beja is one nomadic town that mainly lives to mountains on the coast on the Red Sea, in Sudan . is not Arab, but camíticos and is close two million. is denominated bedawiyet and speaks to a denominated language Tone, but they speak the Arab like second language. They are descendant of Blemios, already mentioned it does four thousand years and that would have lived in the region for six thousand years.
beginning of the Christian time began to use the camel. axumitas called drinks . They became to the Christianity during the century I SAW, after being defeated by the Christian king of Nobatia, Silko. In 638, after the Arab conquest of Egypt, signed a deal with beja that guaranteed the freedom to them of religion and it allowed them to deal with Egypt, but it prohibited them to make raids and it imposed a tribute in camels.
Under fatimís, during centuries X and XI, the commerce in Egypt was increased, as well as with the Christian kingdoms of Nubia . During Crossed the Muslim pilgrims had to happen through territory of beja to go to Mecca and beja sold water and other products to them that produced.
In century XIII, in contact with Mamelucos Egyptian (that settled down to Suakin ), Muslims became and participated to the attacks to the Christian kingdoms of Nubia. Later the war between Ottoman and Persian blocked Route of soothes and the importance of Suakin increased.
In century XVIII was nominally put under the kingdom Funj of Sennar, but actually they were independent. In 1820 Muhammad Ali invaded Nubia. Beja was defeated in several smaller shocks, and had to pay tribute. In 1831 eliminated an Egyptian contingent, but they were put under more in front of new equipped forces. In 1844 revolted and would be massacreed by the Egyptians, that constructed Kassala like commercial and military center to control beja.
followed a time of peace until the revolution of the Mahdi in 1881. Beja took in being united to the religious head, but finally Worthy Osman united the tribes and made side to the Mahdi. During the war the population was decimated and died four fifth parts of the means million that were. The revolt finally was eliminated by Horatio Kitchener in 1898 .
The establishment of the British control improved its economic and social situation. The British gave to autonomy to the local heads ( nazirs ), tribal ( omdas ) and monks ( sheikhs ) in exchange for tranquility in the ways and of a tribute. In 1922 was created Sudan Port to replace the old Suakin where the modern boats could not anchor. The crisis of the Forties forced to many beja to be placed of workers in the port or similar works in Sudan Port, that filled almost exclusively by beja. Beja had stayed isolated until this century and had avoided the loss of their ethnic and linguistic identity.
The drought of 1984 - 1986 was a disaster by this town with the loss of great part of the flocks. After the drought, the urban groups began to organize political movements. The nationalism beja exploded in 1986 when the statue of the leader beja Worthy Osman in Sudan Port appeared with the cut hands and the head. Manifestations took place and marches and took arms (knives, arcs and you shoot with an arrow). At the moment (from 1992 ) a part is incited to rebellion against the government of Sudan (the Beja Congress).
In 1995 the leader Amin Shingrai signed the declaration of Asmara with other groups (then it controlled Garoura and Hamshkoraib); the present rebellious leader, the Sheikh Omar is more radical than another leader, the Sheikh Suliman Betay, that has the support of the traditional groups. The Beja Congress has badly welcomed the peace accord between the government of Jartum and the party sudista Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), ally of beja, that leaves them isolate, and has signed agreements with the rebellious groups in Darfur .
|Random links:||Fatty acid | Jerry Sloan | Larbi Benboudaoud | O.J. Simpson | OCC|