was born in 1980 in Pinsk, Gubernia of Minsk, in a family of jewish origin. 1920 entered party Bolshevik . From July of 1934, is the head of the Administration of personnel of Red Army . promoted to the degree of Komkor in 1935.
At the beginning of 1937 is named head of the Administration of General Staff of Red Army . 15 of April of 1937 is named assistant manager of Military district of Moscow .
Dentención and interrogation
of is stopped 15 of May 1937 in relation to Caso Tujachevsky . In the interrogation, “physical methods of action” are applied to him, with which it implies to G. Горбачев), I. Кутяков) among others, and with its declarations NKVD concludes that they are tests of position against the same of his participation in the plot. In these declarations, the own Feldman is clear culprit to organize a plot in Red Army to demolish the Soviet regime by means of armed disturbances, and to bring about the defeat of USSR in a future war.
Before the halting of Feldman, already Schmidt and Kuzmichev had been stopped, and recently Primakov, Putna and Zyuk.
In Russian Civil War, Trotsky assumes the role of organizer of Red Army of diverse bands little organized of volunteers in a disciplined and effective army. The paper of Stalin like political commissioner in the fight, does not seem to stand out with special relevance, being in some cases evaluated like counter-productive, but in any case, later history is rewritten attributing to the central and unique paper to Stalin in the victory in Russian Civil War, agreeing with the political elimination of the heroes and outstanding personages, who in the majority of the cases were realized with a physical elimination.
Russian Civil war
War Pole-Soviet, in failed offensive of Warsaw directed by Mijaíl Tujachevsky, that radically changed the sign of the war against the Soviets, gives a dark paper to Stalin, that in disobedience of the orders to direct the troops of whom polític was commissioner, in the direction of Warsaw, concentrated in the bankrupt siege of Lviv. It seems that these facts, among others many, never were forgotten by Stalin:
Fight by the power between Trotsky and Stalin
Finished Russian Civil War, before the death of Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin were prepared for the succession, and in view to the later results, Stalin played better its cards to take control of the power, with precise alliances with an u other leaders Bolsheviks. In 1927 Stalin secures the expulsion of Trotsky of the party, and later even of the country. With the fall of Trotsky, the gradual elimination of the revolutionary leaders of begins 1917, habitually accused of “deviationism”, that is to say, interpretation “different” from “true” from the theories of Lenin.ref name=" Lebed" />
The case against Zinoviev and Bujarin, allied of Stalin in its struggle with Trotsky, defendant of “desviacionista right-wing views” and “ Trotskismo ”, marks to the algid point of Great Purge, passing the gradual elimination of “desviasionistas” to a destitution or massive elimination of positions and leaders.
Stalin and the army
Red Army, like a creation of Trotsky, was the culture broth during Civil War of competent officials left the same, and therefore, that same one you qualify and competition was a possible broth of culture for the appearance of a leader who could enter conflict or doubt with the own Stalin.
The evolution of highly turned it to the army into qualified and innovating into its expositions, and for his Stalin control it promoted to but high positions to absolutely faithful heroes of the civil war to its person, with a personal leadership reduced to avoid any temptation of rivalry, although this would mean its absolute incompetence like desmostraría in the beginning of World War II with Voroshilov and Budyonny, examples of absolute fidelity to Stalin, and in the case of Voroshilov, its complete military ineptitude. Due to this, to amount of times that had been put in evidence and to the facts as they reasoned, name=" is attributed to a deep hatred towards Tujachevsky on the part of Voroshilov.ref; Lebed" />
In the attempt of Stalin to control the army, Army Soviétido de Caballería fomented the rivalry between the officials left 1º who I fight in the civil war, being but significant the Voroshilov and Budenny, and the rest of officials, many of them left Cosacos Red like Primakov, but always near operative Trotsky. Ever since to Trotsky was commited to leave to the control of the army of 1925 to him, Stalin juice to the balance between both factions, until in 1937 clearly showed preference for the one of 1º Army.
The malaise of the military High Commands against Voroshilov, by its complete inefficiency and ineptitude, well-known and commented by all, is test sufficient the NKVD to sustain the accusations of “military plot”. The prominent figure but in the professional and competent military was Mijaíl Tujachevsky, to which the organization of this plot will be attributed. One of the tests " irrefutables" presented/displayed in the interrogations, they were the attempt of mechanization of the majority of the divisions, in damage to traditional " caballería", with that the civil war had gained, and " they would gain the following ".
Interrogation of Feldman
Commissioner of 2º is carried out by the members of NKVD Leflevsky rank and captain Ushakov, this last specialist in tortures and interrogations, which soon after did not save it of being bled.
In the same member of a “trotskista military plot” is clear, whose implication of initiates in 1932 when it is recruited by Tujachevsky, when this era chief of staff in Military district of Leningrad . It recognizes to have criticized to Voroshilov, and that made many other high officials, and that they reconocian to Trotsky to him military merits. That the main critic was Tujachevsky, assistant manager of Voroshilov in the Popular Commissariat for the Defense, doing a relation of all what remembered. This relation will be the test of main position in the different judgments taken against almost all the mentioned. Feldman in its declaration affirms:
Participants of the plot
Feldman in its declaration names great amount of names, as it is reflected:
Work of recruitment
Tujachevsky insisted to him to place to people of its confidence in the different command posts in the war industry, chemical military man, administrative, etc., on the basis of its technical qualification, and not on the basis of the political civil servants of the Commissariat of Defense, which recognizes was doing throughout the time. For this reason, Feldman autoinculpa to be placed trostskistas in those positions, mentioning to the Engineer officers Maksimov (максимов) in 1933, to the Head of 3º Department of APPOG (АППОГ) to Olshansky (ольшанск) in 1934, and the same year like Head of the Military engineering school Smolin (смолин). By the end of 1934 Feldman affirms to have recruited to the Head of the school of VtsIK Egorov (егоров) and Kutiakov (кутяков), and at the suggestion of Tujachevsky, in 1935 recruit to the Chief of staff of Military district of Moscow, Stepanov (степанов). Feldman tried to recruit to the Head of the Chemical Administration Fishman (фишман) and to the Assistant manager of General Staff Levichev (левичев), but it did not obtain it, supposing that would make Tujachevsky.
Implication of Yakir and Kork
Feldman affirms that Tujachevsky said to him that Iona Yakir, Head of Military district of Kiev and Avgust Kork, ex--Head of Military district of Moscow, and ex--Head of Military district of the Urals was displeasures (what meant to affirm that they were part of the plot). That the ex--people in charge of military training Ugrumov and Chaikovsky were appointed by Feldman at the request of Tujachevsky to the School of Infantry of Kiev, for “Continuing with their anti-Soviet work”.
Feldman affirms that Tujachevsky had recruited to Yakir between end of 1933 and principles of 1934, and that Feldman had to support all the proposals of Yakir, which did with the appointment of the ex--trotskista Butirsky (бутырск) and for the General Staff to Germonius (гермониус) and Lavos (лавос), not remembering but names.
Yakir asked for the appointment to him of Levinzon (левинзон) for the headquarters of construction of military houses, in spite of not having experience in that field. “The intention was the malaise creation, facilitating the recruitment for the organization”.
Tujachevsky said to him to Feldman that Avgust Kork was recruited in the same dates that Yakir, and that its mission was the one to diminish the military training and capacity in the zone of Moscow.
Implication of Eideman and Uborevich
Feldman affirms that Tujachevsky has been able to integrate in the “organization” to the head of Osoaviajim Robert Eideman, to the being this important organization for “the contrarrevolucionario” work.
Implication of Primakov
Feldman affirms that same Primakov said to him that it belonged to the “organization”, and also Dagrilev (Драгилев), ex--head of the air defense of Leningrad, as well as Koshelev (Кошелев) and Bayusha (Баюша), and the Head of the faculty of naval engineers Selimanov (Селиванов), Garkava (Гарькава) said to him to Feldman that the head of 65º Gavriuchenko Division (Гаврюшенко), the military engineer officers Velezhev (Вележев) and other ones in charge of construction that does not remember, were transferred to Primakov like people of the group.
The mission of Primakov in intimate collaboration with Tujachevsky, affirms Feldman, is from 1934, is the reduction of the fighting efficiency in the academies, fact by means of the “revision of training programs” in order “to generate displeasure”.
Implication of Shmidt
Feldman affirms that in 1935 Shchmidt informed to him personally in Moscow on the people that has recruited in its brigade. Shchmidt in 1927, in the congress in which Trotsky was expelled, being one of his but fervent those in favor, said the words that Stalin never would forget: " To Moscow I will cut the ears to him to Koba" (Koba is Stalin). It was never forgotten, no matter how hard it adjured of Trotsky and the Trotskismo. Turovsky (Туровский) mentions with respect to the transfer of Zyuk (Зюк) to Military district of Járkov, that this had recruited to much people in 25º Division. Shmidt is the contact with the group of the “Center Trotskista Zinovista”, along with Kuzmichev, being the contact with Tujachevsky and Piatakov. Dmitry Shmidt already had been arrested 5 of July of 1936 and hard tortured.
Impliación de Efimov and Piatakov
Feldman had numerous conversations with Efimov on artillery, ammunition storage, warlike industry, etc., and that did at the suggestion of Tujachevsky for “boycotting the suitable development of the artillery”. Piatakov by order of Tujachevsky in 1933, interfered in the manufacture of new pieces of artillery. Also, Tujachevsky wanted the reform as large as the infantry divisions for its inoperativity. Piatakov had many contacts with the armamentística industry, and collaborated with Vasilievsky in the fraud.
Implication of Putna
Feldman affirms that Trotsky was in contact with the enemy with Tujachvesky from 1932, ignoring with that, but which from 1934 the contact was Vitovt Putna, military attache' in London . It also affirms Feldman, that in 1935 on the occasion of the visit from Putna to Moscow, Tujachevsky informs to him that “brings the directives of Trotsky”, that must of having an intimate collaboration with the trotskista civil organization.
Feldman is processed by article 58, separated 58-1б, 58-8 and 58-11 of the Criminal Code of RSFSR. In the celebrated judgment 11 of June in Military court of the Supreme Court of the USSR, along with Marshal Mijaíl Tujachevsky and other high military officials: Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, Avgust Kork, Vitovt Putna, and Vitaly Primakov (as well as Yan Gamarnik, that commit suicide before the beginning of the investigation), all of them defendant of an anti-Soviet conspiracy.
The processings were accused to prepare " demolition of the government by means of rises armados", " defeat in future guerra", " espionage and activity dañina", " creation of groups terroristas" and " preparation of terrorist acts against the leaders of the party and gobierno".
On the haltings, the General of OGPUKrivitsky wrote:
The court was presided over by Vasili Ulrikh and was trained by the marshals Vasily Blyukher, Semyon Budyonny and the Generals Yakov Alksnis, Boris Shaposhnikov, Ivan Belov, Pavel Dibenko and Nikolay Kashirin . Budyonny and Shaposhinkov will only survive the following purges, being the rest judged and executed by " traidores".
Feldman declared culprit, being sentenced and being until death executed immediately afterwards.
12 of June is streamlining of 1937 in Moscow, the cemetery of Donsk, being its body incinerated in the crematory of that cemetery.
31 of January was rehabilitated posthumously by Special Judicial Vista of the Supreme Court of the USSR of 1957, when not finding crime evidence.