escopolamina is tropánico Alkaloid that is as secondary metabolite of plants in family of Solanaceas like beleño white ( Hyoscyamus albus ), mocking or borrachero ( Datura stramonium and others Species, Mandrágora ( Mandragora autumnalis ), escopolia ( carniolica Scopolia ), Brugmansia ( Brugmansia candida ) and other plants of the same sorts Is a compatible substance to Atropine that is in Belladona ( Atropa belladona ). The escopolamina is one highly toxic Drug and must be used in very small doses, like for example, in the treatment of Cinetosis (mareos you will carry), are used the 330 trasdérmicas doses that do not surpass µg every day. One Overdose by escopolamina can cause Delirium, and others Psychosis, Paralysis, Stupor and the death.

of the greenish plant vesde to see itself blue

In scientific Literature, the escopolamina is also known like hioscina, that comes from the scientific name of crazy Grass, Hyoscyamus Niger . Its chemical formula is C17H21NO4 and defers from Atropine only in which it has an oxygen bridge between carbon atoms 6 and 7 which, allows him to penetrate hematoencefálica Barrier more easily and to cause alteration of the central nervous system.

Effect

The escopolamina acts like depressor of the Nervous completions and Brain . He is antagonistic competitive of the substances that stimulate parasimpático nervous System, at system level nervous peripheral power station and, producing anticolinérgico effect, that blocks in competitive and inespecífica form Receiving muscarínicos located in central nervous System, Heart, Internal and other weaves, specifically receiving M1 type . It is as well as induces the expansion of Pupils the contraction of Blood vessels, the reduction of secretions Salivary and stomach and other phenomena result of the inhibition of the parasimpático.

In high doses, of more than 10 mgs in children or more than 100 mgs in adults, it can cause Convulsions, severe depression, cardiac Arrhythmias ( severe Tachycardia, Fibrilación, etc), respiratory Insufficiency, vascular collapse and until the death.

Medicinal use

In human Medicine, the escopolamina has three fundamental uses: (1) it is used in very small amounts to come up and to try I am annoying, nauseas, colitis and the vomits caused by different means from locomotion; (2) by its sedative action on the central nervous system, it is used like Antiparkinsoniano, Antispasmodic and like the analgesic premises; and (3) it serves to bring about expansion of the pupil in eye examinations basic. Generally, its use reduces the production of the secretory glands (saliva, bronchi and sweat). Analgesic Morphine was administered next to as in Childbirths but later it giveave when seeing itself implied like causal factor in the excessively high rate of infantile mortality and infantile cojimiento.

Criminal use

The supposed criminal uses of the escopolamina, to which the name of burundanga occurs him popularly, are really truthful and get to be generally catastrophic. At present this drug is used at Hispano-America level producing in the majority of the victims the syndrome of Tourette.

Peripheral symptoms

a person that has been drugged with escopolamina can be clear because the glandular secretion is diminished, the saliva production is suspended producing mouth dryness, thirst; there is difficulty to swallow and to speak; the pupils are expanded with slow reaction to the light, blurred vision for near objects and can exist transitory blindness. Tachycardia is registered that can be accompanied of hypertension. It is characteristic reddening of the skin by vasodilatación and diminution of perspiration, brings forth escarlatiniforme in face and trunk and raises of the corporal temperature that can arrive until 42° C. Cause vesical expansion with spasm from the sphincter urinary retention.

Also temporary cause loss of memory, drowsiness and can be associated with sleepwalking since the drugged person does not remember what really she did while was drugged.

Metabolism and excretion

The maximum effect is reached during the first 1 to 2 hours and soon it yields little by little, following the dose lasts several days in eliminating itself. It has a life average of two hour and a half, and metaboliza in Liver in escopina tropical acid and . Only 10% excrete by Kidney without metabolizar itself. They appear plans in the sweat and maternal milk. crosses the Placental barrier and acts on Fetus .

Treatment

It requires specialized medical attention. The permeable aerial route is due to conserve and a suitable oxygenation, hydration, control of hyperthermia with average physicists (ice bags, compressed cold, etc. It is important to quilt the bed to avoid injuries, and to make place by expert personnel a vesical catheter. The room must be to average light to avoid stimuli to where it is possible.

He is beneficial to diminish the absorption with gastric washing, preferably with activated charcoal and cathartic karst, which must begin without delay if it has interfered orally. If it is observed progressive recovery of the patient and satisfactory improvement of the clinical picture, it is continued with general measures and permanent observation until giving him of discharge. If Delirium presents/displays or Comma, caused by great doses of toxic, the fisostigmina ( Antilirium ), previous medical prescription, is the indicated treatment. This inhibiting drug of acetilcolinesterasa, corrects the central effects and the peripheral effects. Its application in hypotension is contraindicated. Its use is a dangerous substance thus must be limited in patients with severe anticolinérgicas manifestations.

If the diagnosis is correct, a fast answer is observed (therapeutic diagnosis). Like the metaboliza fisostigmina quickly, the patient can fall in comma in one or two hours, again needing new doses. The dose under medical monitoring, if there are no adverse contraindications, allergy or effects, to the 15 minutes since if it is applied quickly it produces convulsions, excessive salivation or vomit can be repeated very slowly that force to suspend it.

diazepam, prescribed by the doctor, can be advisable for the sedation and the control of convulsions. The great doses must be avoided because the central depressive action can agree with the depression produced by the escopolamínico envenenamiento.

Vitamin C, is useful to increase the elimination of the alkaloids by the mechanism of acidification of the urine.

is due to hospitalize according to medical criterion.

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