beja is one nomadic town that mainly lives to mountains on the coast on the Red Sea, in Sudan . is not Arab, but camíticos and is close two million. is denominated bedawiyet and speaks to a denominated language Tone, but they speak the Arab like second language. They are descendant of Blemios, already mentioned it does four thousand years and that would have lived in the region for six thousand years.

Characteristics of the town beja

Beja is preservative and loyal more to the clan ( diwab ) than to the tribal unit. They are little hospitable (except with the intimate friendly) and they do not like the foreigners. The family is patriarchal and the head of household responds of the honor of all. The marriages are arranged by the head of household, often with cousins. The divorce is allowed. The circuncidados boys are and to the women Clítoris is amputated to them . The woman does not have right to inheritance. The revenge does not practice, but it looks for the commitment and the compensation. They practice the Muslim religion, but of a distant way and the orders sufís do not have too much incidence, excepting the Mighaniya and the Majdubiya. The women have the long hair and the men take to style afro to it.

Economy

Base economic is Agriculture (in those places where the land has allowed to establish farms), I graze and the work to the cities. The traditional office is to do of shepherd bringing the flocks to the places adapted at every time. uses basically Camel and also they have flocks. The camel they take advantage of milk, the meat, the skin and the fat. The camels of beja are sold in Egypt and Arabia . The camels of beja are of three classes, Shallagea, Aririit and Matiaat.

Tribes

  • Hadendowa : it is the main group and she exists approximately from 1600 ; they live to the south on Sudan Port and in Eritrea .
  • Bisjarin : tribe created after the year 1000, with a common ancestor denominated Bishar ibn Marwan ibn Ishaq ibn Rabi'a; they live to the north of Sudan Port.
  • Ama'ar, tribe originated towards 1750 ; they live to hills on the Red Sea, to the north of Sudan Port.
  • Bani-Amir, lives in Eritrea and to the south of Sudan and speaks like second language Tigriña ; they are divided in chaste (noble or nabtabs and servants or tigers ).
  • Ababda, lives in Egypt and to the northeast of Sudan.

History

The Egyptians called blemios and this name was retaken by Greek and Roman. At the beginning of the Christian time began to use the camel. axumitas called drinks . They became to the Christianity during the century I SAW, after being defeated by the Christian king of Nobatia, Silko. In 638, after the Arab conquest of Egypt, signed a deal with beja that guaranteed the freedom to them of religion and it allowed them to deal with Egypt, but it prohibited them to make raids and it imposed a tribute in camels.

Under fatimís, during centuries X and XI, the commerce in Egypt was increased, as well as with the Christian kingdoms of Nubia . During Crossed the Muslim pilgrims had to happen through territory of beja to go to Mecca and beja sold water and other products to them that produced.

In century XIII, in contact with Mamelucos Egyptian (that settled down to Suakin ), Muslims became and participated to the attacks to the Christian kingdoms of Nubia. Later the war between Ottoman and Persian blocked Route of soothes and the importance of Suakin increased.

In century XVIII was nominally put under the kingdom Funj of Sennar, but actually they were independent. In 1820 Muhammad Ali invaded Nubia. Beja was defeated in several smaller shocks, and had to pay tribute. In 1831 eliminated an Egyptian contingent, but they were put under more in front of new equipped forces. In 1844 revolted and would be massacreed by the Egyptians, that constructed Kassala like commercial and military center to control beja.

followed a time of peace until the revolution of the Mahdi in 1881. Beja took in being united to the religious head, but finally Worthy Osman united the tribes and made side to the Mahdi. During the war the population was decimated and died four fifth parts of the means million that were. The revolt finally was eliminated by Horatio Kitchener in 1898 .

The establishment of the British control improved its economic and social situation. The British gave to autonomy to the local heads ( nazirs ), tribal ( omdas ) and monks ( sheikhs ) in exchange for tranquility in the ways and of a tribute. In 1922 was created Sudan Port to replace the old Suakin where the modern boats could not anchor. The crisis of the Forties forced to many beja to be placed of workers in the port or similar works in Sudan Port, that filled almost exclusively by beja. Beja had stayed isolated until this century and had avoided the loss of their ethnic and linguistic identity.

The drought of 1984 - 1986 was a disaster by this town with the loss of great part of the flocks. After the drought, the urban groups began to organize political movements. The nationalism beja exploded in 1986 when the statue of the leader beja Worthy Osman in Sudan Port appeared with the cut hands and the head. Manifestations took place and marches and took arms (knives, arcs and you shoot with an arrow). At the moment (from 1992 ) a part is incited to rebellion against the government of Sudan (the Beja Congress).

In 1995 the leader Amin Shingrai signed the declaration of Asmara with other groups (then it controlled Garoura and Hamshkoraib); the present rebellious leader, the Sheikh Omar is more radical than another leader, the Sheikh Suliman Betay, that has the support of the traditional groups. The Beja Congress has badly welcomed the peace accord between the government of Jartum and the party sudista Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), ally of beja, that leaves them isolate, and has signed agreements with the rebellious groups in Darfur .

Symbols

Beja has still not adopted a national flag. The flags of the political movements are not known.
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