With the name of tolteca knows a culture prehispÃnica whose main ceremonial center was the city of Tollan-Xicocotitlan, located in which at the moment is known like Tula de Allende, in Been of Noble in ( México ). The gentilicio drift of NÃhuatl toltécatl, that originally he designates to native of the called places Tollan, but that después, during the época Mexica, pasà ³ to being sinà ³ nimo of craftsman or artist . This, among other things, must to relacià ³ n Mitol ³ gica established between Xicocotitlan and the mÃtica Tollan .

The toltecas were the dominant ethnic group of a state whose influence extendÃa until the present state of Zacatecas and to the south-east in PenÃnsula de YucatÃn . relacià ³ n between the toltecas and Mayan of perÃodo posclÃsico has been object of great controversies.

History

In that sense, the toltecas ( nÃhuatl : tÅltÄ “cah ; “constructors”), were the members of one pre-Columbian Culture that dominà ³ most of the center of México between the centuries X and XII . Its language, nÃhuatl, también was spoken by Aztec Much than està is known the toltecassurrounded in Myths

The culture tolteca tenÃa an important component of people single-breasted uniform jacket, is possible that they prevailed on the city of Teotihuacan (near año 750 ). The toltecas united to many pequeños states in the Central México within an Empire governed from their capital, Tulum (también well-known like the Tollan), near Tula, México.

Although it is certain that the toltecas had a great influence between Mayan, not this verified that was a military presence in the peninsula of Yucatan. Nor vice versa, as some authors thought that Tula habÃa founded by Mayan of Yucatan. Than if it is possible to be spoken is of a great commercial influence, polÃtica-nun in the zone to the degree that is reflected basically in the architecture of many structures as they are the Castle, the Temple of the Soldiers of one fusià ³ n Pucc style (surely influenced by Uxmal) with diseño tolteca asà as of the presence of chac-mool tÃpico of Tula. incursià ³ n of Quetzalcà ³ atl as deity is another important element tolteca reflected in KukulkÃn between the Mayans.

Their influence had much talent to construct Temples most of extendià ³ to Mesoamérica in perÃodo PosclÃsico . The toltecas (or, some say, to one versià ³ n ficcionalizada of them) have become famous in the décadas ones passed to través of the writer Carlos Chestnut grove .

Between the towns nahuas of the época of the conquest, the word tolteca meant somebody wise person who dominated Arts and ArtesanÃas and the word toltequidad equivalÃa to which llamarÃamos, high culture.

In 1941, a group of antropà ³ Mexican logos I designate to the city of Tula, in the state of Noble, like Tollan, the capital mÃtica of the Toltecas, but some arqueà ³ logo, as Laurette Séjourné criticized decisià ³ n, señalando that después of several stages of excavacià ³ n habÃa developing a city sufficient not to justify the legend of the toltecas, being señalando that the origin of Tollan and the legend deberÃa to be located in Teotihuacan, being the town of Tula one of the refuges of the survivors of Teotihuacan and for that reason were boasted like Toltecas.

Now the Mexican historian Enrique Florescano, from National Institute of AntropologÃa and Historia returns to retake this interpretacià ³ n, basÃndose in mencià ³ n of Mayan texts previous to Tula, that talk about to Teotihuacan like Tollan.

This culture and in investigations is based on that its city is map of rotacià ³ n of Venus, that is to say is crossed around the sun, near ahà this one montaña Xicuco call (Shicuco) that in nÃhuatl is Navel, that in meaning of the toltecas is between the interior and the outside and does you see but reference to Venus, this montaña has to do with its architecture seen from its buildings before give the mentioned cycles of Venus, without forgetting that this stars appear in the mañanas in the horizon like star that receives the name of Citlalith (it stars of the dawn) These cycles make references to the stages of Quetzalcà ³ atl to be able to be man †“God, that represent the stages of the humans (in the catholicism to be born †“life †“resucitacià ³ n). This culture was very special since in the suit of the Atlantes they are represented all these stages, like the black mirror that causes that Quetzalcà ³ atl, sees its errors to be purified, another important piece is the Chacmol, that atl represents the same Quetzalcà ³ leaving the stage of the fire hidden underneath the Earth, represents giving the same fire to the surface, that is when Venus does not appear in the horizon and arises in the horizon. también is said that this city was of but the difÃciles ones to happen to the Christianity, that Sahagún was the one in charge to do it, since their beliefs tenÃan very well ingrained, Sahagún I take advantage of the meaning montaña Xicuco and the Sun on which atl was of the stages of Quetzalcà ³ arises like sun and God, this Sahagún I represent like a flower on so that the Toltecas assimilated and could be passed to the Christianity. This Cuidad was envied by the Aztecs who to the opposites of the Toltecas tenÃan another one visià ³ n of Quetzalcà ³ atl them habÃa enseñado this I bring about a disorder of ideas causing that they happened to see but human sacrifices that the Aztecs creÃan that was the best thing, with invasià ³ n of españoles the Aztecs confused to You cut as resucitacià ³ n of Quetzalcà ³ atl this I cause anulacià ³ n of soldiers exceeds they being confused, también is said in Tula (Tollan, city of the Toltecas) went away to bury the rancid cakes that You cut gave like interchange of the Aztec gold that occurred when they arrived. These stories were removed from book of the mirrors of arqueologÃa, cà ³ you say Borgia, and written of Sahagún.

Architecture and sculpture

He is doubtless that the toltecas contributed to important changes as far as the norms arquitectà ³ nicas that existÃan in Mesoamérica in century IX; one of them is the use of anthropomorphous sculptures that sostenÃan with the head the one ceiling habitacià ³ n, obtaining asà a great near space, as is appraised in the temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli the Señor of the Alba.Se esteem that Tula albergà ³ around 30 000 inhabitants who basically vivian in great complexes of a single floor with flat of stone and earth and finished ceilings in adobe. Excluding the ceremonial zone, diseño of the residential zones of Tula reflects a squared plane that definian clearly different districts.

Of the nicos elements arquitectà ³ mÃs significant this pirÃ" measures B with its calls; atlantes ", figures of 4,60 ms of height and that sometimes maintained the tile roof of a temple. Según the studies these Atlantes were decorated with enjoyados mosaics and pens. Rest of painting indicate that probably ³ was painted to represent the soldier tolteca-chichimeca of Mixcoatl (father of Quetzalcà atl ) or to the God it stars of the mañana " Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli", although también constructed columns in the form of emplumadas serpents, with the head to the ground and the tail upwards, maintaining the threshold that comprised of the entrance to great habitacià ³ n.

In Ãmbito doméstico poseÃan three different classes from residential sets, the residential group of houses, units and the residences palaciegas.

EconomÃa

EconomÃa was based on one Agriculture of extensive fields of culture irrigated by complex systems of channels, where MaÃz Kidney bean and Amaranth was the main culture. Like in other mesoamericanos states, the commerce played a fundamental role for obtencià ³ n of raw materials and goods of places very moved away.

Organizacià Social ³ n

It was a formed state that had its origin in different tribal groups, being main the treatment tolteca†“chichimeca. The society was highly hierarchized, but in his cúspide no longer was the priests nor the wise people, like ocurrià ³ in previous societies, but the military leaders organized in à ³ rdenes that takes the name of the main lineages. By the representations iconogrÃficas in Building 4, the Great VestÃbulo and the Burned Palace, we know that the main governors showed tÃtulo of Tlaloc, Mixcoatl, by the way a deity otomÃ, and surely the main governor tenÃa tÃtulo Tlatoani.

Véase también

  • MitologÃa tolteca

  • Quetzalcóatl
  • EC Ãcatl Topiltzin Quetzalcà ³ atl
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