreta and Sorgintxulo. The Zabalaga small village where his Chillida-Leku locates the Museum comprises of Jáuregui. It has about 160 neighbors.
Marieluts: District of new construction that is placed in lands of the old small village Marieluts that are contiguous its lands with the districts of Latxunbe berri and Karobieta (Kaleras)
Martindegui (valley) ( Martindegi Bailara ): district of small villages of rural stamp located to the northeast of the municipal term in the limits with the neighboring municipality of Astigarraga . Sidrerías in the zone are several. It has about 150 neighbors.
Osinaga (valley) ( Osinaga Bailara ): district of dispersed small villages. It has about 220 neighbors.
Pagoaga (valley) ( Pagoaga Bailara ): district of dispersed small villages. It has about 60 neighbors.
Santa Barbara ( Santa Barbara ): district of low houses, towns and small villages located to the feet of the homonymous mount that dominates Hernani. Separated of the rest of Hernani by the highway San Sebastián-Urnieta.
Sorginchulo ( Sorgintxulo ): its name means literally the hole of the sorceress
Zicuñaga ( Zikuñaga ): district in which was the hermitage where the figure of the virgin of the same name was located and that it was the employer of Hernani. This figure, notable due to its brown color, is created was brought by some horseman cruzado and was robbed of the hermitage in the decade of the 70. The district grows in the 60 due to the demographic boom of the time and is since then a district of clear working vocation, home of people of all Spain who came to nourish the industry of the zone. The district is in the shade of a factory wastebasket.
During the High Average Age, the territory that would form Province of Guip'uzcoa was divided in valleys and Hernani was one of them. valley of Hernani formerly extended by all the territory between the low courses of the rivers Urumea and Oria ., Hernani, Lasarte-Oria, Usúrbil, Urnieta and Orio included in its territory the present populations of San Sebastián .
The first written mentions referred the valley of Hernani go back to a document of votes of the Castilian count Fernán González in favor of Monastery of San Millán of the Cogolla that are dated in year 938, but of that it thinks that is a falsification of Century XIII. Dated at the end of Century XII is the document of donation of Monastery of San Sebastián to Monastery of Leyre in Navarre on the part of the Navarrese king Sancho the Wise person, where it is indicated that this monastery of San Sebastián was in the borders of Hernani .
When this Navarrese king I create the town of San Sebastián towards 1180, the territory of the valley of Hernani was included within the jurisdiction of the new town.
It is not known when the town of Hernani was created as well since the letter of foundation of the town is not conserved. Some consider that the foundation of the town took place during the reign of the Castilian king Alfonso X the Wise person, in second half of Century XIII, since this king I create a network of strategic towns throughout the routes that united the coast with the interior of Guip'uzcoa and Hernani could be one of these strategic localities. Others delay foundation of town until the end of Century XIV establishing like date more delayed 1379, since a document of Century XV mentions an agreement between the councils of Hernani and San Sebastián for the advantage of mounts of the valley of the Urumea that took place in 1379, which gives entendar that for that one Hernani date already it was constituted in town.
The town of Hernani extended its jurisdiction only on part of the old valley. It lost all the coastal and lower strip of the valley of Urumea that continued comprising of San Sebastián; as well as the most western zone, in the valley of the Oria, that became the town of Usúrbil in 1371 . Its western limit continued being the Oria river, but in contrast its Eastern limit already did not mark the Urumea river as long ago but the mounts to it that separated the valley of the Urumea of those of the Oyarzun, extending the town by the right margin of this river. The location of the town of Hernani is thought that, in an attic to 42 meters of altitude that dominates the left margin of the Urumea river and located as well to the feet of the mount Santa Barbara, corresponded to the location of the primitive main town of the valley. This old helmet, by oval form, was surrounded by walls and owned several entrances (of which " only survives one in the street Felipe Sagarna; Zapa"). At first it owned two streets along (the Street Major Nagusia and the Kardaberaz street), that were crossed by a perpendicular street (Nafar streets and their prolongation Felipe Sagarna " Zapa").
The first municipal ordinances are of 1542, copy of decrees disappeared of 1512 during an invasion of the French army. The invasions and destructions are numerous that the town throughout its history has undergone: the medieval banderizas wars, the French invasions in centuries XVII, XVIII and XIX; as well as the hard sieges that underwent during Carlistas Wars and finally Spanish Civil War of 1936 .
In 1986 took place the desanexión of Lasarte, an historical district of Hernani located in the valley of the Oria, that had grown as well until becoming a city.
The population hernaniarra essentially works in the sector services that work gives to 62% of the population, the industry employs to 26% of the workers and the construction to 10%. A 1% are only dedicated at the moment to the agrarian activity. In 2005 the rate of unemployment went up to around 9% of the active populace, a percentage superior to the one of the region. The rent per capita in Hernani is approximately between a 85% and a 90% of the average of rent of Guip'uzcoa as of the region of San Sebastián .
The sector services covers the basic needs of a population with 18,000 inhabitants with regard to commerce, hotel trade and services that are places setting enough. In spite of its proximity to San Sebastián, Hernani is not a city-dormitory of the capital and most of its population carries out its life and covers its basic needs in the own locality. For certain type of commerce and services more specialized the population usually it goes to the near capital.
Hernani is a locality strongly industrialized with 240 registered industrial societies. From the district of Martindegi to the district of Epele a continuous one of about 5 km formed by industrial estates located throughout the shore of the river Urumea extends (Polygons of Landare, Ibaiondo, Zikuñaga, Eziago, Ibarluze, Lastaola and Epele). The industry of Hernani enough is diversified. The located most important companies in Hernani are the cooperative Orona dedicated to the manufacture and assembly of elevators, that count with more than 1500 workers in group and the veteran company wastebasket Guipuzcoan Wastebasket of Zicuñaga located in the homonymous district. Between the industry of Hernani they honor the numerous chemical companies.
The following companies of Hernani surpass the 50 workers according to the Basque Industrial Catalog:
Refractory AMR : production of refractory materials.
Formerly the iron and steel had great importance in the local economy company Pedro Orbegozo, founded on the decade of 1950 and that got to employ almost 1500 workers, most of hernanienses they. The company finally closed in 1992 after one long crisis and its closing caused to a fort impact in the local economy. In the place where it was located formerly this company is the Ibaiondo Polygon at the moment.
As of the decade of 1960, a great increase of the population, which had to the arrival of numerous immigrants coming from diverse regions of Spain took place mainly (Castile and Leon, Andalusia and Extremadura, mainly), attracted by the work in the industry of the zone. This growth paused by the crisis of the industry and the political situation at the end of the 70 and principles of the 80.
In 1986 took place the desanexión of the district of Lasarte, that happened to comprise of a municipality of new denominated creation Lasarte-Oria . That desanexión supposed a loss of about 10,000 inhabitants in Hernani. In the last 20 years the population has remained quite stable.
Parochial Church of San Juan Baptist.
In the municipal term of Hernani is the Museum Chillida-Leku consecrated to the work of the sculptor donostiarra Eduardo Chillida .
On the other hand, in relation to the supervisory celebrations of San Juan, that are celebrated between 23 and 27 of June, one week before the beginning of this one is realized a concert that preludes the mentioned celebrations. In her diverse musical groups of the municipality participate, such as the Band of txistularis of Hernani and the environs, the Band of accordion and the choir pertaining to Hernaniko Musika Eskola Publikoa, the Ozenki choirs, Kantuz and the choir of the parish and the Band of Hernani. Besides diverse groups of traditional dance like Ttar it.
This concert is known like San Juan Iragarpen Kontzertua .
The supervisory celebrations are celebrated at the end of the month of June, agreeing with the festival of San Juan Baptist (24 of June). He is traditional that the days 25 and 26 of June, agreeing with the celebrations, is danced before called maskuri-dantza (dance of the bladder), a traditional dance, that now has become " Azeri-dantza" (dance of the fox), since in the decade of the 80 a person with a mask of a fox added itself that accompanied the dance.
The districts of Hernani also celebrate their celebrations:
Hernani is one of the localities with more tradition in the artisan elaboration of Cider . Along with Astigarraga and Usúrbil forms Guipuzcoan triangle of sidrerías where is concentrated most of sidrerías. It has around a ten of these establishments in the municipality. During the season of sidrerías (of February until May) the locality welcomes numerous visitors who go of Guip'uzcoa and the bordering provinces to sidrerías. The bars of the old helmet of Hernani usually have a special animation during the week ends of this time thanks to these visitors.
Juan de Urbieta : infantry soldier who took prisoner to the French king Francisco I in Batalla de Pavia in 1525 .
Gonzalo de Percáiztegui (century XVI): introducer of the culture of Maize in Basque Country .
Agustín de Cardaberaz (1703-1770): priest, preacher and writer in Basque Language .
Paschal Agustín Iturriaga (1778-1851): priest, educator and writer.
Txirrita (1860-1936): Bertsolari.
Jose Garci'a Goldaraz (1893-1973): Monk who showed positions the one of archbishop of Valladolid among others .
Florentine Goicoechea (1898-1980): of office smuggler and hero of the side allied during World War II . was recruited during World War II to pass aviators allied demolished in Europe through the border franc-Spanish, like part of denominated Network Comète . He was one of the pillars of this network, helping personally in the passage of the border to more than two hundreds of fugitive. It was worth after the war the highest decorations to him of the governments French and British.
Gabriel Celaya (1911-1991): poet.
Bernardino Perez Elizaran, Pasieguito (1925-2002): international soccer player and trainer of Valencia CF .
Jose Maria Setién (1928-): was Bishop of San Sebastián between 1979 and 2000, when it retired of its position, being at the moment emérito bishop of that diocese. She is one appears very well-known in Spain, object of numerous controversies, by its supposedly compatible political opinions to Basque Nationalism .
Olaran Angel (): Missionary with recognized work of missionary in Africa with more than 30 years of humanitarian work, at the moment develops his work in Wukro (Ethiopia)
Martin Zabaleta (1950-): mountain climber. 1980 became the first Basoue in promoting Monte Everest .
Maialen Lujanbio (1976-): bertsolari is well-known (improvisadora poet in Basque Language ). It has participated in three end of the Championship of Euskadi, being subchampion in an occasion.
Maite Pagazaurtundua (1965-): sister of Joseba Pagazaurtundua, old councilman of PSOE in Urnieta and executive president of the Foundation of Victims of the Terrorism.
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