Flavio Josefo (n. 37 or 38 ? - † Rome, 101 ) was a Jewish historian Fariseo, descendant of family of priests. Its original name era Yosef bar Mattityahu .

Biography

Flavio Josefo (in Greek old Ἰώσηπος/Iốsêpos, in Hebrew וסףבןמתתיהו/Yosef bar Mattityahu or Yossef horseradish tree Matityahou, that is to say, son of Matías), Jewish historian, was born around 37 year d.C, in a sacerdotal family of Judea ligature to the monarchy of Asmoneos .

From small Josefo one already characterized by his good memory and its facility of learning, which allowed to develop its intellectual dowries him.

In the year 64 will move to Rome to obtain of Nerón the liberation of some Jewish priests friendly captured his during the Jewish revolts against the Romans, it causes by whom is processed and jailed. Nevertheless, soon is released thanks to the support of Popea Savin, wife of the emperor.

After its return to Jerusalem, in the year 66 exploded Great Jewish Revolt . of Jerusalem like Commander-in-Chief of Galilea was designated by Sanhedrin, organizing its administration and defense. capitulated in the summer of the year 67, after six weeks defending the almost unconquerable strength of Jotapata . The majority of their compatriots was assassinated and Josefo was captured and taken before the presence of at that time general Vespasiano . Before him it made samples of his great formation and predicted that soon he would be emperor, which took to him to gain the pardon when the prophecy was fulfilled. Thus, Josefo happened to be called Flavio Josefo, being released in the year 69 .

Josefo was united to the retinue of Tito, son of Vespasiano, in the year 70 in its march towards Judea, being eyewitness of the destruction of Jerusalem and Secondly temple and participating like mediator between both parts.

In the year 71 travels to Rome and, by order of the emperor, a pension is granted to him, the Roman citizenship under the name of Tito Flavio and a house that was residence of the same Vespasiano. It will be here where it will develop his literary and historical work. died during the mandate of Trajano (probably in 101 ).

Work

wrote the following books in Greek:

Towards the year 93, writes Jewish Antiques . In chapter XVIII Jesus de Nazaret consists a mention to that has received the name of flaviano Testimony . He also writes, in chapter XX, about a friend of Jesus :

In the same book of Jewish Antiques, mentions the death of Juan the Baptist by order of Herodes Antipas (Ant.

In the book the sixth of war of the Jews is one complete description of famous Temple of Salomón, that along with the one of Mishná and Bible, has served as controversy throughout history to debate on the size and the form of the building. Especially in Renaissance divided to the students in two tendencies:

  1. Led by philologists like the Aryan librarian of flamenco formation Benito Montano, that with a strong philological base defended the continuity of the rectangular building that Herodes constructed on the lot of Temple of Salomón in Monte Moriá .
  2. Led by monks like the Cordovan architect Juan Villalpando Baptist, who defended the description of Bible of the square temple that the prophet Ezequiel dreamed that she would be constructed on the ruins of the salomónico.

It is very probable that Monastery of the Dump, the work summit of the catholic Felipe II, is based on the descriptions of Josefo, within the most heterodox line of the hebraísta Benito Aryan Montano .

During Average Age, in Europe, Josefo was an author very read. Some authors affirm that Lucas used part of the work of Flavio Josefo to write Done of the Apostles . Its work has an importance with first order for the history of the Hebrew town, and clarifies to some important historical facts like the siege and destruction of Masada in the 74 year . Also Judaism realizes descriptions of the historical sects of : Fariseos, Saduceos and Zelotes and the something outlandish community of Esenios (one of whose establishments was Qumram); also are some of the first referring historical news to Christianity, like the martyrdom of the brother of Jesus, Santiago, or the sacrifice of Jesus in the cross in the days of Poncio Pilato, text that has been considered very deformed by the Christian copy tradition, but that has been reconstructed in its original form with the help of Syria copies.

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