History (the West)
Old Age Antigà ¼ age clÃsica
Antigà ¼ age tardÃa
Average Age High Average Age
Low Average Age
Total Average Age
Crisis of the Average Age
Century XV
Modern Age
Century XVI
Century XVII
Century XVIII
Contemporà Agenea Century XIX
Century XX
21st century
Average Age or Medievo is rich PerÃodo histà ³ of Civilizacià Western ³ n included between Century V and XV . Its beginning sitúa traditionally in año 476 with caÃda of the Roman Empire of the West and its aim in 1492 with Discovery of América, or in 1453 with caÃda of the Byzantine Empire, date that the advantage has to agree with Invencià ³ n of the press ( Bible of Gutenberg ) and with the purpose of it War of the One hundred Años .

At the moment the historians of the period prefer to clarify this rupture between Antigà ¼ age and Average Age so that between the centuries III and VIII usually is spoken of Antigà ¼ TardÃa age, that habrÃa be a great stage of transicià ³ n in all the Ãmbitos: in econà ³ mico, for sustitucià ³ n of Way of produccià esclavista ³ n by Way of produccià feudal ³ n ; in the social thing, for desaparicià ³ n of the concept of Roman CiudadanÃa and definicià ³ n of medieval Estates, in the polÃtico for descomposicià ³ n of the structures centralized of Roman Empire that dià ³ passage to one dispersià ³ n of the power; and in ideolà ³ gico and cultural for absorcià ³ n and sustitucià ³ n of Culture clÃsica by teocéntricas cultures Christian or IslÃmica (each in its space).

Usually it is divided in two great perÃodos: Early or High Average Age ( Century V to Century X, without clear diferenciacià ³ n with the Antigà ¼ TardÃa age); and Low Average Age ( Century XI to Century XV ), that can as well be divided in a period of fullness, Total Average Age (century XI to Century XIII ), and both últimos centuries that were present at Crisis of the Average Age or of Century XIV .

Although ³ n are some examples of utilizacià previous, Far from being a inmovilista época, the Average Age, that habÃa begun with migrations of whole towns, and continued with great repobladores processes ( Repoblacià ³ n in the PenÃnsula Ibérica, Ostsiedlung in Eastern Europe) saw cà ³ mo in its últimos old centuries cami

También arose in the Average Age new polÃticas forms, that go from Califato islÃmico to universal Powers of Latin Cristiandad ( Pontificado and Empire ) or Byzantine Empire and the Slavic kingdoms integrated in Eastern Cristiandad ( Aculturacià ³ n and Evangelizacià ³ n of Cirilo and Metodio ); and in smaller scale, all type of Cities been, from pequeñas repúblicas episcopal cities German to that maintained marÃtimos empires like Venice ; leaving in the middle of the scale to which had major proyeccià future ³ n: MonarquÃas feudal, that transformed into MonarquÃas authoritarian foreshadows Been modern .

In fact, all the concepts associated to which has come in calling Modernity appear in the Average Age, in their intellectual aspects with the same crisis of EscolÃstica . No of them serÃa understandable without own Feudalism, is understood this like Way of produccià ³ n (based on the social relations of Produccià ³ n around earth of Feudo ) or like polÃtico System (based on the personal relations of To be able around Institucià ³ n of Vasallaje ), según the different interpretations HistoriogrÃficas

The shock of civilizations between Cristiandad and Islam, indicated in rupture of the unit of the MediterrÃneon (fixed fundamental of the época, según Henri Pirenne, in his clÃsico Mahoma and Carlomagno ), española Recapture and Crossed ; its part of fértil cultural interchange had también ( School of Translators of Toledo, School Médica Salernitana ) that amplià ³ the intellectual horizons of Europe, until then limited the rest of the culture clÃsica saved by altomedieval Monacato and adapted to the Christianity.

That same Western Europe produced impressive sucesià ³ n of artÃsticos styles ( PrerromÃnico, RomÃnico and Gà ³ tico ), that in the border zones mestizaron también with Art islÃmico ( Mudéjar, Art andalusÃ, Art Ãrabe-Norman ) or with Byzantine Art .

medieval Science not respondÃa to one modern MetodologÃa, but either habÃa done the one of the authors clÃsicos, that took care of Nature from their own perspective; and in both ages without conexià ³ n with the world of the técnicas, that was relegated to Work manual of Craftsmen and Farmers responsible for a slow but constant progress in Tools and productive processes. diferenciacià ³ n between vile Offices and mecÃnicos and liberal Professions tie to the intellectual study convivià ³ with one teà ³ rich putting in spiritual value of the work in the surroundings of Monasteries Benedictines, cuestià ³ n that not pasà ³ of being a pious exercise, exceeded by much mÃimportant s valoracià ³ n of Poverty, determined by the structure econà ³ social mica and that expresà ³ in medieval Thought econà ³ mico .

Medievalismo is as much quality or carÃto cter of medieval, as interés by the época and the medieval subjects and their study; and medievalista the specialist in these matters. The descrédito of the Average Age was a constant during Modern Age, in which Humanism, Renaissance, Rationalism, Clasicismo and Ilustracià ³ n affirms like reactions against her, or mÃs or against which they understand that it meant, or against the characteristics of its own present which they try to disqualify like medieval survivals. Despite from aims of Century XVI interesting compilations of take place medieval documentary Sources that look for método crÃtico for rich Science histà ³ . Romanticism and thumb|left|200px|Map '' TO '', with [[Jerusalén]] in center, and the three simplified parts of the world '' remembered '', mÃs that known in the Average Age.]] The great migrations of [[época of the invasions]] meant paradà jicamente ³ a closing to the contact of the West with the rest of the world. Very few news tenÃan the European of the medieval millenium (as much those of [[Latin cristiandad]] like those of [[Eastern cristiandad]]) of which, aside from [[civilizacià ³ n islÃmica]], that ejercià ³ of bridge but también of obstÃass between Europe and the rest of [[Old World]], Pirenne, '' op. '' was developed other civilizations. Even a vast Christian kingdom like the one of [[EtiopÃa]], when isolated being, convirtià ³ in imaginary cultural in the mÃtico kingdom of [[Preste Juan]], as soon as distinguishable of the islands atlÃnticas of [[San Borondà ³ n]] and of the rest of the wonders drawn in [[bestiario]] s and the little, rudimentary and imaginative maps. The development markedly autà ³ nomo of China, mÃs developed civilizacià ³ n of the época (although overturned towards its own interior and become absorbed in thought in its cycles dinÃsticos: [[S [[History of Japà ³ n]] (that during this period was in formacià ³ n like civilizacià ³ n, adapting the Chinese influences to the culture autà ³ ctona and expandiéndose from the southern islands to the northern ones), in spite of its major lejanÃa and isolation, usually is paradà ³ jicamente mÃs associated to the medieval término '' ''; although so denominacià ³ n is limited by historiografÃa, significantly, to '' medieval period '' that is located between años 1000 and 1868, to adapt to denominated [[feudalism japonés]] previous to [[was Meiji]] ('' véase también [[shogunato]], [[Have (Japà ³ n)|] and [are] [castle japonés]] '').es/civilizaciones/contextos/8657.htm '' Society in the Japà medieval ³ n ''], in Artehistoria. [[History of India]] or [[History of Ãfrica|of the black Ãfrica]] as of century VII counted on a major or minor influences Muslim, but they relied on dinÃdifferent own micas good ([[Sultanato de Delhi]], [[Sultanato de Bahmani]], [[Vijayanagara Empire]] - in India [[Empire of MalÃ]], [[Songhay Empire]] - in black Ãfrica). llegà ³ to even take place an outstanding intervencià Saharan ³ n [[]] in the world mediterrÃwestern neon: [[Almorà Empirebidet]]. Of a way todavÃa mÃclear s, [[History of América]] (that crossed its periods [[Clà Periodsico of América|clÃsico]] and [[Posclà Periodsico of América|postclÃsico]]) did not have ningún type of contact with the Old World, mÃs allÃof the arrival of denominated '' [[Colonizacià ³ n vikinga in América]] '' that limità ³ to one to reduced and efÃmera presence in [[Greenland]] and enigmÃtica '' [[Vinland]] '', or the possible later expeditions of [[whaling Basoues]] in similar zones of [[AtlÃntico North]], although this fact has to be understood in the context of the great development of navegacià ³ n of the últimos centuries of the Low average Age, already directed to [[Era of the Discoveries]]. What sà ocurrià ³, and can be considered like a constant of the medieval period, was perià ³ dica repeticià ³ n of precise interferences centroasiÃticas in Europe and the Prà ³ ximo East in the form of invasions of towns of [[Central Asia]], outstandingly [[Turkish]] ([[köktà ¼ rks]], [[jÃzaros]], [[Ottoman]]) and [[mongoles]] (unified by [[Gengis Kan]]) and whose [[Gold Horde]] was present in Eastern Europe and conformà ³ the personality of the Christian states which they were created, vasallos and sometimes sometimes resistant, in Russian and Ukrainian steppes. Even in rare ocasià ³ n, the primitive diplomacy of the low-medieval European kingdoms saw the posiblidad use to the seconds like counterbalance to first: the frustrated embassy of [[Ruy GonzÃlez of Clavijo]] to the court of [[TamerlÃn]] in [[Samarkand]], in the context of the siege mongol of Damascus, a little while very delicate ([[1401]] - [[1406]]) in which también took part like diplomÃtico [[Ibn Jaldún]]. Mongoles already habÃan [ [[Image: Dream of Constantine Milvius BnF MS Gr510 fol440.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Sueño de Constantino before [[battles of the Milvio Bridge]]. '' In sickle sign vinces '' (With this sign vencerÃs). Ilustracià ³ n of '' HomilÃas of san [[Gregorio Nacianceno]] '', century IX.]] [[Image: Sylvester I and Constantine.jpg|thumb|right|300px|The Pope [[Wild I]] blesses to [[Constantino I the Great one|Constantino]], del that receives with [[tiara]] (sÃmbolo of [[pontificado]] Roman clÃsico, similar to other hairdos polÃtico-monks, as the double crown of the Pharaohs) the temporary power on Rome. Fresh of century XIII, chapel of San Silvestre, [[monastery of the Four Crowned Saints]].]] [[Image: Leoattila.jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Encuentro de Great Leà ³ n with Atila]], fresh of [[Rafael Sanzio]] in [[stays of the Vatican]] ([[1514]])]] == the beginning of the Average Age == {{AP|Antigà ¼ age tardÃa}} Although several dates for the beginning of the Average Age have seted out, of which mÃextended s is the one of año [[476]], the certain thing is that we cannot locate the beginning of a so exact form since the Average Age is not born, but " hace" as a result of everything a length and slow process that extends by space of five centuries and that brings about enormous changes at all the levels of a very deep form that even repercutirÃn until ours dÃas. We can consider that process begins with [[crisis of century III]], to the inherent problems of reproduccià ³ n to the way of produccià tie esclavista ³ n, that needed one expansià continuous ³ imperial n that no longer producÃa after fijacià ³ n of '' [[you file]] '' Roman. Possibly también climà came together factorsticos for sucesià ³ n of bad harvests and epidemics; and of a way much mÃevident s first [[invasions germÃnicas]] and revolts farmers ('' [[bagaudas]] ''), in a period in which brief ones follow one another many and t Ningún concrete event - to weighing of the abundance and concatenacià same ³ n of facts catastrà ³ ficos- determinà ³ by sà the aim of [[Old Age]] and the beginning of the Average Age: nor successive [[sacking of Rome|sackings of Rome]] (by [[godos]] of [[Alarico I]] in [[410]], by [[vÃndalos]] in [[455]], by the own imperial troops of [[Ricimero]] in [[472]], by [[ostrogodos]] in [[546]]), nor dreadful irrupcià ³ n of [[hunos]] of [[Atila]] ([[450]] - [[452]], with [[Batalla of the Català Fieldsonly]] and extraña interview with the Pope [[Leà ³ n I Great]]), nor the overthrow of [[Rà ³ Augústulo mule]] (último Roman emperor of the West, by [[Odoacro]] the hérulos head of [[]] - [[476]] -); they were events that his contemporÃneons would consider initiators of a new época. culminacià ³ n at the end of [[century V]] of a series of processes of long duracià ³ n, among them serious dislocacià ³ n econà ³ mica, the invasions and the establishment of the Germanic towns in [[Im {{VT|Decay of the Roman Empire|Invasions bÃrbaras|Towns germÃnicos}}

Image: Roman empire 395.jpg|Divisià ³ n of the Roman Empire, año [[395]].jpg|[[Kingdoms germÃnicos]] and [[Byzantine Empire]] towards [[526]].
== High Average Age (centuries V to the X) == {{AP|High Average Age}} === the germanorromanos kingdoms (centuries V to the VIII) === {{AP|Kingdoms germÃnicos}} ==== ÂBÃrbaros? ==== {{mentions|bÃrbaros they scatter furious… and the whip of the plague noncause less damage, tirÃnico exactor robs and the soldier sacks to the wealth and the food supplies hidden in the cities; a so frightful hunger reigns, that forced by her, the human género devours human meat, and until the mothers they kill his children and they cook his bodies to feed itself with them. The fierce fans to cadÃveres of deads by the sword, the hunger and the plague, mà destroys until the mens strong, and cebÃndose in their members, becomes fierce mà every times for destruccià ³ n of the human género. Of this luck, exacerbated in all the orb the four plagues: the iron, the hunger, the plague and fierce, cúmplense the predictions that the Señor by mouth did of its Prophets. Knocked down the provinces… by the referred encruelecimiento of the plagues, bÃrbaros, solved by the mercy of the Señor to make La Paz, the regions of the provinces are distributed to luck to settle down in them|[[Hidacio]], '' Chronicon '' (towards 468). Texto selected by [[Claudius SÃnchez Albornoz]] and [[Aurelio Viñas]] (1929) '' Readings of History of España '', Madrid, [24 http://www.com/historia/textos/medieval/alta_edad_media1.], mentioned in Cervantesvirtual.}} The text concretely talks about to Hispania and its provinces, and bÃrbaros mentioned] is especÃficamente [[suevos], [[vÃndalos]] and [[mastiff]], that in [[406]] habÃan cruzado '' [[you file]] '' of [[Rhine]] (unusually frozen) around [[Mainz]] and around [[409]] habÃan arrived at the PenÃnsula Ibérica; but the image is equivalent at other moments and places that the same author narrates, of the period between 379 and 468. [[Towns germÃnicos]] coming from the Europe of the North and the East, obvious was in a stage of social and cultural development econà ³ mico, inferior to the one of the Roman Empire, to which they themselves percibÃan admiringly. They were perceived as well with a mixture of scorn, fear and hope (retrospectively shaped in the influential poem '' Waiting for bÃrbaros '' of [[Constantino Cavafis]]), [http://www.elinconformistadigital.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=987&mode=&order=0 Text of the poem]. The subject was turned into novel by [[John Maxwell Coetzee]]. '' Waiting for bÃrbaros '', (Traduccià ³ n of Shell Manella and Luis MartÃnez Victorio), Debolsillo: Barcelona, 2004 [http://www.com/estanteria/e_barbaros.htm Commentary of the novel]. and even them atribuyà ³ a paper justiciero (although involuntary) from a providencialista point of view [[]] on the part of the Roman Christian authors ([[Orosio]], [[Salviano of Marseilles]] and San Germanic, that disponÃan of peculiar institutions polÃticas, in particular the assembly of free soldiers ('' [[thing]] '') and the figure of [[king]], received the influence of the institutional traditions of the Empire and [[civilizacià greco-roman ³ n]], asà like the one of the Christianity (although not always of the atanasiano Christianity catà ³ lico or '' [[]] '', but of '' [[arrianismo|arriano]] ''); and they went adapting to the circumstances of its establishment in the new territories, mainly to the alternative between prevailing like minorÃa leader on one mayorÃa of poblacià local ³ n or megring with her. The new kingdoms germÃnicos Average Age conformed the personality of Western Europe during [[]],] evolved in [[monarquÃas feudal] and [[monarquÃas authoritarian]], and with time, states-nacià gave to origin to [[³ n]] that went away constructing around them. Socially, in some of these paÃses ([[España]] or [[France]]), the origin germÃnico ([[godo]] or [[frank town|franc]]) pasà ³ to being a characteristic of [[chaste honor]] or pride of [[]] shown by [[nobility]] like distincià ³ n on the set of poblacià ³ n. ==== the transformations of the Roman world ==== [[Image: Galla Placidia (rechts) und ihre Kinder.jpg|thumb|right|350px|[[Gallic Placidia]] and its children, [[Right Valentiniano III]] and [[Pleasing Honoria]].]] {{VT|Decay of the Roman Empire}} The Roman Empire habÃa passed through external invasions and [[Civil Wars of the República of Rome|terrible civil wars in the past]], but at the end of century IV, apparently, situacià ³ n was under control. Little HacÃa time that [[Teodosio I the Great one|Teodosio]] habÃa again managed to unify under a single center both halves of the Empire ([[392]]) and established new religià ³ n of State, [[First Council of Nicea|Christianity niceno]] ([[Edicto de Tesalà ³ nica]] - [[380]]), with the consequence persecucià ³ n of the traditional pagan cults and [[Christian heterodoxy]] s. [[Christian clergy]], turned into one jerarquÃa of being able, justified ideolà gicamente ³ to '' Imperium Romanum Christianum '' and to [[dinastÃa Teodosiana]] like habÃa begun to already do with [[DinastÃa Constantiniana|Constantiniana]] from [[Edicto de MilÃn]] ([[313]]). They are habÃan channeled the eagerness of polÃtico protagonism of mÃs rich and influential Roman senators and of the western provinces. AdemÃs, dinastÃa habÃa known to channel agreements with the powerful military aristocracy, in which Germanic noble were enlisted that acudÃan to the service from the Empire to the front of soldiers united by fidelity bows towards them. When dying in [[395]], Teodosio confià ³ the government of the West and proteccià ³ n of its young heir [[Flavio Honorio|Honorio]] to the general [[Estilicà ³ n]], primogénito of an official nobleman vÃndalo that habÃa contraÃdo marriage with [[Calm Flavia]], niece of the own Teodosio. Nevertheless, when in [[455]] murià ³ assassinated [[Valentiniano III]], grandson of Teodosio, a good part of the descendants of those western noble ('' nobilissimus, clarissimus '') that as much habÃan trusting in the destinies of the Empire already seemed to distrust of the same, mainly when during two decades they habÃan themselves been able to give account of which e [[Image: Anneau sigillaire Alaric II.jpg|thumb|left|200px|'' Alaricus rex gothorum '', [[seal]] of [[Alarico II]], king visigodo.]] Needed to maintain one posicià ³ n of social predominance and econà ³ mico in its regions of origin, reduced its fundiarios patrimonies to provincial dimensions, and seeking an own polÃtico protagonism of its lineage and its culture, '' [[honestior]] is '' (mÃs honest or honest, those that have [[honor]]), representatives of [[western tardorromanas aristocracy]] s habrÃan finished accepting the advantages to admit the legitimacy of the government of these kings germÃnicos, already very Romanized, been becoming in its provinces. After all, éstos, to the front of their soldiers, podÃan to offer quite greater security to them than the ejército of the Rà emperorsvein. AdemÃs, the food supply of these troops were rather less onerous than the one from the imperial ones, to be based largely on séquitos armed employees of the nobility germÃnica and fed at the expense of the provincial fundiario patrimony of which ésta already hacÃa appropriate time habÃa. Less onerous as much it stops But this metamorphosis of the Roman West in Roman-Germanic, not habÃa be consequence of an inevitability clearly demonstrated from the beginning; on the contrary, the way habÃa be hard, zigzagueante, with tests of other solutions, and moments in which parecÃa that everything podÃa for returning to be like before. Asà ocurrià ³ throughout [[century V]], and in some regions también in [[century I SAW] consequently], among other things, of the call '' [[Recuperatio Imperii]] '' or Recapture of Justiniano. ==== the different kingdoms ==== [[Image: Battle and between Clovis the Visigoths.jpg|thumb|right|350px|[[Batalla de Vouillé]] ([[507]]), between francs and visigodos, represented in a manuscript of century XIV.]] [[Invasions bÃrbaras]] from [[century III]] habÃan demonstrated to the permeability of '' [[you file]] '' Roman in Europe, fixed to [[Rhine]] and [[the Danube]]. divisià ³ n of the Empire in East and the West, and the greater strength of Byzantine the Eastern empire or [[]], determinà ³ that outside únicamente in western half where the establishment of these towns took place and his institucionalizacià polÃtica ³ n like kingdoms. ] Was [[visigodos], first like [[Kingdom of Tolosa]] and soon like [[Kingdom visigodo of Toledo|Kingdom of Toledo]], first in carrying out that institucionalizacià ³ n, valiéndose of his condicià ³ n of federal, with obtencià ³ n of '' [[foedus]] '' with the Empire, that them encargà ³ pacificacià ³ n of the provinces of [[Galia]] and [[Hispania]], whose control was lost in prÃctica after suevos the 410 invasions of [[]] by [[]], [[vÃndalos]] and [[mastiff]]. Of éstos, sà ³ the suevos obtained the definitive establishment in a zone: [[Kingdom of Panties]], whereas vÃndalos the north of Ãfrica and the islands of the Mediterrà settled down inWestern neon, but [Justiniano I went to the century following eliminated by Byzantine during great expansià territorial ³ n of []] (campañas of the generals [[Belisario]], of [[533]] to [[544]], and [[Narsés (general Byzantine)|Narsés]], until [[554]]). SimultÃneamente [[ostrogodos]] was able to settle in Italy expelling to [[hérulos A second group of towns germÃnicos Europe installs in Western in [[century I SAW]], among that [emphasizes [frank Kingdom]] of [[Clodoveo]] and its merovingios successors [[]], that moves to the visigodos of the Galias, forzÃndolos to transfer its capital of [[Toulouse|Tolosa]] (Toulouse) to [[Toledo]]. También] defeated to [[burgundios] and [[alamanes]], absorbing their kingdoms. Something mÃs takes [[lombardos]] settle down in Italy (568-9), but serÃn defeated at the end of [[century VIII]] by the same francs, that reinstaurarÃn the Empire with [[Carlomagno]] (año [[800]]). In Great Bretaña instalarÃn [[anglian]], [[sajones]] and [[jutos]], that crearÃn a series of rival kingdoms that serÃn unified by [[Town danés|Danish]] (a town [[nà ³ rdico]]) in which terminarÃfor being the kingdom of [[England]]. ==== the institutions ==== [[Image: Bréviaire d'Alaric (Clermont) .jpg|thumb|right|300px|[[Breviary of Alarico]], in a manuscript of century X.]] MonarquÃa germÃnica was in origin one institucià strictly temporary ³ n, tie closely to the personal prestige of the king, who did not pass to be '' [[primus Inter even]] '' (first between equals), that the assembly of free soldiers elegÃa ([[monarquÃa elective]]), normally for one expedicià military ³ n makes specific or for one misià especÃfica ³ n. The migrations that they were put under the towns germÃnicos from [[century III]] to [[century V]] (box-like between presià ³ n of [[hunos]] to the east and the resistance of you file to Roman to the south and the west) was fortifying the figure of the king, while it made contact with increasing enemy with the Roman polÃticas institutions, that accustomed to the idea of a polÃtico power much mÃcentralized s and concentrate in the person of [[Roman Emperor]]. MonarquÃa vinculà ³ to the people of the kings of life form, and the tendency was to become [[monarquÃa hereditary]], since the kings (like they habÃan fact emp The respect to the figure of the king reforzà ³ by means of [[sacralizacià ³ n]] of its taking of posesià ³ n ([[uncià ³ n]] with [[sacred leos à ³]] on the part of the religious authorities and use of distinguishing elements like [[Orb (jewel)|orb]], [[sceptre]] and [[crowns]], in the course of one elaborated ceremony: [[coronacià ³ n]]) and adicià ³ n of religious functions (presidency of [[national council]] s, as [[Councils of Toledo]]) and [[taumatúrgica]] s ([[touches real]] of the kings of France for the cure of [[escrà ³ fula]]). The problem was provoked when the moment arrived for justifying deposicià ³ n of a king and his sustitucià ³ n by which not outside its natural successor. The últimos [[merovingios]] did not govern by sà same, but by means of the positions of their cut, between which [emphasized [palace butler]]. Únicamente after the victory against the Muslim invaders in [[Batalla de Poitiers (732)|battle of Poitiers]] the butler [[Carlos Martel]] was just to argue that The problems of coexistence between minorÃas Germanic and mayorÃas local (Hispanic-Roman, Gaul-Roman, etc.) were solved with mÃs effectiveness by the kingdoms with mÃs proyeccià ³ n in the time (visigodos and frank) to través of fusià ³ n, allowing the mixed marriages, unifying legislacià ³ n and realizing conversià ³ n to [[catholicism]] against religià original ³ n, that in many cases no longer was [[traditional paganism]] germÃnico, but the arriano Christianity [[]] acquired in its passage by the Eastern Empire. Some own caracterÃsticas of the Germanic institutions were conserved: the one of them predominance of [[straight customary]] on [[straight written]] own of [[Straight Roman]]. Despite the kingdoms germÃnicos they realized some legislative codifications, with major or minor it influences of the Roman right or the traditions germÃnicas, written up in latÃn as of century V ([[teodoricianas laws]], [[edicto of Teodorico]], [[Cà ³ I say of Eurico]], [[Breviary of Alarico]]). First cà ³ I say to writing in language germÃnica was the one of the king [[Ethelberto de Kent]], first of the Anglo-Saxons in becoming to the Christianity (beginnings of [[century I SAW]]). visigà ³ tico '' [[Liber Iudicorum]] '' ([[Recesvinto]], 654) and frank '' [[Law SÃlica]] '' ([[Clodoveo]], 507-511) very maintained a use prolonged by his consideracià ³ n like [[sources of the right]] in monarquÃas medieval and of the Old Régimen. [[Perry Anderson|Anderson, Perry]] (1986) '' Transitions of the Antigà ¼ eda {{VT|Straight germÃnico|Straight visigodo}} ==== the Latin cristiandad and bÃrbaros ==== [[Image: KellsFol124rTuncCrucixerant.jpg|thumb|right|250px|[[Libro de Kells]] or Evangelario of [[San Columba]], art I hibernate-sajà ³ n or irlando-sajà ³ n.]] expansià ³ n of [[Christianity]] between bÃrbaros, the establishment of the episcopal authority [[]] in the cities and of [[monacato]] in Ãmbitos rural (mainly from [[benedictine rule|rule]] of San [[Benito de Nursia]] - [[monastery of Montecassino]], 529-), constituted a powerful fusionadora force of cultures and ayudà ³ to assure that many characteristics [[civilizacià ³ n clÃsica]], like [[straight Roman]] and [[latÃn]], would survive in western half of the Empire, and [Central Europe would even expand by []] and [[Europe of the North|northern]]. [[Frank town|francs]] became to the catholicism during the reign of [[Clodoveo I]] (496 à ³ 499) and, from then,] across expanded the Christianity between Germanic of [[Rhine]. [[Suevos]], that habÃan fact Christian arrianos with [[Remismundo]] (459-469), became to the catholicism with [[Teodomiro (suevo)|Teodomiro]] (559-570) by the preaching of [[San MartÃn de Dumio]]. In that process The Christianity was taken to [[Ireland]] by [[Patricio of Ireland|San Patricio]] at the beginning of century V, and from allà extendià ³ to [[Scotland]], from where a century mÃs takes regresà ³ by the North zone to an England left by the Christians [[britones]] to the pictos and escotos pagans (coming from the north of Great Germanic pagan Bretaña) and to también coming from the continent (anglian, sajones and jutos). At the end of [[century I SAW]], with the Pope [[Great Gregorio]], también Rome envià ³ missionaries to England from the south, and so consiguià ³ that in the course of an England century returned to be Christian. As well, britones emigracià habÃan initiate one ³ n by vÃa marÃtima towards penÃnsula of [[Bretaña]], arriving even until as distant places as the coast cantÃbrica between Galicia and Asturias, where dià founded [[³ cesis of Britonia]]. This tradicià Christian ³ n distinguÃa by the use of [[céltica tonsura]] or Scot, that shaved the frontal part of the hair instead of '' crown ''. The survival in Ireland of an isolated Christian community of Europe by the pagan barrier of the Anglo-Saxons, provocà ³ one evolucià ³ n different from the continental Christianity, which has denominated [[Christianity celta]]. They conserved much of old tradicià Latin ³ n, that could to share with continental Europe as soon as the invading big wave had calmed temporarily. After his extensià ³ n to England in the century I SAW, the Irish founded on century VII monasteries in France, Switzerland ([[Saint Gall]]), and even in [[Italy]], destacÃndose particularly the names of [[Columba]] and [[Columbano]]. The Brità Islandsnicas was during about three centuries the breeding ground of important names for the culture: the historian [[Prohibition Venerable]], [[missionary]] [[Bonifacio of Germany]], the educator [[Alcuino of York]], or teà ³ logo [[Juan Escoto ErÃgena]], among others. Such influence arrives until atribucià ³ n from legend like the one from [[Úrsula (legend)|Santa Úrsula and Eleven the Thousands ===== Other medieval Christianisations ===== On the other hand, extensià ³ n of the Christianity between [[búlgaro]] s and most of [[Slavic towns]] ([[Serbian]], [[Great Moravia|moravos]] and the towns of [[Crimean]] and steppes [[Ukrainian] Russian] s and [[]] s) was very later, and in charge of the Byzantine Empire, and so [took control of the creed [Orthodox Church|orthodox]] (preaching of [[Cirilo and Metodio]], century IX); whereas evangelizacià ³ n of other towns of Eastern Europe (the rest of the Slavs - [[History of Poland|Poles]], [[History of Slovenia|Croatian Slovenes]] and [[]] -, [[bÃlticos]] and [[húngaros]]) and of the rdicos towns nà ³ ([[vikingos]] [[Scandinavian]]) was done by the Latin Christianity starting off of Central Europe, in a period todavÃa mÃs tardÃo (until centuries XI and XII). {{mentions|It is a madness to believe in the Gods|'' [[Saga of Hrafnkell]] '', priest of [[Frey]] (Iceland, composed at the end of century XIII, but acclimated in preChristian época). {{Cita book | last names = PÃlsson | name = Hermann | tÃtulo = Hrafnkel's Saga and Other Icelandic Stories | publisher = Pinguin Classics | año = 1971 | you go = ISBN 0-14-044238-3}} }} ===== jÃzaros, a peculiar case ===== {{AP|JÃzaros}} jÃzaros Turkish town was [[]] coming from central Asia (where habÃa formed from the century I SAW the empire of [[Köktà ¼ rks]]) that in their western part habÃa dice origin to an important state that dominated [[CÃucaso]] and the Russian and Ukrainian steppes until [[Crimean]] in century VII. Its class leader convirtià ³ mainly to [[judaÃsmo]], religious peculiarity that him convertÃa in an exceptional neighbor between the Califato islÃmico of Damascus and the Christian Empire of Byzantium. === the Byzantine Empire (centuries IV to the XV) === [[Image: Meister Bon San Vitale in Ravenna 003.jpg|thumb|right|350px|Byzantine emperor cuts of [[]] [[Justiniano I]], [[mosaic]] of [[Church of San Vital in RÃvein|San Vital of RÃvein]].]] {{AP|Byzantine empire}} divisià ³ n enters East and the West was, ademÃs of a strategy polÃtica (initially of Diocleciano -286 - and made definitive with Teodosio -395-), a recognition of the essential difference between both halves of the Empire. East, in sà same very diverse ([[Thrace]] - [[PenÃnsula BalcÃnica]] -, [[Asia]] - [[Anatolia]], [[CÃucaso]], [[Syria]], [[Palestine]] and the border mesopotÃmica with Persian and [[Egypt]]), was the part mÃbuilt-up s and with economÃa mÃs dinÃcommercial mica and, in front of the West in vÃas of '' feudalizacià ³ n '', ruralizado, with an urban life in decay, enslaved manpower every time mÃlittle s and the aristocracy every time mÃs other people's to the structures of the power imperial and shut in their luxurious '' villae '' self-sufficient, cultivated by colonists in régimen similar to the servitude. '' Frank LINGUA '' in East was [[Greek language|Greek]], against [[latÃn]] of the West. In implantacià ³ n of jerarquÃa Christian, East disponÃa of all the [[patriarc The survival of Rome in East not dependÃa of the luck of the West, whereas the opposite sÃ: in fact, the Eastern emperors chose to sacrifice the city of [[Rà ³ mule and Oar]] - that already not even was the western capital when they considered it advisable, abandonÃndola by chance or even moving towards her bÃrbaros mÃs aggressive, which precipità ³ his caÃda. {{VT|Constantinople}} ==== restauracià imperial ³ n of Justiniano ==== {{AP|Recuperatio Imperii}} [[Justiniano I]] consolidà ³ the border of the Danube and, from [[532]] logrà ³ a balance in the border with [[sasÃnida|Persia sasÃnida]], which permitià ³ to move the Byzantine efforts to him towards the MediterrÃneon, reconstructing the unit of '' [[Mare Nostrum]] '': In [[533]], one expedicià ³ n of the general [[Belisario]] annihilates to [[vÃndalos]] ([[battle of Ad Decimum]] and [[Batalla de Tricamerà ³ n|battle of Tricamarum]]) incorporating the province of Ãfrica and the islands of the MediterrÃWestern neon ([[Cerdeña]], [[Cà ³ rcega]] and [[the Balearics]]). In [[535]] [[Mundus]] ocupà ³ [[Dalmacia]] and Belisario [[Sicily]]. [[Narsés (general Byzantine)|Narsés]] eliminates [[ostrogodos]] of Italy in [[554]] - [[555]]. [[RÃvein]] volvià ³ to being an imperial city, where conservarÃn the lavish mosaics of [[Church of San Vital in RÃvein|San Vital]]. [[Liberio]] sà ³ consiguià ³ to move to the visigodos of the south-east coast of the PenÃnsula Ibérica and the province [[Bética]]. In Constantinople two ambitious programs and of prestige began with the purpose of to seat the imperial authority: one of recopilacià legislative ³ n: '' [[Digesto]] '', directed by [[Triboniano]] (published in [[533]]), and another constructive one: [[Church of Santa SofÃa]], the architects [[Antemio de Tralles]] and [[Isidoro de Mileto]] (raised between [[532]] and [[537]]). SÃmbolo of [[civilizacià ³ n clÃsica]] was closed: [[Academy of Athens]] ([[529]]). No asà the one of [[AlejandrÃa]], that sobrevivià ³ even to the murder of [[Hipatia]] ([[415]]). [[Museum of AlejadrÃa]] and [[library of AlejandrÃa]] habÃan undergone many vicissitudes, like fires and earthquakes, and [[Serapeum]] was sent to demolish by the patriarch [[Teà ³ edge]] in [[391]], although their bottoms, sacked and desperdigados, survived until invasià Muslim ³ n ([[634]]), in which [[Omar caliph]] protagonizà ³ another one célebre offense: '' The books of the Library or contradict to the CorÃn, and then is {{mentions|who has received the sovereign power does not have to live if is let it clear. Tú César, if you want to flee, nothing is mÃs fÃcil… as far as mÃ, God does not allow that it leaves the púrpura and it appears in público without being saluted like empress. Esteem much this old sentence: " The púrpura is glorious sudario".}} (Mentioned by Pounding Benejam, '' Horizon '', [http://books.es/books?id=xPB_jvo8nA0C&pg=PA106&lpg=PA106&dq=p%C3%BArpura+sudario+Justiniano+Teodora&source=web&ots=3vdUksl2qB&sig=dJ5EMTvi6ie-Klnv0AYRan51-Qo&hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result pg. 106])
Image: Kyrill&Method.jpg|
[[Cirilo and Metodio]], '' apà ³ stoles of the Slavs '', with [[cirÃlico alphabet]] in [[Russian icon]] of the century XVIII or XIX.
Image: Clasm Chludov.jpg|
Esta pÃgina of [[Psalterio Chludov]] (one of the three únicos written by hand illustrated [[iconà ³ dulo]] s that survived [[century IX]]) illustrates a evangélico passage in which a soldier offers to Christ vinegar in a sponge tied to a lance. In the plane inferior [is caricatured to the último [Patriarch of iconoclastic Constantinople]], [[Patriarch Juan VII de Constantinople|Juan the GramÃtico]], erasing [[icon]] of Christ with a sponge similar.
Image: MCB-mosaicob.jpg|Byzantine
Mosaico with the subject of '' [[Theotokos]] '' (MarÃa like Mother of God). [[Halo]] s represents the sanctity (the one of [[Niño Jesús]], cruciform, the divinity and [[sacrifice]] of [[Cross]]). The golden bottom represents the celestial eternity, ademÃs to fulfill '' [[own horror vacui]] '' of the style. All characteristics: [[cromatismo]], the frontalidad and the linearity (wild clear, marked you fold of them), ademÃs to greatly influence in [[romÃnico]] of Western Europe, reproduced and continued, stereotyped, in [[religious icon] later] s of épocas in all Europe Oriental.
Image: BasilII.jpg|
[[Basilio II]] '' Bulgarà ³ ctono '' Î' ασίΔ ÎΜÎ ¹ ÎÏ ‚Î' Î „Î' ÎÏ… Δ Î ³ αÏοκτόνÎÏ ‚(what it means: " killing of búlgaros" ; the name " Basilio", '' Basileus '' means " rey" in Greek, and he was tÃtulo that occurred to the emperor). Pertaining to of dinastÃa macedà ³ nica. Its period in the throne ([[976]] - [[1025]]) llevà ³ to the Byzantine Empire to his mÃxima extensià territorial ³ n from invasià Muslim ³ n, occupying part of Syria, Crimea and the Balkan Mountains to the Danube. Half century mÃs takes comenzà ³ the definitive decay, with successive pérdidas territorial and outer interventions, that in spite of everything prolongà ³ several centuries, until [[1453]].
==== Crisis, survival and helenizacià ³ n of the Empire ==== Centuries VII and VIII represented for Byzantium one '' dark age '' similar to the one of the West, that incluyà ³ también strong ruralizacià ³ n and feudalizacià ³ n in social and econà ³ mico and pérdida of prestige and an effective control of the central power. To the internal causes sumà ³ renovacià ³ n of the war with the Persians, nothing decisive but especially debilitating, to which siguià ³ invasià Muslim ³ n, that privà ³ to the Empire of the provinces mÃs rich: Egypt and Syria. However, in the Byzantine case, disminucià ³ n of produccià intellectual and artÃstica ³ n respondÃa ademÃs to the particular effects of [[Iconoclasm|] complains iconoclastic], that was not a simple iconoclastic debate teolà ³ gico between [[]] s and [[iconà ³ dulo]] s, but an internal confrontation untied by [[patriarcado of Constantinople]], supported by the emperor [[Leà ³ n III (emperor)|Leà ³ n III]], that pretendÃa to end concentracià to be able ³ n and influences polÃtica and nun of the powerful monasteries and her supports to ter recuperacià ³ n of the imperial authority and the greater stability of the following centuries brought with himself también a process of '' helenizacià ³ n '', that is to say, recuperacià ³ n of the Greek identity against the official Roman organization of the institutions, thing mÃpossible s then, given limitacià ³ n and homogeneizacià ³ n geogrÃfica produced by the pérdida one of the provinces, and that permitÃa one organizacià ³ territorial n militarized and mÃs fÃcilmente manageable: '' subjects '' ('' [[Ejército bizantino#La organizacià ³ n of the ejército: the themata|themata]] '') with adscripcià ³ n to the Earth of the military in established them, which produced forms similar to the western feudalism. The period between [[867]] and [[1056]], under [[Emperor bizantino#DinastÃa Macedonia|dinastÃa Macedonian]], is known with the name of Macedà Renaissance ³ nico, in which Byzantium returns to be a power mediterrÃnea and [projects towards [Slavic towns]] of [[the Balkans]] and towards the north of [[the Black Sea]]. evangelizacià ³ n of [[Cirilo and Metodio]] obtendrÃa sphere of Byzantine influence in [[cultural Eastern Europe]] that and religiously tendrÃgreat proyeccià future ³ n by means of difusià ³ n of [[cirÃlico alphabet]] (adaptacià ³ n of [[Greek alphabet]] for representacià ³ n of the Slavic phonemes, that is continued using at present); asà like the one of [[orthodox Christianity]] (predominant from [[Serbia]] to [[Russia]]). Nevertheless, second half of century XI presenciarÃnew desafÃo islÃmico, this time carried out by [[Turkish selyúcidas]] and intervencià European ³ n of the Papado and the western ones, by means of intervencià military ³ n of [[Crossed]], the commercial activity of the Italian merchants ([[Génova|genoveses]], [[amalfi]] tanos, [[Pisa]] us and mainly [[Venice]] us) [[Arnold J. Toynbee]] (1971) '' Cities in march '', Madid: Alliance pg. 64 ISBN 84-206-9253-0 and the polémicas teolà ³ gicas of denominated [[Schism of East]] or Great Schism of East and the West, and so teà ³ rich so negative Christian aid demostrà ³ or mÃs for the Eastern Empire that the Muslim threat. The process of feudalizacià ³ n acentuà ³ when seeing itself forced the emperors [[Comneno]] to realize territorial cessions (denominated '' [[pronoia]] '') to the aristocracy and members its own familia. [http://imperiobizantino.com/2007/06/30/la-pronoia/ '' the Pronoia ''], in '' Byzantine Empire === expansià ³ n of the Islam (from century VII) === [[Image: Arabische Rijk.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Expansià ³ n Ãrabe in [[century VII]]: [[caliph]] [[Abu Bakr]] in the zone I, [[Omar]] in the II, [[Uthman ibn Affan|Uthman]] in III and [[Ali Ibn Abi Talib|Ali]] in IV.]] {{AP|Expansià Muslim ³ n}} In [[century VII]], after preaching of [[Mahoma]] and conquests of first [[caliph]] s (lÃderes polÃticos and simultaneously religious, in one religià ³ n - [[Islam]] - that does not recognize lay and clérigos distinctions between), habÃa produced unificacià ³ n of [[Arabia]] and the conquest of [[Persian Empire]] and of good part of [[Byzantine Empire]]. In [[century VIII]] llegà ³ to [[PenÃnsula Ibérica]], [[India]] and [[Central Asia]] ([[battles of Talas]] - [[751]] - victory islÃmica before China after which not profundizà ³ in that Empire, but that permitià ³ a greater contact with his civilizacià ³ n, being useful the knowledge the prisoners). In the West expansià Muslim ³ n frenà ³ from [[battle of Poitiers (732)]] before the francs and mitificada [[battle of Covadonga]] before the Asturian ones ([[722]]). The presence of the musulmantes like one civilizacià ³ alternative rival n seated in South half of [[river basin of the MediterrÃneon]], whose trÃfico marÃtimo happens From century VIII one took place difusià ³ n mÃslow s of [[civilizacià ³ n islÃmica]] by as distant sites as [[Indonesia]] and [[continent African]], and from [[century XIV]] by [[Anatolia]] and [[the Balkans]]. The relations with India were también very narrow during the rest of the Average Age (although imposicià ³ n of [[empire mogol]] did not take place until century XVI), whereas [[Océano Ãndico]] convirtià ³ almost in '' [[Mare Nostrum]] '' Ãrabe, where the adventures of '' settled down [[Simbad the sailor]] '' (one of stories of '' [[thousands and the one nights]] '' of the época of [[Harún al-Rashid]]). {{wikisource|Thousands and the one nights}} trÃfico commercial of the routes marÃtimas and caravaneers unÃan the Ãndico with the MediterrÃneon to través of [[the Red Sea]] or [[Pérsico Gulf]] and [[caravan]] s of the desert. That call [[route of spices]] (foreshadowed by [[route of the incense]] in the Old Age) was essential so that pieces of l arrived at the West The initial unit of [[world islÃmico]], that habÃa already questioned in the religious aspect with separacià ³ n of [[sunnÃes]] and [[chiÃes]], rompià ³ también in the polÃtico with sustitucià ³ n of [[Omeyas]] by [[AbbasÃes]] to the front of the califato in [[749]], that ademÃs [Damascus replaced []] by [[Baghdad]] like capital. [[AbderramÃn I]], the surviving último Omeya, consiguià ³ to found on [[Emirate of Cà ³ rdoba|Cà ³ rdoba]] an independent Emirate for [[Al-Andalus]] (name Ãrabe of [[PenÃnsula Ibérica]]), that its descendant [[AbderramÃn III]] convirtià ³ in an alternative califato in [[929]]. Shortly before, in [[909]] [[FatimÃes]] habÃan fact own in [[Egypt]]. From [[century XI]] takes place very important changes: desafÃo to hegemonÃa Ãrabe like dominant ethnic group within the Islam in charge of islamizados [[Turkish]], that pasarÃn to control different zones of the Middle East ([[mameluco]] s, [[Ottoman]]), or of [[Kurd]] like [[Saladino]]; going {{mentions|The scholars like [[al-Biruni]], [[al-Jahiz]], [[al-Kindi]], Abu Bakr Muhammad [[al-Razi]], [[Ibn Sina]], [[al-Idrisi]], [[Avempace|Ibn Bajja]], [[Omar Khayyam]], [[Ibn Zuhr]], [[Ibn Tufail]], [[Ibn Rushd]], [[al-Suyuti]], and thousands of other académicos was not one excepcià ³ n, but the general norm in civilizacià Muslim ³ n. civilizacià Muslim ³ n of the period clÃsico was remarkable by the número elevated one of polifacéticos scholars that produced. islà is a sample of the homogeneity of filosofÃamica on science, and its énfasis on the interdisciplinary sÃntesis, investigations and the multiplicity of métodos. [[Ziauddin Sardar]], [http://www.net/imase/islam_science_philosophy.htm Science in Islamic philosophy] |[[Ziauddin Sardar]]}}
Image: Mirror Kaaba edit jj.jpg|'' [[Kaaba]] '' in [[Mosque of Mecca]] or sagrada mosque ('' Masjid al-Haram ''). Image: Mosque of Cordoba Spain.jpg|[[Mosque of Cà ³ rdoba]].jpg|Manuscript Ãrabe illustrated of century XIII. representacià ³ n of figures sà ³ is allowed in some interpretations of the Islam, but it is prohibited mainly (what incentivà ³ other arts, like [[caligrafÃa Ãrabe]]). This represents [[Sà ³ crates]] ('' Sughrat ''). recuperacià ³ n and difusià ³ n of the culture clÃsica greco-roman was one of the main contributions of the medieval Islam to civilizacià ³ n.
{{VT|Mahoma|Islam|CorÃn|Umma|Caliph|Perfect Califato|DinastÃa of the Omeyas|Califato AbasÃ|Califato FatimÃ}} {{VT|History of the Islam|Golden age of the Islam|Muslim culture|FilosofÃa islÃmica|FilosofÃa islÃold mica|Sufismo|AverroÃsmo|Science islÃmica|MatemÃtica in the medieval Islam|Literature Ãrabe|PoesÃa Ãrabe}} {{VT|To the Juarismi|Avicena|Averroes|Maimà ³ nides|Ibn Jaldún|Omar Jayyam|Alhacén|Algazel}} ==== Al-Andalus (century VIII to the XV) ==== {{AP|History of Al-Andalus}} {{VT|Invasià Muslim ³ n of the PenÃnsula Ibérica|Emirate of Cà ³ rdoba|Califato of Cà ³ rdoba}} {{VT|AbderramÃn I|AbderramÃn II|AbderramÃn III|Alhakén II|Hisham II|Almanzor}} {{VT|Tudmir|Banu Qasi|Omar ibn Hafsún}} {{VT|Ziryab|Moaxaja|Jarchas|Eulogio of Cà ³ rdoba|Science in Al-Ãndalus|Art of Al-Andalus|Emiral and califal art|GastronomÃa of the Al-Ãndalus}} {{VT|MuladÃ|Maulas|Dhimmi|MozÃrabe|Yizya|Azaque|Aceifa|Pariahs}} {{VT|Medina|Suburb|Zoco|Fortress}} === Carolingio Empire (centuries VIII and IX) === {{AP|Carolingio empire}} ==== Sprouting and ascent ==== [[Image: Karl av gives store krons I read III.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Coronacià ³ n of Carlomagno by the Pope [[Leà ³ n III]], dÃa of Christmas of año [[800]].]] Towards [[century VIII]], situacià European ³ polÃtica n habÃa stabilized. In east, [[Byzantine Empire]] was hard again, thanks to a series of competent emperors. In the West, some kingdoms assured relative stability to several regions: [[Northumbria]] to England, [[Visigotia]] to España, [[LombardÃa]] to Italy, and the Frank Kingdom to [[Galia]]. In fact, " kingdom franco" it was a compound of three kingdoms: [[Austrasia]], [[Neustria]] and [[Aquitaine]]. The Carolingio Empire arises from the bases created by the predecessors of Carlomagno since the beginning of century VIII ([[Carlos Martel]] and [[Pipino Brief]]). proyeccià ³ n of its borders to través of a great part of Western Europe permitià ³ to Carlos aspiracià ³ n to reconstruct extensià ³ n of the old Western Roman Empire, being the first polÃtica organization of the Average Age that could to become a continental power. [[AquisgrÃn]] (Aachen in alemÃn, Aix-the Chapelle in francés) was chosen like capital, in one situacià ³ central n and sufficiently moved away of Italy, that in spite of being released of the dominion of [[longobardo]] s and of teà ³ rich Byzantine vindications, conservà ³ great autonomÃa that arrived at soberanÃa temporary with cesià incipient ³ n from [[papal states]] ('' [[Patrimonium Petri]] '' or Patrimony of San Pedro, that incluÃa Rome and good part of the center of Italy). As a result of narrow vinculacià ³ n between pontif They were created [[marquesado|marks]] to fix the borders before outer enemies (Ãrabes in [[Marca HispÃnica]], [[sajones]] in [[Marca Sajona]], [[bretones]] in [[Marca Bretona]], lombardos - until its defeat in [[Marca Lombarda]] and [[ÃI beach]] s in [[Marca Ãvara]]; later también creà ³ one for [[magiares]]: [[Marca of the Friuli]]). The inner territory was organized in [[county]] s and [[duchy]] s (unià ³ n of several counties or marks). The civil servants who dirigÃan ([[count]] s, [[marqués|Marquesses]] and [[Duke]] s) were watched over temporary inspectors ('' [[missi dominici]] '' - sent of señor-), and procured themselves that they did not inherit themselves to avoid that they were patrimonializados in a family (thing, who with time, could not be avoided). consignacià ³ n of earth along with the positions, pretendÃa mainly the new maintenance of expensive [[caballerÃa heavy]] and [[battle horse|horses of battle]] ('' [[destrero]] s '', introduced from Carlomagno negocià ³ of equal to equal with other great powers of the época, like [[Byzantine Empire]], [[Emirate of Cà ³ rdoba]], and [[Califato Abasida]]. At the same time siguià ³ a polÃtica of cultural prestige and a remarkable artÃstico program. Pretendià ³ to surround itself by one cuts of wise people and to initiate an educative program ('' [[Trivium]] '' and '' [[Quadrivium]] ''), so mandà ³ to call to the intellectuality of its time to its dominions, being given impulse, with colaboracià ³ n of [[Alcuino of York]], to the call [[Renaissance carolingio]].
Image: Raphael Charlemagne.jpg|[[Coronacià ³ n of Carlomagno|Recreacià ³ n of the same fact]] by [[Rafael Sanzio]], in [[stays of the Vatican]] (1517). Image: Charlemagne autograph. [[Monograma]] of Carlomagno, that éste used like company/signature. Arrived at the power, already in adult age, sabÃa not to write (habitual thing in the época, in which únicamente to some hacÃan it clérigos). Like one of the measures of the cultural program known like '' [[Renaissance carolingio]] '', ordenà ³ to its noble to learn along with él, although never consiguià ³ to make it with soltura.Berta Fernà Foxndez (1999) '' Texts primitive Germans: The age average early German in its literary testimonies '', [http://books.com/books?id=Q3NRNow5UsoC&pg=PA12&lpg=PA12&dq=%22carlomagno+aprendi%C3%B3+a+escribir%22&source=web&ots=dLo3_YYvh0&sig=oLwrkxEYYjBXfnyiCzxXHGXZobQ&hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA13,M1 pg. 12] Universitat de València. ISBN 978-84-370-4049-3 Image: Ludovico pio.jpg|[[Ludovico PÃo]], son and heir of Carlomagno.
==== Divisià ³ n and collapse ==== [[Image: Viking ship in Stockholms strom.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Reconstruccià ³ n of [[to drakkar]] (boat [[vikingo]]).]] Dead Carlomagno in [[814]], takes the power its son [[Ludovico PÃo]]. The children of éste: [[Carlos Bald]] ('' western France ''), [[Luis the GermÃnico]] ('' Eastern France '') and [[Lotario I]] (primogénito and inheriting of tÃtulo imperial), faced disputà militarilyndose the different territories from the empire, that, mÃs allÃof the alliances aristocrÃticas, indicated different personalities, interpretable from a protonacional perspective (different languages - towards the south and the west Romance languages are imponÃan [[]] that were begun to differentiate from [[latÃn vulgar]], towards the north and this [[languages germÃnicas]], as [attested previous '' [Oaths of Strasbourg]] '' -, own customs, traditions and institutions - Roman towards the south, Germanic towards the north). This situacià ³ n not concluyà ³ not even in [[843]] after [[Treated about Verdún]], since later divisià ³ n of the kingdom of Lotario between its children ([[Lotaringia]], central strip from [[ divisià ³ n, added to the institutional process of descentralizacià inherent ³ n to the feudal system, in the absence of strong central powers, and to the preexisting weakening of the social structures and econà ³ micas, did that the following big wave of invasions bÃrbaras, outstandingly [[magiares]] and [[vikingos]], would sink again to Western Europe in the chaos of a new dark age.
Image: Karl II to der Kahle.jpg|[[Carlos Bald]], Western king of '' France ''.jpg|Apogee of [[Carolingio Empire]] towards [[814]]. Image: 843-870 Europe.jpg|Divisions of the Empire in treaties of Verdún and Meersen. Image: Europe map 998.PNG|Europe around [[998]].
=== the feudal system === {{AP|Feudalism}} ==== Uso of the término " feudalismo" ==== The failure of the polÃtico project centralizing of [[Carlomagno]] llevà ³, in the absence of that counterbalance, to formacià ³ n of of social a polÃtico system, econà ³ mico and that the historians has agreed upon calling [[feudalism]], although in fact the name nacià ³ like [[pejorative]] to designate of [[Old Régimen]] on the part of its informed crÃticos. The Revolucià French ³ n suprimià ³ solemnly " all the rights feudales" at night of the 4 of August of 1789 and " definitively they régimen feudal", with the decree of the 11 of August. generalizacià ³ n of the término allows many social historians to apply it to the formation of all the western European territory, would belong or not to the Carolingio Empire. Those in favor of a restricted use, arguing the necessity of not confusing concepts like [[feudo]], '' [[villae]] '', '' [[tenure]] '', or [[señorÃo]] limit so much in space (France, the West of Germany and Norte of Italy) like in the time: " first feudalismo" or " feudalism carolingio" from century VIII to año 1000 and " feudalism clÃsico" from año 1000 to the 1240, divided as well in two épocas, first, to the 1160 (mÃdecentralized s, in which each señor of castle podÃa to consider itself independent, and takes place the denominated process '' [[incastellamento]] ''); and second, the own one of " monarquÃa feudal"). HabrÃa even " feudalismos of importacià ³ n": Norman England from 1066 and [[Latin states of east]] created d Others prefer to speak of " régimen" or " system feudal", to subtly differentiate it from the strict feudalism, or '' feudal sÃntesis '', to mark the fact that age survives in her characteristics of antigà ¼ clÃsica mixed with contributions germÃnicas, implying as much to institutions as to productive elements, and significà ³ the specificity of the western European feudalism like formacià social ³ n econà ³ mico against feudal others también, with transcendental consequences in the future happening histà ³ rico.Es the main thesis of Perry Anderson '' op. It is commented and criticized by Gregory Elliott (2004) '' Perry Anderson: The implacable laboratory of history '' Universitat de València, ISBN 84-370-5935-6 [http://books.com/books?id=7WAIJPBUoG8C&pg=PA144&lpg=PA144&dq=%22s%C3%ADntesis+feudal%22&source=web&ots=dtrSfByxH5&sig=7aYxyEzoZxmvaS7Rk3su905chrA&hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA144,M1 pg. expresià ³ n '' feudal sÃntesis '' is uses ==== the vasallaje and feudo ==== [[Image: Hommage au Moyen Age - miniature.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Vasallo made kneel realizes inmixtio manum during the tribute to its señor, seated. A writing taking notices.]] Two institutions were keys for the feudalism: on the one hand [[vasallaje]] like relacià jurÃdico-polÃtica ³ señor n between [[]] and [[vasallo]], [[contract]] [[sinalagmÃtico]] (that is to say, between equals, with requirements) between señores and vasallos (both free men, both soldiers, both noble), on both sides consisting of the interchange of supports and mutual fidelities (dotacià ³ n of positions, honors and earth - feudo- by the señor to vasallo and commitment of '' auxilium ET consilium '' - aid or military support and advice or support polÃtico-), that if cumplÃa or rompÃa by anyone of the two parts did not give rise to [[felonÃa]], and whose jerarquÃa complicaba of pyramidal form (vasallo was señor as well of vasallos); and on the other hand [[feudo]] like unit econà ³ mica and of [[relations of produccià ³ n|social relations of produccià ³ n]], between the señor of feudo and his [[servant]] s, not an egalitarian contract, but one imposicià ³ violent n justified ideolà ³ gicamente like '' [[quid p Therefore, the reality that enunciates like [[relations feudo-vasallÃticas]] is really a término that includes two types of [[relacià social ³ n]] of completely different nature, although the términos designate that them were used in the época (and they are continued using) of form equÃvoca and with great confusià ³ n terminolà ³ gica among them: [[Vasallaje]] was a pact between two members of the different nobility of categorÃa. The horseman of smaller rank convertÃa in vasallo ('' vassus '') of the nobleman mÃpowerful s, that convertÃa in its señor ('' dominus '') by means of the Tribute and Investiture, in a ritualizada ceremony that tenÃa place in [[tower of the tribute]] of [[castle]] of the señor. [[Tribute]] ('' homage '') - del vasallo to señor- consistÃa in postracià ³ n or humillacià ³ n - habitually of knees, '' osculum '' (kiss), '' inmixtio manum '' - the hands of vasallo, united in posicià ³ n orante, were welcomed between those of señor-, and some phrase that recognized to have turned into '' its man ''. After the tribute producÃa [[investiture]] - del señor to vasallo-, that it represented the delivery of feudo (following categorÃa of vasallo and señor, podÃa to be a county, a duchy, a mark, a castle, one poblacià ³ n, or a simple pay; or even a monastery if the vasallaje were eclesiÃstico) to través [[Entrusts]], [[encomendacià ³ n]] or [[sponsorship]] ('' patrocinium '', '' commendatio '', although was habitual to even use the término '' commendatio '' for the act of the tribute or for all the institucià ³ n of the vasallaje) was rich pacts teà ³ between the farmers and the feudal señor, who podÃan también to ritualizar in a ceremony or - mÃs rarely to give rise to a document. The señor acogÃa to the farmers in his feudo, that organized in one [[señorial reserve]] that the servants debÃan to work obligatorily ([[serna] corvea] s or [[]] s) and in the set of pequeñas familiar operations ([[Tame feudal|bellwethers]]) that are atribuÃan to the farmers so that they could subsist. Obligacià ³ n of the señor era to protect to them if they were attacked, and to maintain the order and justice in feudo. In return, the farmer convertÃa in his servant and went to double [[jurisdiccià ³ n]] of the feudal señor: in the términos used in penÃnsula Ibérica in the Low Average Age, [[señorÃo territorial]], qu Along with feudo, vasallo receives the servants whom there are in él, not like [[esclavista property]] [[]], but in they do not régimen either of freedom; since his condicià servile ³ n prevents them to leave it and it forces to them to work. The obligations of the señor of feudo include the maintenance of order, that is to say, [[jurisdiccià criminal ³ n]] civil and ('' mere and mixed empire '' in terminologÃa jurÃdica reintroduced with [[Straight Roman]] in the Low Average Age), which gave aún majors opportunities to obtain [[productive surplus]] that the farmers could obtain después of the obligations of work - corveas or sernas in the reserve señorial- or of the payment of rent - in species or money, of circulacià very little ³ n in the High Average Age, but mÃs generalized in the últimos medieval centuries, según was dinamizÃndose economÃa-. As señorial monopoly ³ n of the forests and the hunting, the ways solÃan to be explotacià and bridges, the mills, the taverns and stores. All this was mÃs oportun ==== feudal à ³ rdenes ==== {{AP|Estate}} [[Image: Cleric-Knight-Workman.jpg|thumb|left|250px|'' Orator, laborator bellator ET '' (clérigo, soldier and farmer); that is, three medieval à ³ rdenes. Letter to capitulate of a manuscript.]] With time, following the tendency marked from [[Under Roman Empire]], that consolidà ³ in '' época clÃsica '' of the feudalism and that pervivià ³ throughout [[Old Régimen]], went conforming an organized society of estamental way, in the calls [[estate]] s or '' ordines '' (à ³ rdenes): [[nobility]], [[clergy]] and [[level town]] (or [[third state]]): '' bellatores, oratores and laboratores '' the men who fight, those that say and those that work, según the vocabulary of the época. Both first] s is [[privileged], that is to say, común is not applied to them to the law, but an own law (for example, they have different pains for the same crime, and its form of ejecucià ³ n is different) and cannot work (them estÃn prohibited '' [[vile offices and mecÃnicos]] ''), since that is condicià ³ n of '' not privileged ''. In medieval época, feudal à ³ rdenes was not closed and blocked estates, but they mantenÃan a permeability that permitÃa in unusual events the ace The functions of feudal à ³ rdenes were determined ideolà ³ gicamente by [[polÃtico agustinismo]] ('' [[Civitate Dei]] '' - [[426]] -), in búsqueda of a society that, although like '' earth '' podÃa to be still corrupt and imperfect, podÃa to aspire to being at least one shade of the one image " City of Dios" perfect of raÃces [[Platà ³ n|platà ³ nicas]] Platà ³ n, following a scheme [[triÃdico]] of tradicià Indo-European ³ n [[]], raises in his [[DiÃlogo platà ³ nico|diÃlogo]] (for example in '' Fedro '' and '' República '') a society in which the workers (representing of [[cardinal virtue]] of [[templanza]]) maintain to the soldiers who defend ([[strength]]) and to filà ³ to them sofos that they govern to them ([[prudence]]), and its set in [[armonÃa]] produces obtencià final ³ n of [[justice]]. in which all had a paper in his proteccià ³ n, his salvacià ³ n and its maintenance. This idea was reformulated and outlined throughout the Average Age, successively by author '' Bellatores '' or soldiers was the nobility, whose funcià ³ n was proteccià fÃsica ³ n, the defense of all before the aggressions and injustices. It was organized pyramidal from the emperor, happening through the kings, although taking care of its rank [can be classified in two parts [high nobility]] ([[marqués|Marquesses]], [[count]] s and [[Duke]] s) whose feudos have tamaño of regions and provinces (although most of the times not in continuity territorial, but distributed and diffuse, full of [[it nails]] s and [[exclave]] s); and [[low nobility]] or [[horseman]] s ([[barà ³ n|barons]], [[infanzà ³ n|infanzones]]), whose feudos are of tamaño of municipalities or pequeñas regions, or directly does not own territorial feudos, living in the castles on señores mÃs important, or in cities or populations in which they do not exert jurisdiccià ³ n (although sà can exert his '' regiment '', that is to say, participate in their municipal government in representacià ³ n of '' been noble ''). At the end of the Average Age and in {{mentions|Then the blood of the godos,
and the lineage and the nobility
so crescida,
Âby cuÃntas vÃas and ways
his is lost grand height
in this life!
, Nearly merit,
by cuÃn baxos and abatidos
they have that them;
other that, by non to have,
with offices non which had mantienen.Copla X of '' [[Songs to the death of its father]] '' of [[Jorge Manrique]] }} AdemÃs of legitimacià religious ³ n, to través of the lay culture and the art (the épica of [[you will sing of deed]] and the lÃrica of [[Proven1cal poetic love cortés]] of [[]] [[]]) difundÃa socially legitimacià ³ n ideolà ³ gica of [[life form]], [[funcià social ³ n]] and [[values]] of nobleza. [[Arnold Hauser]] '' social History of Literature and the art '' [[Image: Canterbury Cathedral 092 Murder of St Thomas.JPG|thumb|right|250px|Murder of [[Santo TomÃs Becket]] ([[1170]]), caused by the king of England, previously its ally. [[Show window]] of [[cathedral of Canterbury]] (century XIII).]] [[Image: Laurens excomunication 1875 orsay.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Excomunià ³ n of [[Robert II of France]] (998), in one recreacià ³ n of rich painting histà ³ by [[Jean-Paul Laurens]] (1875).]] '' Oratores '' or clérigos was [[clergy]], whose funcià ³ n was to facilitate salvacià spiritual ³ n of the immortal souls: some formed a powerful élite called [[high clergy]] ([[abbot]] is, [[bishop]] s), and others mÃs humble, [[under clergy]] (you cure of town or [[brother I bequeath|legos brothers]] of a monastery). extensià ³ n and organizacià ³ n of [[monacato]] [[benedictine]] to través of [[Order of Cluny]], closely tie to organizacià ³ n of the centralized and hierarchized episcopal network, with cúspide in [[Pope]] of Rome, establecià ³ double pirÃsecular clergy measures feudal of [[]], destined to administracià ³ n those of [[sacrament]] s (that controlled all the vital trajectory of poblacià ³ n, from the birth to death); and [[clergy regular]], separated from '' world '' and submissive one [[rule monÃstica]] (habitually [[benedictine rule]]). The three [[votes monÃsticos]] of the regular clergy: poverty, obedience and abstention; asà like the celibacy eclesiÃstico that went away i '' Laboratores '' or workers, was the level town, whose funcià ³ n was the maintenance of the bodies, funcià ³ n ideolà ³ gicamente mÃlow and humble s - '' [[humilior]] is '' were near '' the humus '', the Earth, whereas their superiors were '' [[honestior]] is '', those that podÃan to maintain [['' gicamente humilior honor]] or honor-.Etimolà ³ '' means '' mÃs humble, mÃs poor ''. '' Humilis, - and Adjective. '' [http://lenguayliteraturalatina.com/2007/11/breve-vocabulario-latn-castellano-h.html Brief latÃn-Castilian vocabulary: H]. '' Humilior '' is the one that is reduced in earth ('' ad humun ''). To humiliate itself is to stoop because it assumes that the Earth is mÃs under ('' very poor '') that there is in the world. The same origin humor has '' '' (humility), según [[Marcus Terentius Varro]], '' Of Latin LINGUA '', traduccià ³ n of Manuel Antonio Casquero Marks, Anthropos 1990 ISBN 84-7658-238-2 [Pg.es/books?id=R0ZtTmVphxkC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=humilior+humilde&source=web&ots=arsb3o_Frb&sig=JOIzqAS0LChPZN-hC2Nc8-Ebnv4&hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA19,M1]. '' Honestior '' means '' mÃs honest, mÃs honest '': '' Honestior, - ius Adjective in comparative degree of “honestusâ€. Honestus, - to, - Adjective um. '' [http://lenguayliteraturalatina.com/2007/11/breve-vocabulario-latn-castellano-h.html Brief latÃn-Castilian vocabulary: H] Necessarily mÃs numerous, and immense mayorÃa of them dedicated to agrÃcolas tasks, dice bajÃsima [[productivity]] and [[agrÃcola yield]], own of the pre-industrial época and the very little técnico level (of ahà identificacià Castilian ³ laborator n in of '' '' with [[farmer]]). By común they were put under the other estates. The level town was compound in its great mayorÃa by [[farmer]] s, [[servant]] s of the feudal señores or you stand out The zones without intermediate dependancy of noble señores or eclesiÃsticos realengo was denominated [[]] and solÃan to prosper mÃs, or at least solÃan to consider as a misfortune happening to depend on a señor, until the point of which sometimes they conseguÃan to avoid it with payments to the king, or [was stimulated [repoblacià ³ n]] of zones border or depopulated (like ocurrià ³ in [[kingdom astur-leonés]] with [[Desert of the Duero| depopulated Plateau of the Duero]]) where they podÃan to appear mixed figures, like [[horseman villain]] (that podÃa to maintain with its own explotacià ³ n at least a horse military and to arm themselves and to defend to sà same) or [[behetrÃa]] s, that elegÃan to their own señor and podÃan to change of one or to another one if them convenÃa, or with the supply of [[law]] or [[letter populates]] that granted to poblacià ³ n its own '' señorÃo collective ''. The initial privileges were not sufficient to prevent that with time most of they fell in feudalizacià ³ n. Three feudal à ³ rdenes was not in the Average Age aún closed estates: they were consequence bÃsica of slow the social structure that habÃa been creating but inexorably with [[transicià ³ n of the esclavismo to the feudalism]] from [[crisis of century III]] (ruralizacià ³ n and formacià ³ n of large estates and '' [[villae]] '', reforms of [[Diocleciano]], descomposicià ³ n of the Roman Empire, the invasions, the establishment of [[kingdoms germÃnicos]], institutions of [[Carolingio Empire]], descomposicià ³ n of éste and new big wave of invasions). The feudal señores were continuacià ³ n of the lÃneas [[to clientelar]] is of the carolingios counts, and some can go back to the Roman large estate owners or the Germanic séquitos, whereas the peasantry provenÃa of the old slaves or colonists, or of free farmers who were themselves forced to entrust itself, receiving sometimes a part of their old own earth in the form of bellwether " concedido" by the señor. The farmer inherited his with === año thousands === Legendary [[año thousands]], end of [[first millenium]], that is used conventionally for the passage of the Discharge to the Low Average Age, is in fact only a round number for cà ³ mputo of [[was Christian]], that was not of universal utilizacià ³ n: the Muslims used their own [[calendar islÃmico]] lunar that begins in [[Hégira]] ([[622]]); in some parts of the Cristiandad local eras (like [were used [was hispÃnica]], that counts from {{aC|38}}). But certainly, [[sticos milenarismo]] and pronà ³ of [[final of the times]] were present; even the own Pope during the change of Wild millenium [[II]], francés Gerberto de Aurillac, interested in all type of knowledge, ganà ³ one reputacià ³ n esotérica.Pierre Riché, '' Gerbert d'Aurillac, him pape of l'an thousands '', Paris, 1987. {{ref-I free | you go = ISBN 978-84-86763-45-9 | tÃtulo = Gerberto, the Pope of año thousands | año = 1990 | author = Riché, Pierre | publicacià ³ n = Publishing Nerea }} astrologÃa always could find fenà ³ less celestial extraordinary in which to support its prestige (like [[eclipse]] s), but certainly other events of the época were between mÃs spectacular of history: [[commits Halley]], that approaches the Earth perià ³ dicamente each eight décadas, alcanzà ³ its brightness mÃximo in the visit of 837, {{mentions Web|title=Great Comets in History|Author=Donald K. Yeomans|work=Jet Laboratory Propulsion|url= http://ssd.gov/?great_comets|year=1998|accessdate=2007-03-15}} despidià ³ the first millenium in 989 and llegà ³ in time of [[battle of Hastings]] in 1066; much mÃs visible aún, [[supernovates]] s [[SN 1006]] and [[SN 1054]], that receives the número of año in which they were registered, were mÃs in detail reflected in Chinese sources, Ãrabes and even indoamericanas that in little the European (although the one of 1054 coincidià ³ with [[battle of Atapuerca]]). All the [[century X]], mÃs well by the real conditions that by the imaginary ones, can consider part of a época dark, pessimistic, uncertain and presided over by [[fear]] to all type of [[real and imaginary, natural and supernatural danger]] s: fear to the sea, fear to the forest, fear to [[sorceress]] s and [[demon]] s and to everything what, without entering within the supernatural Christian, it was relegated to the inexplicable thing and to the concept of '' [[wonderful]] '', attributed to beings of doubtful or quizÃpossible existence ([[dragà ³ n|dragoons]], [[genie]] s, [[foretells]] s, [[unicornio]] s). The fact not tenÃa nothing of único: thousand años mÃs takes, [[century XX]] made be born comparable fears: to [[holocausto nuclear]], to [[change climÃtico]] (versions contemporÃneas of '' [[end of the world]] ''); to [[Comunism]] ('' [[hunting of sorceresses]] '' with that identificà ³ to [[macarthismo]]), to [[freedom]] ('' Fear to the Freedom '' is the base of [[fascism]] in interpretacià ³ n of [[Erich Fromm]]), comparacià ³ n that {{mentions|The Average Age creates firmly that all the things in the universe have a supernatural meaning, and that the world is as a book written by the hand of God. All the animal have a moral or mÃstico meaning, like all the stones and todsa the grass (and this is what they explain the bestiarios, lapidary and the herbal ones). Asà is gotten to attribute positive or negative to meaning también to the colors… For the medieval symbolism a two thing can even have meaning opposite según the context in which it is contemplated (of ahà that leà ³ n sometimes symbolizes to Jesus Christ and sometimes the demon). [[Umberto Echo]] (2004) '' History of the Beauty '', Barcelona: Lumen, ISBN 84-264-1468-0, pg. 121}} ==== the conjuncture of año thousands ==== In [[rich conjuncture]] histà ³ of año thousands, the polÃticas structures mÃs strong of the previous period was being demonstrated very débiles: the Islam was disturbed in [[califato]] s (Baghdad, Cairo and Cà ³ rdoba), that stops año 1000 were being demonstrated incapable to contain to the Christian kingdoms in [[penÃnsula Ibérica]] (final failure of [[Almanzor]]) and to the Byzantine Empire in the MediterrÃEastern neon. También undergoes expansià Byzantine ³ n [[Búlgaro Empire]], that is destroyed. The national particularismos francés, Pole and húngaro draw protonacionales borders that, peculiarly, are very similar to those of año 2000. However, the Carolingio Empire habÃa dissolved in unmanageable feudal principalities, that [[Otà ³ nidas]] is proponÃan to include in one second '' [[Restauratio Imperii]] '' ([[Otà ³ n I]], in [[962]]), this time on bases germanas.Georges Duby (1987) '' world-wide Atlas histà ³ rich '', Madrid: Debate, ISBN 84-7444-349-0 === the persistence of the fear and funcià ³ n of the laughter === {{mentions|'' Nel mezzo of cammin I gave nostra bollard
my ritrovai Rep a dark forest
chè diritta via was smarrita. ''|col2=En the means of the way of our life
found in a dark forest
because the straight way habÃa misled|[[Dante]], [[Divine Comedy]]}} [[Image: Flagellants.png|thumb|200px|right|Disciplinantes or flagelantes in an engraving of century XV. '' [[Penitenciagite]] '' (you make penance) '' Hay to punish the body to save the soul ''. [[Asceticism]] sees in [[mortificacià ³ n]] a way to surpass '' temptations of [[meat (teologÃa)|meat]] '' and to obtain méritos while still alive for redencià ³ n of [[blames]] by [[sinned]] s.]] The fears and the insecurity did not end año thousands, nor was either necessary to hope to return to find them to terrible [[flagelantes Black Plague]] and to [[]] of century XIV. Even in '' medieval à ³ ptimo '' of expansive century XIII mÃhabitual s era to find texts like the one of Dante, or like éstos: This hymn of unknown author, given to very diverse personages (the Pope Gregorio - who could be [[Great Gregorio I]], to that también attributes [[Gregorian song]], or another one of those of that name, to the founder of the Cister [[San Bernardo de Claraval]], to the Dominican monks [[Umbertus]] and [[Frangipani]] and to franciscan [[TomÃs of Celano]]) and incorporated to the liturgy of [[misa]]: {{mentions|
: '' Dies iræ, dies illa, '' : '' Solvet sæclum in favilla, '' : '' David Testis cum Sibylla! '' : '' Tremor Quantus est futurus, '' : '' quando judex est venturus, '' : ''cuncta stricte discussurus !'' : … : '' Confutatis maledictis, '' : '' flammis acribus addictis, '' : '' mouth me cum benedictis. '' : '' Gold supplex ET acclinis, '' : '' cor contritum quasi cinis, '' : ''gere curam mei finis.'' : '' Lacrimosa dies illa, '' : '' qua resurget ex- favilla '' : ''judicandus homo reus.'' : '' Huic ergo parce, Deus. '' |col2=
: DÃa of the wrath; dÃa that one : in which the centuries are reduced to ashes; : like witnesses king David and the Sybil. : ÂCuÃnto terror habrÃin the future : when the judge has to come : to judge everything strictly! : … : After confusing to the damn ones : thrown to the voracious flames : hazme to call between the blessed ones : You the request, suplicante and of knees, : corazà distressed ³ n, almost made ash-gray: : hazte position of my destiny. : DÃa of lÃdispleasures serÃthat one dÃa : in which resucitarÃ, of the dust : for jucio, the guilty man. : To that, then, perdà ³ nalo, oh God. }} [[Image: Bois-Sainte-Marie 03.jpg|thumb|200px|right|A monstrous demon takes the language with pliers to the condemned (a punishment to have possibly sinned '' of word ''), while another demon drags tirà to himndole of the hair. Capital romÃnico of the church of Bois-Sainte-Marie, Brionnais, France.]] But también participates in the same concepcià pessimistic ³ n of the world this other, originating of a totally opposite atmosphere, gathered in one coleccià ³ n of poems [[goliardo]] s (monks and students of disorderly life): Dos translations to the Castilian: [http://www.com/Vienna/Choir/7652/carmina/texto.com/jgarciailla/doc/carmina.pdf] {{mentions| : '' Or Fortune '' - Oh Fortune, : '' velut moon '' - like the Moon : '' statu variabilis, '' - variable : '' to semper crescis incessantly '' - increase : '' aut decrescis; '' - or you disappear. : '' bollard detestabilis '' - ÂHateful life! : '' nunc obdurat '' - first it dulls : '' ET tunc curat '' - and después stimulates, : '' I rub mentis aciem '' - like game, the sharpness of the mind. : '' egestatem, '' - the poverty : '' potestatem '' - and the power : ''dissolvit ut glaciem.'' - they melt like the ice. : '' Sors immanis '' - monstrous Destiny : '' ET inanis, '' - and vacÃo, : '' defeat your volubilis, '' - a wheel turning is what you are, : '' status malus, '' - if estÃbadly placed : '' vain salus '' - the health is vain, : '' to semper dissolubilis, '' - it always can be dissolved, : '' obumbrata '' - eclipsed : '' ET velata '' - and guarded |'' Fortune imperatrix mundi '' - Fortune empress of the world ('' [[Carminic Burana]] '')}} The supernatural thing was present in the daily life of all like a constant reminder of the brevity of the life and the imminence of the death, whose radical igualitarismo was applied, in counterpoint with the inequality of the conditions, like a social cohesionador, like the promise of the eternal life. imaginacià ³ n was excited with imÃgenes mÃs morbosas than ocurrirÃa in [[final judgment]], the torments of hell and the méritos that the saints habÃan obtained with their ascética life and its martyrdoms (that administered well by the Church podÃan to save the temporary pains of [[purgatorio]]). This sà did not operate ³ it in the illiterate intimidated ones that únicamente disponÃan of '' gospel in stone '' of the churches; most of the cultured readers gave all crédito to the truculent scenes that filled [[martirologio]] s and to inverosÃmiles histories of '' [[Ãurea Legend]] '' of [[Jacopo gives VorÃgine]]. The fear was inherent to the permanent structural violence of the feudalism, that although was channeled by acceptable mechanisms socially and established rich perfect a estamental order teà ³, was a permanent memory of the possibility of subversià ³ n of the order, perià ³ dicamente renewed with wars, internal invasions and revolts. In particular, '' sÃstrips against the rústico '' were manifestations of the mixture of clérigos and noble scorn and distrust whereupon veÃan to the servant, reduced to deformed, ignorant and violent, able a monster of the majors atrocities, mainly when agrupaba. '' SÃcarnival strips against the rústico and celebrations '', in [[Umberto Echo]] (2007) '' History of the Ugliness '', Barcelona: Lumen ISBN 978-84-264-1634-6, pgs. {{mentions|'' To fury rusticorum releases to us, Dominates ''|col2=De the fury of the farmers, lÃbranos Señor. |Adicià ³ n to the liturgy eclesiÃstica of [[LetanÃa of the Saints]]. Pablo Oil mill [http://www.org/articulos/volumen9/art03_letras_completo.asp '' the impetuous beat of the letter. Violence and Literature in some Hispano-American texts '']
}} But at the same time, sostenÃa, like essential part of the building ideolà ³ gico (³ n of [was justificacià [papal election]]) that the voice of the town was the voice of God ('' Vox populi, vox Dei ''). EspÃritu medieval debÃa to assume contradiccià ³ n to impel públicas manifestations of mercy and devocià ³ n and to the time to allow to generous concessions to [[sinned]]. [[Grotesque carnivals]] and others parodias ([[celebration of the ass]] or '' [[charivari]] '') permitÃan all type of licenses, [[blasphemy]] and the ridicule to the asylum, investing jerarquÃas (even elegÃan '' kings of the idiots '' '' [[Niño bishop|niños bishops]] '' or '' bishops of the celebration '') making prevail everything what the rest of año was prohibited, was considered ugly, disagreeable or gave fear, like reaccià healthful ³ n to the daily terror to mÃs allÃand garantÃa of which, passed the excesses of the celebration, volverÃa dà ³ cilmente to the work and obedience. '' Seriousness and sadness were prerogatives of that sa practiced == Low Average Age (centuries XI to the XV) == {{AP|Low Average Age}} [[Image: Them Très Riches Heures du duc of Berry juin.jpg|thumb|left|250px|AgrÃcolas tasks of the month of June, ilustracià ³ n of [[the very rich hours of Duke de Berry]] (1411-1416). Fenà ³ less traditional and of [[releases duracià ³ n]], like the necessity of [[wall]] s, rudimentary of the técnicas and explotacià ³ n of the less new farmers ³ and dinà are opposed to fenÃmicos, like the growth of the city and its bold architecture, that despite are continued basing on extraccià ³ n and distribucià ³ n of the productive surplus of the field. Aún is much to culminate [[transicià ³ n of the feudalism to Capitalism]].]] '' Low Average Age '' is a término that sometimes produces confusià ³ n, because ³ comes from equÃvoco etimolà gico between alemÃCastilian n and: '' low '' does not mean '' declining '', but '' recent ''; by oposicià ³ n to '' high '' of '' High Average Age '', that means '' old '' (in [[Language alemÃn|alemÃn]] '' alt '': old, old). However, it is certain that from some perspective historiogrÃfica can be seen the set of the medieval period like the cycle of birth, development, inevitable height and caÃda of one civilizacià ³ n, interpretative model that inicià ³ [[Gibbon]] for the Roman Empire (where he is mÃobvious s oposicià ³ n between [[High Empire]] and [[Under Empire]]) and that has been applied with major or minor fortune to other rich contexts histà ³ and artÃsticos.BasÃndose in one teorÃa of [[Eugene D'Ors]] has been applied to this idea to the periods of [[Greek Art]]: constructivo=arcaico, pleno=clÃsico and decadentes=helenÃstico; and veÃa parallelisms in [[Renaissance]]: [[Quattrocento]] - [[Cinquecento === the Total Average Age (centuries XI to the XIII) === {{AP|Total Average Age}} justificacià ³ n of that denominacià ³ n is exceptional of [[development]] demogrÃfico, econà ³ mico, social and cultural of [[Europe]] that takes place in that period of time, coincident with [[calm climate]] (has been spoken of " [[Medieval à ³ ptimo]] ") that permitÃa to cultivate [[grapevine]] is in [[England]]. simbà ³ lico [[año thousands]] (whose terrors [[milenarismo|milenaristas]] are a myth historiogrÃfico frequently exaggerated) does not mean anything by sà same, but from then High Average Age occurs by finished to the Dark Age of the invasions of [[]]: [[Magiares|húngaros]] and [[Norman]] s estÃn already based and integrated in [[Latin cristiandad]]. The Europe of ''' Total Average Age ''' is expansive también in the military land: [[crossed]] in [[Prà ³ ximo East]], dominacià ³ n [[Anjou|angevina]] of [[Sicily]] and the advance of the Christian kingdoms in [[penÃnsula Ibérica]] (missing person [[Califato of Cà ³ rdoba]]) threatens reducing to the space islÃmico to the South shore of [[river basin of the MediterrÃneon]] and the interior of [[Asia]]. [[Way of produccià feudal ³ n]] is developed without finding lÃmites to his at the moment extensià ³ n (like ocurrirÃwith [[crisis of century XIV]]). [[Feudal rent]] distributes by [[señorÃo|señores]] outside the field, where it is originated: [[city]] is and [[burguesÃa]] grows with the increase of the demand of artisan products and from the commerce long-distance, they are born and] is developed [[fair] s, [[terrestrial commercial route]] s and marÃtimas and institutions like [[Hansa]]. Central and Northern Europe ³ n enters corazà ³ n of civilizacià Western. [[Byzantine Empire]] stays between the Islam and the cruzados, extended its cultural influence by the Balkan Mountains and Russian steppes where the push resists [[Mongol (ethnic group)|mongol]]. The art [[romÃnico]] and first [[gà ³ tico]] is protected by [[religious à ³ rdenes]] and [[secular clergy]]. [[Cluny]] and [[CÃster]] fills to Europe of [[monastery]] s. [[Way of Santiago]] articulates the penÃnsual Ibérica with Europe. University is born [[]] is ([[Stupid]], [[Sorbona]], [[Oxford]], [[Cambridge]], [[Salamanca]], [[Coimbra]]). [[escolÃstica]] arrives at its summit with [[TomÃs of Aquino]], after receiving the influence of the translations of Ãrabe ([[averroÃsmo]]). [[Straight Roman]] begins to influence in the same kings who see sà like '' emperors in their kingdom ''. The conflicts grow at the same time as the society: [[herejÃa]] s, [[shaken farmers]] and [[urban revolts|urban]], the savage [[represià ³ n]] of all of them and the less savages [[feudal war]] s is not constant. ==== expansià ³ n of the feudal system ==== ===== internal Dynamism: econà ³ mico, social, tecnolà ³ gico and intellectual ===== [[Image: 8-alimenti, latte, Taccuino Sanitatis, Casanatense 4182.jpg|thumb|right|300px|A farmer ordeña a ewe, while in cabaña niño eats before a table (the furniture was not very habitual in the houses of the poor men). Ilustracià ³ n of century XIV of '' [[Tacuinum sanitatis]] '', a médico treaty Ãrabe of [[Ibn Butlan]] that was translated to latÃn and had great difusià ³ n by Western Europe in the Low Average Age, like other works of similar origin.]] Far from to be system social anchylosed (the closing of the access to [[estate]] s is a process that takes place like reaccià preservative ³ n of [[privileged]] s, after the final crisis of the Average Age, already in [[Old Régimen]]), the medieval feudalism demostrà ³ sufficient flexibility like allowing the development of two processes, that was fed back mutually favoring one ró n requests expansiÃ. On the one hand, assigning a place to each person within the system, permitià ³ expulsià ³ n of all those for those who not habÃa place, enviÃndolos like colonists and military adventurers to earth nongained for the Western Cristiandad, expanding asà brutally his lÃmites. On the other, assuring a certain order and social stability for the agrarian world after the end the period of the invasions; although far from it the wars finished - consubstantial to the feudal system the habitual level of violence in bélicos periods tendÃa to control itself by the own institutions - [[c [[Image: Sg fexx 20.JPG|thumb|right|300px|Horses of collera shot equipped with [[]] s to allow the effective advantage of its force. FotografÃa is present, but tecnologÃa used is similar to improved in the Average Age.]] That dinÃmica '' [[fight of classes]] '' between servants and señores invigorated economÃa and hacÃa possible the beginning of one concentracià ³ n of accumulated wealth from the agrÃcolas rents; but never of comparable form to [[acumulacià ³ n of own capital]] of Capitalism, because not hacÃa with them [[inversià productive ³ n]] (since it would have happened to have the farmers the use of the surplus), but [[hoarding]] into the hands of nobility and clergy. Such thing, in última instance, to través of the programs of construccià ³ n (castles, monasteries, churches, cathedrals, palaces) and [[sumptuary cost]] in luxury products - [[horses]], [[sophisticated arms]], [[jewels]], [[art works]], [[fabric]] s of quality, [[tints]] s, [[you soothe]], [[carpets]], [[spices]] - could not stop stimulating rudimentary [long-distance [commerce]], circulacià monetary ³ n and the urban life; really, the resurgence econà ³ mico of Western Europe. Irà ³ nicamente, both processes terminarÃan to mine the b {{AP|Revolucià ³ n of century XII}} ===== the university ===== {{AP|Medieval university}} [[Image: Laurentius de Voltolina 001.jpg|thumb|right|350px|University classroom. [[Laurentius de Voltolina]], second half of century XIV.]] Following the precedent of organizacià ³ n carolingia of the palatal, cathedral schools and monÃsticas (due to [[Alcuino of York]] - [[787]] -), mÃs that the one of other existing similar institutions in the world islÃmico, As of century IX '' Bimaristan '' gave diplomaturas of medicine to students who realized prÃcticas hospitable to exert professionally like médicos. [[John Bagot Glubb]] [http://www.html '' Quotations on Islamic Civilization '']: {{mentions|In the days of [[Mamun]], the medicine schools was extremely active in [[Baghdad]]. The first gratuitous público hospital was abierto in Baghdad during the califato of [[Harun Al-Rashid]]. When being developed east system, médicos and [[surgeon]] s were required to give lessons in the school of médicos, and gave diplomas those to which they considered qualified to practice the medicine. The first hospital in Egypt was abierto in 872, and from then they all along jumped and width of the Empire, from Al-Andalus to Persia.}} [[University of The Karaouine]] ([[Fez]], Morocco, 859) is considered mÃold s of the world ('' The Guinness Book Of Record '', Published 1998, ISBN 0-553-57895-2, P. The first complete university serÃa [[Al-Azhar University]] ([[Cairo]], Egypt, century X), that ofrecÃa an ample variety of académicas graduations, including studies of post-grado. the first universities of Christian Europe was founded for the study of [[straight]], [[medicine]] and [[teologÃa]]. The central part of enseñanza envolvÃa the study of the preparatory arts, (denominated [[liberal arts]] inasmuch as they were mental or spiritual and '' released '' of the work own manual of [[artesanÃa]] s, considered [[vile offices and mecÃnicos]]); these liberal arts were '' [[Trivium]] '' ([[gramÃtica]], [[retà ³ rich]] and [[là ³ gica]]) and '' [[Quadrivium]] '' ([[aritmética]], [[geometrÃa]], [[música]] and [[astronomÃa]]). Después, the student made contact with enemy with studies mà Between 1200 and 1400 52 universities were founded on Europe; 29 of them of fundacià papal ³ n, demÃs of fundacià imperial or real ³ n. First [was possibly [University of Bologna|Bologna]] (specialized in Right, 1088), to which siguià ³ [[University of Oxford|Oxford]] (before 1096), of which escindià ³ its rival [[University of Cambridge|Cambridge]] (1209), [[University of ParÃs|ParÃs]], of half-full of the century XII (one of whose schools [was [the Sorbona]], 1275), [[University of Salamanca|Salamanca]] (1218, preceded by '' [[General Study of Palencia]] '' of 1208), [[University of Padua|Padua]] (1222), [[University of NÃpoles|NÃpoles]] (1224), [[University of Coimbra|Coimbra]] (1308, transferred from '' General Study of Lisbon '' of 1290), [[University of AlcalÃof Henares (histà ³ rich)|AlcalÃof Henares]] (1293, refundada by [[Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros|Cisneros cardinal]] in 1499), '' [[University of the Sapienza|the Sapienza]] '' (Rome, 1303), [[University of Vall {{VT|University}} ===== escolÃstica ===== {{AP|EscolÃstica}} [[escolÃstica]] was the dominant current teolà ³ gico-filosà ³ fica of the medieval thought, after [[patrÃstica]] of the Antigà ¼ age tardÃa, and basà ³ in coordinacià ³ n of [[faith]] and [[razà ³ n (filosofÃa)|razà ³ n]] (in principle identificacià ³ n of both), that in any case always suponÃa clear sumisià ³ n of [[razà ³ n]] to [[faith]] ('' [[Philosophia ancilla theologiae]] '' - [[filosofÃa]] is enslaved of [[teologÃa]] -). But también is [[método]] of intellectual work: all thought debÃa to be put under [[authority principle]] ('' [[Magister dixit]] '' - the Teacher said to it), and enseñanza podÃa in principle to limit repeticià ³ n or [[gloss]] of old texts, and mainly of [[Bible]], the main source of knowledge, because [Revelacià represents [divine ³ n]]; in spite of all this, escolÃstica incentivà ³ especulacià ³ n and the reasoning, because suponÃa to be put under rÃgido armazà ³ n là ³ gico and a structure esquemÃtica of the speech that debÃa exponers Century XIV representarÃthe crisis of escolÃstica to través of two franciscan britÃnicos: '' doctor subtilis '' [[Duns Scoto]] and [[Guillermo de Occam]]. Precedent of both serÃa [[School of Oxford]] ([[Robert Grosseteste]] and [[Roger Bacon]]) centered in the study of [[nature]], defending the one possibility [[experimental science]] supported in [[matemÃtica]], against [[tomismo]] dominant. The polémica of universal terminà ³ showing preference for the nominalistas, which left to a space to filosofÃa mÃs allÃof teologÃa. [[Image: God the Geometer.jpg|right|thumb|200px|The medieval intellectuals looked for to understand nicos the geométricos principles and armà ³ with which God habrÃa created the Universe. [[compÃs (tool)|compÃs]] in this ilustracià ³ n of a manuscript of century XIII is sÃmbolo of the act of [[creacià ³ n]] of Dios.
* [[Thomas Woods]], '' How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization '', (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7
]] {{mentions|'' Ergo Domine, qui DAS fidei intellectum, gives mihi, ut, quantum scis expedire, intelligam, quia is sicut credimus, ET sickle is quod credimus. ET quidem credimus nihil you esse aliquid quo maius cogitari possit. An ergo non est aliqua talis natura, quia " dixit insipiens in corde suo: non est Deus" ''|col2=Luego Señor, tú that gives the understanding to the faith, dame to understand, as much as you consider good, that tú you are as we create and what we create. And well, we think that tú you are something greater than which cannot think thing some. Now, Âperhaps this nature does not exist, because " ³ n said to the fool in his corazÃ: there is no Dios" |[[Anselmo de Canterbury]], beginning of [[argument ontolà ³ gico]] to prove [[existence of God]].
'' Proslogio '', capÃtulo II (1078). The put in quotation marks phrase is a bÃblica appointment ([[Psalms]] 13:1).php?id=3035#capii Latin Text].net/posts/offtopic/855658/San-Anselmo-de-Canterbury---Existencia-de-Di {{mentions|'' Dicitur Exodi III, ex- Dei person, ego sum qui sum. ''
'' Deum esse lamp viis proBari potest… Fifth via sumitur ex- gubernatione rerum. Videmus enim quod aliqua quae cognitione carent, scilicet corpora naturalia, operantur to propter finem, quod apparet ex- sickle quod to semper aut frequentius eodem way operantur, ut consequantur you go quod est optimum; unde patet quod non to casu, thirst ex- intentione perveniunt ad finem. Ea autem quae non habent cognitionem, non tendunt in finem nisi direct ab intelligente aliquo cognoscente ET, sicut sagitta to sagittante. Ergo est aliquid intelligens, omnes head of cattle a quo natural ordinantur ad finem, ET sickle dicimus Deum. ''|col2=Se says in à ‰ xodo 3.14 of the person of God: " I am the one that es."
The existence of God can be proven of five different ways… The villa is deduced from the ordering of the things. Then we see that there are things that do not have knowledge, like are the natural bodies, and that they build by an aim. This can be always verified observing cà ³ mo or often they build equal to obtain the best thing. Of where it is deduced that, to reach its objective, they do not build at random, but deliberately. The things that do not have knowledge do not tend to the aim without being directed by anybody with knowledge and intelligence, as it shoots with an arrow by the arquero. Therefore, there is somebody intelligent one by that all the things are directed to the aim. We called God to him|[[TomÃs of Aquino]], the Five villa of VÃas ('' Quinquae viae '') to prove the existence of Dios.
'' [[Summa Theologiae]] '' (Extreme Teolà ³ gica, 1274), '' Quaestio 2, Articulus 3. '' [http://www.
CompÃrese with arg ===== the sprouting of burguesÃa ===== [[Image: Palazzo Vecchio Palazzo della Signoria.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Signoria of Florence]], one institucià municipal ³ n that has the sovereign power in this city been Italian, dominated by powerful burguesÃa artisan and commercial that goes away '' ennobleciendo '' and turning into [[patriciado urban]].]] [[BurguesÃa]] is the new social agent fomado by [[craftsman]] s and [[merchant]] is that they arise in the surroundings of the cities, either in the old Roman cities that habÃan decaÃdo, or in new núcleos created around castles or crossroads - properly called [[town]] s. Many of these cities incorporated that name - [[Friburgo]], [[Strasbourg]]; in España [[Town of Osma]] or [[Burgos]] -. BurguesÃa was interested in pressing to the polÃtico power (empire, papado, different monarquÃas, the local feudal nobility or institutions eclesiÃsticas - dià ³ cesis or monasteries on which their cities depended) so that the opening was facilitated econà ³ mica of the closed spaces of the large cities, would be reduced the toll tributes and forms of safe commerce would be guaranteed and one centralizacià ³ n of administracià ³ n of justice and equality of the norms in ample territories that allowed to develop their work them, while garantÃas of which those that harmed these norms serÃan punished with equal hardness in the different territories. Those cities that abrÃan the doors to the commerce and a greater freedom of circulacià ³ n, veÃan to increase the wealth and prosperity of their inhabitants and those of the señor, reason why with reluctance but of way it signs went away spreading the model. The alliances between señores were mÃs common, not only as much for the war, as to allow to the development econà ³ mico of its respective territories, and the king was the agglutinating element of those alliances. The bourgeois can consider like '' free men '' as soon as they were partially outside the feudal system, that besieged literally them - '' has been compared to the cities with '' islands in a feudal océano -, '' island in the is of feudalism '' mentions - without indicating source R. White (1967) '' To Short History of England '' Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-09439-9, [http://books.es/books?id=7b9bqirm4WcC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=%22in+the+sea+of+feudalism%22&source=web&ots=8kUZzDpqcT&sig=ZZ59byq3-xHHGrPldYCnggsJB8U&hl=es&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPA53,M1 pg. 53] because they directly did not participate in the relations feudo-vasallÃticas: neither they were señores feudal, nor farmers submissive servitude, nor men of church. sujeccià súbdito ³ n like [[]] of the polÃtico power was similar to a bow of vasallaje, but mÃcollective s or like '' [[señorÃo]] '' that hacÃa that the city responded like a whole to the demands of military and polÃtico support of the king or of the governor to whom she was tie, and that as well participated in explotacià feudal ³ n of the surrounding field ([[Alfoz (urbanism)|alfoz]] in España). expresià German ³ n '' Stadtluft macht frei '' " The airs of the city give libertad", or " they do libre" to you; {{mentions|An example of this utilizacià ³ n offers it to us who mention (descontextualizando its rich circumstances histà ³) the well-known refrÃn alemÃn,  “the air of the city you harÃlibres”, like corroboracià ³ n of the thesis ideolà ³ gica that it attributes to the city, generally, the capacity to obtain that a subject of the human species can reach the freedom, that is to say, without considering that refrÃmentioned n is formulated in the process of transformacià ³ n of the feudal system in the system constituted by the cities bourgeois of the low average age.}} [[Good Gustavo]], [http://www.htm '' On educacià ³ n for ciudadanÃa democrÃtica ''], in catobeplÃs. (parÃfrasis of the evangélica phrase " the truth you harÃlibres"), Jn 8,32 indicated sometimes that who podÃan to take root in the cities, literally fleeing from sujeccià ³ n [[Image: Hunterian Psalter c.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Eva spinning before the cradle of one of its children. Ilustracià ³ n of folio 8 of '' Psalterio Hunter ''. introduccià ³ n of [[rueca]] to spin was one of the innovations introduced from Asia in the Total Average Age. The one of ilustracià ³ n is a primitive spinner, without wheel. Both were used so much in artesanÃa urban as in the domésticas workings of the women in field and city. Like all the works, it gave rise to social tensions: '' When Adam delved, and Eve span/Who was then to gentleman? '' (" When AdÃn dug and Eva spun, Âquién was then horseman? ") it was a popular rhyme with which clérigo [[John Ball]] movilizà ³ to the English farmers of the 1381 revolt.]] In the Burgos many new social institutions arose. The development of [[commerce]] llevà ³ prepared with himself the one of [[finances|financial system]] and [[accounting]]. The craftsmen were united in called associations [[union]] s, leagues, corporations, cofradÃas, or arts, según the place geogrÃfico. Operation internal of factories trade union implied learning of several años of [[apprentice]] in charge of [[masterful]] (dueño of factory), that ³ n of [implied the passage of aquél to condicià [official]] when demonstrated to know the office, which implied his consideracià ³ n as worker [[wage|employee]], one condicià ³ n of by sà other people's to the feudal world which even trasladà ³ to the field (in principle of marginal form) with [[day laborer]] s that does not disponÃan of earth own nor granted by the señor. asociacià ³ n of the factories in the unions, complentamente worked of opposite form to [[capitalist free trade]]: [was tried to avoid all possible characteristic of [ MÃs opening demostrà ³ the commerce. [[Pedlar]] s that went of village in village, and the little adventurers who atrevÃan themselves to make trips mÃs long mà was the merchantss habitual of the High Average Age, before año 1000. In three centuries, for beginnings of the century XIV, [[fairs of Champaña]] and [[fairs of Medina of the Field|of Medina]] habÃan created stable terrestrial routes and mÃs or less safe than (to backs of mules or with carts in the best one of the cases) recorrÃan Europe of north to the south (in trashumantes the Castilian case following [[cañada]] s of the Mesta, in the case francés connecting the emporios flamenco and north-Italian to través of prà ³ speras Rhine regions borgoñonas and, all of them sprinkled of cities). '' [[Hansa]] '' or binds hanseÃtica establecià ³ as well routes marÃtimas of a stability and similar security (with greater lifting capacity, in boats of tecnologÃa innovating) that unÃan [[BÃltico]] and [[North Sea]] to través of the Scandinavian Straits, All this desarrollà ³ incipient [[commercial Capitalism]] ('' véase también [[History of Capitalism]] '') with the increase or sprouting ex- '' I novate '' of [[economÃa monetary]], [[bank|bank]] ([[crédito]], [[préstamo]] s, [[safe]], [[change letters]]), activities that always maintained distrusts morals (sinned of [[profiteers]] for which [meant [illegal profit]], and in which judÃos únicamente [podÃan to incur []] when they gave to which they were not of his religià ³ n, prohibited office so much to the Christians as to the Muslims). aparicià ³ n of rich bourgeois and poor urban commons person originà ³ a new type of social tensions, that produced scrambled urbanas. [[Michel Mollat]] and [[Philippe Wolff]] (1970) Edicià española ³ blue n of 1979 '' Uñas, Jacques and Ciompi. The popular revolutions in Europe in centuries XIV and XV '', Madrid: 21st century ISBN 84-323-0232-5 As far as the gicos aspects ideolà ³, expresià ³ n of the inconformismo burgués with its position {{mentions|- ÂLicos Cà ³ mo we will distinguish to herejes of catà ³? - Matadlos to all, that God reconocerÃto theirs|}} {| align=" center" width=" 800px" border=" 2" cellpadding=" 4" cellspacing=" 0" style=" margin: 0.5em; background: #f9f9f9; to border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; collapse; font-size: 90%; to clear: both" |- align=" center" | ''' The cathedrals and búsqueda of the height ''' |- | [[Image: ItaliaSienaDuomoDaTorreMangia.jpg|left|388px]] [[Image: Santa Maria of Fiore.jpg|right|390px]] {{mentions|In the Average Age, oposicià ³ n between the stop and it under " one projects in espacio": to towers and very high walls are constructed, very visible, to show that it is wanted to escape of " bajo" … the stop and the height designate what is great and beautiful… it express in construccià ³ n of the castles and the cathedrals… That oposicià ³ n is the correlate of which it exists between the sky and the Earth.) Then, buscà ³ the light, and acabà ³ to even identify itself to God with the light. The técnicos progresses, búsqueda of open spaces and the use every time mÃfalsified s of the iron and diverse metals gave birth, between great centuries XI and XIII to catedrales. 50
}} The rivalry between señoriales castles had its urban correlate in the rivalry between fortified houses, with challenging towers, that have survived in the spectacular sets of [[San Gimignano]] or of [[CÃceres]]. Much mÃextended s was the rivalry of [[cathedral]] is, whose construccià ³ n was delayed by centuries, desarrollÃndose of a way orgÃnico, without the original plans were finished, doing that the final result was habitually the sum of very different styles. They were gotten to produce true races of prestige, like which prolongà ³ by hundreds of años between those of [[Siena]] and [[Florence]]. The extraordinary dimensions of both made that they were finished before the low-medieval crisis, which impossible determinà ³ that the sieneses (left: [[Cathedral of Siena]] '' Duomo I gave Santa MarÃa '') would choose to be satisfied to the constructed thing until then (so that it could be used from his beginnings, always began works by [[Ãbside]], allowing Co |}
==== New polÃticas organizations ==== ===== Feudal Universal Powers, MonarquÃas and City-Be ===== In the Total Average Age observà ³ a great disparity in the scale to that ejercÃa the polÃtico power: [[universal powers]] (Pontificado and Empire) continues vindicating his primacÃa against [[MonarquÃas feudal]], that in prÃctica worked like independent states. At the same time, organizations much mÃs pequeñas in extensià ³ n very demonstrated to be dinÃmicas in the international relations ([[city-been Italian]] and [[Free Imperial City|ciuades free of the Germà Empirenico]]), and the municipalismo demostrà ³ to be a force very to consider in all the territories of Europa. '' The rediscovery of [[justinianeo Digesto]] ('' Digestum Vetus '') permitià ³ the study autà ³ nomo of [[Straight]] ([[Pepo (jurist)|Pepo]] and [[Irnerio]]) and the sprouting of [[Glosadores|School of the Glosadores]] and [[University of Bologna]] (1088). That event, that permitirÃthe gradual rediscovery of [[Straight Roman]], llevarÃto formacià ³ n of the call '' [[Corpus Iuris Civilis]] '' and to the possibility of raising '' [[Ius commune]] '' (Straight común), and of justifying concentracià ³ n of being able and [[Reglamento#Baja Average Age|prescribed capacity]] in institucià imperial ³ n, or in the monarchs, each one of as empezarÃto consider like '' in regno suo imperator '' (emperor in its kingdom). {{mentions|Rex superiorem non recognoscens in regno suo est Imperator - the king does not recognize superiors, in his kingdom is emperor|Decretal '' Rep Venerabilem '' of [[Innocent III]], 1202. [[Francisco TomÃBrave s and]] and others (1996) [http://209.104/search?q=cache:FmOL-1KaGtsJ:www.php%3Fpid%3DS0716-54551999002100056%26script%3Dsci_arttext+rex+est+imperator+in+regno+suo&hl=es&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=es '' AutonomÃa and soberanÃa. One consideracià rich ³ n histà ³ ''], Madrid: Martial Pons; mentioned in '' Magazine of studies histà ³ rich-jurÃdicos '' nº 21, ValparaÃso 1999 ISSN 0716-5455}} The difÃcil coexistence of Pontificado and Empire ('' regnum ET sacerdocium '') throughout the centuries gave rise between 1073 and 1122 to [[complains of the investitures]]. Different formulations [[ideolà ³ gica]] s ([[teorÃa of the two swords]], '' [[Plenitudo potestatis]] '', '' [[Dictatus papae]] '', sentences of [[simonÃa]] and [[nicolaÃsmo]]) constituÃan a building raised during centuries by which the Pope pretendÃa to mark supremacÃa of [[religious authority]] on [[to be able civil]] (what [has come denominating [polÃtico agustinismo]]), whereas the Emperor pretendÃa to make merit [[legitimacy]] of its position, that pretendÃa to derive fromthe old Roman Empire ('' [[Translatio imperii]] ''), asà since the material fact of its military capacity to impose its territorial power and even tutelary the religious life (as much in the aspects [[institutional]] is like [[dogma|dogmÃticos]]), to similarity of its equivalent in East. The access of different dinastÃas from the imperial dignity Both pretensions were much to be done effective, exhausted in their own debate and surpassed by the greater polÃtica effectiveness of the urban organizations and the kingdoms of the rest of Europa.Valdeà ³ n, '' op. cit '', especially '' the época of the universal ideas. Pontificado and the empire. Capetos and Angevinos '', pg. {{AP|Dominium mundi}} {{VT|Straight Average penal#Edad}} ===== Parlamentarismo ===== Aparecià ³ [[parlamentarismo]], a form of representacià polÃtica ³ n that with time convirtià ³ in the precedent of [[divisià consubstantial ³ n of powers]] to [[democracy]] of [[Contemporà Agenea]]. PrimacÃa in the time has '' [[Alà ¾ ingi]] '' islandés (930), that seguÃa the model of [[thing]] or assemblies of Germanic soldiers; but since the end of century XI one went developing a new institutional model, derivative of obligacià feudal ³ n of '' consilium '', that implied to three feudal à ³ rdenes, and generalizà ³ by western Europe: [[Cortes de Leà ³ n]] (1188), [[Parliament inglés]] (1258) - previously the relations of being able between king and nobility habÃan regulated in [[the Magna Carta]], 1215, or [[Provisions of Oxford]], 1258 - and [[French General States]] (1302). ==== the Gregorian Reformation and the reforms monÃsticas ==== [[Image: Clocher abbaye cluny 3.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Tower of [[AbadÃa de Cluny]].]] {{AP|The Gregorian Reformation}} Hildebrando de Toscana, already from his posicià ³ n under pontificados of [[Leà ³ n IX]] and [[NicolÃs II (Pope)|NicolÃs II]], and mÃs takes like Pope [[Gregorio VII]] (and so it covers all the second half with century XI), emprendià ³ a program of centralizacià ³ n of the Church, with the aid of the benedictines of [[Cluny]], that extended by all Western Europe implying to monarquÃas feudal (outstandingly in the peninsular Christian kingdoms, to través of [[Way of Santiago]]). The following reforms monÃsticas, like [[cartuja]] ([[Dark brown of Colony|San Bruno]]) and mainly [[Cistercian]] ([[San Bernardo de Claraval]]) significarÃn new fortifications of jerarquÃa eclesiÃstica and his implantacià dispersed ³ n in all the European territory like an impressive social force and econà ³ mica ligature to the feudal, tie structures to regal the noble families and dinastÃas and with a base of territorial and real estate wealth, to which S. ±adÃa the collection of the own rights of the Church ([[tithe]] s, [[first fruits]], [[right of stole]], and other local loads, as [[vote of Santiago]] in the northwest of España). The fortification of the papal power intensificà ³ the polÃticas tensions and ideolà ³ gicas with the Germà Empirenico and with [[Eastern Church]], that in this case terminarÃn taking to [[Schism of East]]. The Crossed ones brought creacià consequently ³ n of a special type of religious à ³ rdenes, that, ademÃs to be put under a rule monÃstica (habitually [[Cistercian]], including the rich fulfillment teà ³ of [[votes monÃsticos]]) exigÃan to their components a military life mÃascética s that: ³ was [[à rdenes the military]], founded after [[Site of Jerusalén (1099)|the taking of Jerusalén]] in 1099 ([[Order of Santo Sepulcro de Jerusalén|horsemen of Santo Sepulcro]], [[templarios]] -1104 - and [[hospitable]] -1118-). También constituted in other contexts geogrÃficos ([[à ³ rdenes the españolas military]] and [[nicos horsemen teutà ³]]). adaptacià ³ n to the mighty urban life of centuries XII and XIII serÃmisià ³ n of a new cycle of foundations in the regular clergy: [[begging à ³ rdenes]], whose members were not [[monks]], but [[friars]] ([[franciscan]] of [[San Francisco de Dominican AsÃs]] and [[]] of [[Santo Domingo de GuzmÃn]], that they followed others, like [[Augustinian]]); and of new institutions: [[medieval University|Universities]] and [[Inquisicià ³ n]]. [[Image: Conrad von Soest 005.jpg|thumb|thumb|250px|left|'' [[Anunciacià ³ n]] '' by [[Conrad von Soest]], 1403. [[Virgin]], model of '' feminine virtues '', whose [[innocence]] is symbolized by [[iris]], listens to the divine message traÃdo by [[arcÃngel San Gabriel]] and accepts its destiny (to conceive to [[Christ]] by '' builds and grace of [[EspÃritu Santo]] '' - [[dove]] -) with [[humility]] and [[obedience]]: ''Ecce ancilla Domini; Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum '' - There am aquà the slave of the Señor; hÃgase in mà según your word (Lucas 1:38).va/archive/bible/nova_vulgata/documents/nova-vulgata_nt_evang-lucam_lt.html Text in latÃn] in '' Nova Vulgata ''. ]] ==== Innovations dogmÃticas and devotional ==== As of century XI and century XII, innovations were introduced in the Latin Christianity dogmÃticas and devotional of great importance: imposicià ³ n of [[Roman rite]] against previous [[litúrgico Rite catà ³ lico|multiplicity of liturgies]] ([[rite hispÃnico]], [[bracarense rite]], [[ambrosian rite]], etc.) imposicià ³ n of [[sacerdotal celibacy]] in [[Council of LetrÃn]] (1123). The finding of the paper of [[purgatorio]] like intermediate stage of the souls between sky and hell, that intensificarÃfuncià intermediating ³ n of the Church to través of the orations and misas and the méritos of '' [[Comunià ³ n of the Saints]] '' by her administered. ===== MariolatrÃa ===== intensificacià ³ n of the paper of [[Virgin MarÃa]], that passes to be one [[coredeeming]] with attributes investigated by [[mariologÃa]] and aún not dogmatizados ([[Immaculate Concepcià ³ n]], [[Asuncià ³ n of the Virgin]]), with new devotions and orations ([[AvemarÃa]] - yuxtaposicià ³ n of evangélicos texts that is introduced in the West in century XI, [[Salve]] - adopted by Cluny in 1135-, [[Rosary]] - introduced by Santo Domingo against albigenses-), a fever of foundations of churches in its name, and with amplÃsimo artÃstico treatment. In the época of [[love cortés]] '' devocià ³ n to the Virgin podÃa to hardly distinguish itself, at least in the forms, of which the horseman sentÃa by its lady ''. For all the seccià ³ n Him Goff, '' op. 80-87; the appointment in cursive, of [[AgustÃn Rico Mansilla]] '' Around Gonzalo de Berceo: " miracles of Our Señora" and the cult to the Virgin '', of where también is this appointment: {{mentions|Almost all the historians who have studied the subject estÃn in agreement in a point: In Europe, centuries XII and XIII less marked the height of one of fenà ³ mÃs interesting of the Christianity, the cult to the MarÃa Virgin (Gerli, 1988). Until that moment, devocià ³ n to the Virgin, even existing, habÃa be something of smaller importance in the Church. Hilda Graef (1967), from mÃstrict s Orthodoxy catà ³ lica, considers to century XII like the golden age of mariologÃa. And Atienza (1991) esteem that the cult to MarÃa in the Christian West estallà ³ massively at the end of century XI, expandià ³ throughout centuries XII and XIII and estabilizà ³, but with one implantacià popular ³ n every time mÃample s, as of century XIV.}} Véase también a perspective mÃtraditionalistic s in artÃculo [http://ec.htm '' Devocià ³ n to the Virgin SantÃsima MarÃa ''] of the Catà Encyclopedia ³ lica. MariologÃa habÃa been born in the Antigà ¼ age tardÃa with [[patrÃstica]], and the popular cult of the virgin was one of the key factors of smooth transicià ³ n of [[paganism]] to the Christianity, that usually interprets like one adaptacià ³ n of patriarchal monoteÃsmo of [[judaÃsmo]] to the matriarcal panteà ³ n of the goddess-vÃrgenes-mother of the MediterrÃneon clÃsico: '' the cananea [[Astarté]], Babylonian [[Istar]], Greek [[Criminal]] and [[Gaia]], frigia [[Cibeles]], [[Artemisa]] of à ‰ feso, [[Deméter]] of Eleusis, Egyptian [[Isis]], etc. '' Juan MartÃn Velasco '' Dictionary of MariologÃa '' PÃGS. 580-582: [http://www.org/FICHAS/MAR%C3%8DA/paganismo_devocion_maria.htm '' Paganism and devocià ³ n to MarÃa '']; también AgustÃn Rico Mansilla '' op. '' {{mentions|³ n seems certainly consideracià almost and aceptacià ³ n by the Church of mariano protagonism in the mystery of the Encarnacià ³ n was evolving progressively from century II to the V (Council of Efeso), but cannot surely affirm that it spread between the great mass of faithfuls and, less aún, than it was object of a generalized cult. On the other hand, it agrees to remember that the liturgy catà ³ lica went very slowly replacing the primitive preChristian cults, which took several forever in forgetting; aún can be tracked in many present celebrations basic pagan. We have seen that the study of the festivals dedicated to MarÃa contributes some data: In the Eastern Church the news of a celebration previous to century V is only had - " Conmemoracià ³ n of Santa MarÃa" - and, at the beginning of the century I SAW, the one of " TrÃnsito of the Virgen". Surprising, in the Roman Church marianas celebrations are not known until century VII, qué induces to think that evolucià ³ n was mà enoughslow s.}} the controversy '' [[Cristotokos]] - [[Theotokos]] '' (MarÃa like " Mother of Cristo" or " Mother of Dios"), and the ample treatment of ésta in [[Byzantine art]] habÃan characterized to the Eastern church. The protagonism of the Virgin was widely compensated with misoginia of the treatment of other feminine figures, outstandingly [[Eva]], [[Magdalena]] and [[Santa MarÃa EgipcÃaca]]. The resignation to the body ('' [[meat (teologÃa)|enemy meat]] '' of the soul) and to the wealth, that give to opportunity to the repentance and redencià ³ n (and ===== Sacraments and cohesià social ³ n. MinorÃas religious ===== [[Image: Meister Bertram von Minden 009.jpg|thumb|left|220px|'' The original sin '', by [[Bertram von Minden]], 1375. The subject of [[AdÃn and Eva]] gave ocasià ³ n mÃnaked habitual s of representacià ³ n of during the Average Age.]] By último, institucionalizacià ³ n of [[sacraments]], especially [[penance]] and [[comunià paschal ³ n]] that considers like trÃmites annual that the faithful has to fulfill before his pÃrroco and confessor. The communitarian experience of the sacraments, mainly those that mean vital changes ([[baptism]], [[marriage]], [[carries far uncià ³ n]]), and the funeral rituals, united strongly to village the local societies as as much urban, mainly when other religious communities - judÃos in all Europe and Muslims in España- faced the coexistence. celebracià ³ n of the different festivals in dÃas (Friday the Muslims, sÃfords the judÃos, Sundays the Christians), different tabúes nourishing (pig, alcohol, rituals of slaughter that forces to separate [[carnicerÃa]] s) and separacià fÃsica ³ n from the communities - [[ghetto]] s, [[mosque]] s or [[juderÃa]] s and [[morerÃa]] s raised one situacià ³ n that, even with [[religious tolerance]], was much of being an egalitarian treatment. The judÃos fulfilled one funcià social ³ n of [[I inform expiatorio]] that gave exit to the social tensions at certain moments, with the outbreak of [[pogromo]] s (revolts antijudÃas, that after the massive conversions gave to passage to [[Pedro Vine shoot|turned around you antitalk]]) or with the polÃticas of [[expulsià ³ n of the judÃos|expulsià ³ n]] (England -1290-, France -1394 - and España -1492 - and Portugal in 1496). The existence of minorÃas religious within the Christianity, however, podÃa not to be accepted, since the polÃtica community identifies itself ===== Crime and sin. Sex ===== As far as the deviations of the behavior that did not suppose desafÃos of opinià ³ n but [[crime]] s or [[sinned]] s (identifiable concepts and of impossible definition), its treatment was object of the jurisdictions civil (that applied [[corresponding law]], legislacià ³ n of the kingdom or [[straight común]]) and nun (that applied [[Canà Straight ³ nico]] in ordinary questions, or [[Inquisicià ³ n|inquisitorial procedure]] in necessary case), whose coordinacià ³ n was sometimes complex, like ocurrÃa with the deviations of [[moral sexual catà ³ lica|sexual conduct considered] correct] ([[masturbacià ³ n]], [[homosexuality]], [[incesto]], [[estupro]], [[cohabitation]], [[adultery]] and other subjects [[married]] is). Martine Charageat and Miguel Ãngel Motis Dolader [http://www.com/berceo/florilegio/florilegio/cristianosyjudios. Age Average and Renaissance. Different ways to live the marriage and the sexuality in the Christian communities and heb ==== Expansià ³ n geogrÃfica of feudal Europe ==== [[Image: Bayeux Tapestry WillelmDux.jpg|thumb|right|300px|'' Willelm Dux '', [[Guillermo I of England|Duke Guillermo de NormandÃa]] directs to his troops to [[battle of Hastings]] that him convertirÃin king of England ([[1066]]). [[Carpet of Bayeux]], embroidered few años después.]] expansià ³ n geogrÃfica llevà ³ to end, or intentà ³, at least, to carry out in several directions, following not as much propà ³ situated determined by nonexistent nationalistic conceptions in the época, but dinÃown mica of the feudal houses. [[Norman]], [[vikingos]] seated in [[NormandÃa]], gave rise to one of the feudal houses mÃs expansive of Europe, that extendià ³ by France, England and Italy, connected with those of [[House of Anjou|Anjou-Plantagenet]] and [[Duchy of Aquitaine|Aquitaine]]. The houses of [[Navarre]] and [[Castile]] ([[dinastÃa Jimena]]), [[France]], [[Been borgoñà ³ n|Borgoña]] and [[Count of Flanders|Flanderses]] ([[Capetos]], [[House of Borgoña]] - extended by the PenÃnsula Ibérica-, [[Valois]]) and [[Austria]] ([[house of Hapsburg]]) are other good examples, and all of them were tie by alliances, I connect married and successory or territorial, consubstantial confrontations to the relations feudo-vasallÃticas and expresià ³ n of violence INH In [[España]], simultÃneamente to disolucià ³ n of [[Califato of Cà ³ rdoba]] (in war civil from the 1010 and extinguished the 1031), creà ³ vacÃo of power that the feudal kingdoms cristianohispÃnicos of [[kingdom of Castile|Castile]], [[Kingdom of Leà ³ n|Leà ³ n]], [[Kingdom of Navarre|Navarre]], [[kingdom of Portugal|Portugal]] and [[Kingdom of Aragà ³ n|Aragà ³ n]] (fused dinÃsticamente with [[county of Barcelona]]) tried to be useful, expandiéndose against [[Muslim kingdoms of taifas]] in the call [[Recapture]]. In [[Brità Islandsnicas]], the kingdom of [[England]] intentà ³ repeated times to invade to [[Wales]], [[Scotland]] and [[Ireland]], with major or éxito minor. In Europe of the North, finished to the vikingos invasions of [[]], the wealth sacked by éstos served to acquire western products and services, creating in [[Sea BÃltico]] one prà ³ spera commercial network that attracted the Scandinavians to civilizacià ³ n [[the West|western]], while his expansià ³ n towards the west by ===== Crossed ===== {{AP|Crossed}} [[Image: Crusade damietta.jpg|left|frame|[[Luis IX of France]] (San Luis) directs to its horsemen to an amphibious landing against the Egyptian fort of [[Damietta]] in [[Crossed Villa]] ([[1217]] - [[1221]]).]] The Crossed ones were undertaken expeditions, in accordance with a solemn vote, to release [[Earth Santa]] of dominacià Muslim ³ n. The origin of the word overcomes to the cross done of fabric and used like standard in the outer clothes from which they took part in those initiatives, from peticià ³ n of the Urban Pope [[II]] and the preaching of [[Pedro the Ermitaño]]. The successive ones crossed took place between the centuries [[century XI|XI]] and [[century XIII|XIII]]. They were motivated by the expansionistic interests of the feudal nobility, the control of the commerce with Asia and afÃn hegemà ³ nico of papado on the churches of East. ===== Balance of expansià ³ n geogrÃfica ===== [[Image: Crown, Sword and Globus Cruciger of Hungary.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Sword, sceptre, orb and crown (with its caracterÃstica inclined cross) of [[San Esteban de HungrÃa]], king [[to magiar]] turned to the Christianity and crowned in December of año [[1000]] by the Wild Pope [[II]], in an act similar to which protagonizà ³ [[Carlomagno]] exactly two hundred años before, meaning in this case expansià ³ n of the western Christianity and the feudal institutions by mid-eastern Europe.]] The balance of this expansià ³ n was spectacular, by comparacià ³ n to the vulnerability of the dark previous época: After half century of institutions carolingias, towards [[843]] ([[Treated about Verdún]]), the territories that podÃan to identify mÃs or less prà ³ ximamente with them (what podrÃa to denominate one formacià western ³ Christian social n) is extendÃan by France, the west and the south of Germany, the south of Great Bretaña, montañas northern of España and the north of Italy. A century después, in the época of [[Batalla of the RÃo Lech]] ([[955]]), not habÃa regià ³ n of Western Europe safe from the new ones adminisering extreme unction to of invaders bÃrbaros, that parecÃan to lead to a new crisis of civilizacià ³ n.Es the thesis that the historian defends [[Kenneth Clark]] in '' [[civilization (documentary)|Civilization]] '', prestigious documentary televising of [[BBC]], of which publicà ³ también libro. Nevertheless, in both centuries following to the fatÃdico [[año thousands]] the panorama habÃa camb ==== Christian, Muslim and judÃos in the PenÃnsula Ibérica ==== {{AP|Low Average Age in España}} {{VT|Recapture|Kingdoms of Taifas|AlmorÃgrapevines|Almohades|Kingdom of Portugal|Kingdom of Navarre|Crown of Castile|Crown of Aragà ³ n}} {{VT|Sancho III the Major|Alfonso I SAW of Castile|Alfonso I the Fighting one|Jaime I the Conqueror|Fernando III Santo|Alfonso X the Wise person}} {{VT|Ibn Hazm|Avempace|Averroes|Maimà ³ nides|Yehudah Horseradish tree Samuel Halevi|Maslama of Madrid|Gonzalo de Berceo|Arcipreste de Hita|Ramon Llull|Vernal of Bonaval|MartÃn Codax}} {{VT|School of translators of Toledo|española medieval Literature|Mester of juglarÃa|Mester of clerecÃa|Galaicoportuguesa LÃrica|Hispanohebrea Literature|Medieval theater español|Medieval sapiencial Literature in España|Medieval oral and traditional Literature in euskera}} {{VT|The Cid|Roger de Lauria|Al-Azraq}} {{VT|à “rdenes the españolas military|The monastery in España|History of the Christianity in España|españolas institutions of the Old Régimen|Council of the Mesta}} {{VT|Conquest of Navarre|Taifa de Toledo#Fin of the dominion musulmÃn|Battle of Zalaca|Battle of Uclés|Taifa de Saraqusta#El government almorÃbidet and the Christian conquest |History of Zaragoza#à ‡ aragoça|History of Valencia#La Recapture|Conquest of Majorca|It battles of the Navas of Tolosa|History of Cà ³ rdoba (España)#à ‰ little Christian|History of Sevilla#Reconquista|History of the Regià ³ n of Christian Murcia#Reconquista|Turned around to mudéjar}}
Image: Europein1328.png|Europe in [[1328]]. Image: Europe in 1430.PNG|Europe in [[Años 1430|década of 1430]]. Image: Europe in 1470.PNG|Europe in [[Años 1470|década of 1470]].
=== the decline of the Average Age (centuries XIV and XV) === [[Image: DeathWatTylerFull.jpg|thumb|right|320px|Death of [[Watt Tyler]], to lÃder of the revolt farmer of [[1381]] in England.]] The sÃmil astronà ³ mico of '' decline '', that [[Johan Huizinga]] turns into '' otoño '', is used very frequently in historiografÃa, with a value analà ³ gico that mÃs that a decay in econà ³ mico or the intellectual reflects a clear exhaustion of '' the especÃficamente medieval characteristics '' in front of its modern substitutes '' ''. '' Castilian Aragonés and in the decline of the Average Age '' ISSN 0213-2486, Nº 10-11, 1993, Promotional pgs.s 51-84 '', architects and factories in the decline of the Average Age '' MarÃa Herrà Victoryez Grouse, Dull Gerald Varela, 2004, ISBN 84-9773-161-1). In '' History Of the PolÃticas Ideas '' of [[Jean Touchard]] occurs to this periodizacià him ³ n a comparative value with demÃs: '' CapÃtulo III: The High Average Age: a empirismo hierocrÃtico (centuries V to X). CapÃtulo IV: The Average Age: the pontifical power enters the old ones (centuries XI to XIII). CapÃtulo V: The decline of the Average Age (centuries XIV and XV).com/libros/Historia-de-la ==== the crisis of century XIV ==== {{AP|Crisis of century XIV}} The end of the Average Age arrives with the beginning from [[transicià ³ n from the feudalism at Capitalism]], another secular period of transicià ³ n between ways of produccià ³ n that not finalizarÃuntil the end of [[Old Régimen]] and the beginning of [[Contemporà Agenea]], and so as much this último medieval period as [[Modern Age]] finds out plays a role similar and covers a temporary similar extensià ³ n (500 años) to which significà ³ the Antigà ¼ TardÃa age for the beginning with the Average Age. [[Law of decreasing yields]] empezà ³ to show its effects as the dynamism of the farmers forzà ³ [[roturacià ³ n]] of marginal earth and the slow técnicas improvements do not podÃan to follow one another to a similar rate. The conjuncture climÃtica cambià ³, ending denominated [[medieval à ³ ptimo]] that permitià ³ colonizacià ³ n of Greenland and the culture of grapevines in England. The bad harvests lead to [[extreme hungers]] that fÃsicamente debilitated the populations, preparing the land so that [[black Plague]] of 1348 outside one [[catÃstrofe demogrÃfica]] in Europe. repeticià successive ³ n of epidemics caracterizà ³ a secular cycle. ==== Consequences of the crisis ==== [[Image: The Arnolfini Portrait.jpg|thumb|right|250px|'' [[the Arnolfini marriage]] '', by [[Jan van Eyck]] ([[1430]]), represents the interior of a rich house bourgeois, that acclimates some of new [well [values]] of that emergent social class: [[private property]] gained with [[work]], [[nuclear family]], moderacià ³ n, discreccià ³ n and the privacy. The scene passes in [[Flanders]], emporio commercial and artisan, that suscità ³ the blossoming of a new painting form, the one of [[primitive flamenco]] that among others innovations, initiated the painting to [[à ³ I read]], which permitÃa sutilÃsimos details to do mà every times faithful [[picture]] s, a género that centuries before not tenÃa no social demand.]] The consequences were not negative for all. The survivors [[acumulacià ³ n of the capital|they accumulated unexpectedly capital]] in the form of inheritances, that could in some cases of being reversed in commercial companies, or accumulated [unexpectedly [nobiliary patrimony]] s. The alterations of the prices of market of products, submissive tensions never seen of [[supply and demand]] cambià ³ the form to perceive the relations econà ³ micas: [[wage]] s (a concept, as the one of [[circulacià monetary ³ n]] already of by sà dissolvent of economÃa traditional) crecÃan while the feudal rents happened to be uncertain, forcing the señores to difÃciles decisions. Alternatively first they tended to be mÃs comprehensive with its servants, who sometimes were in situacià ³ n to impose new relacià ³ n, released of the servitude; whereas at a second moment, mainly after some [[rebellions failed farmers]] and hard repressed, imposed in some zones one nue The business lanero produced peculiar international and interestamentales alliances (señores cattle dealers, merchants of the wool, craftsmen of paños) that provoked true [[commercial wars]] (in that sense has been able to interpret the changing alliances and internal divisions England-France-Flanders during [[War of the One hundred Años]], in which Castile implicà ³ in [[First Castilian Civil War|its own civil war]]). Santos Madrazo Madrazo (1969) '' the two Españas. BurguesÃa and nobility, orÃgenes of preCapitalism español '' Publishing Z and X. Únicamente the noble with mÃs capacity (demonstrated most of the times by the noble despoliation with less capacity) could become one [[great nobility]] or aristocracy of great nobiliary houses, whereas [[pequeña nobility]] empobrecÃa, reduced to the mere survival or búsqueda of new types of income in the flood administracià ³ n of monarquÃas, or to the traditional ones of the Church In the institutions of the clergy también is abriendo to an abyss between [[high clergy]] of [[bishop]] s, [[canà ³ nigo (eclesiÃstico)|canà ³ nigos]] and [[abbot]] is and [[cures]] s of [[Parish (religià ³ n)|poor parish]] s; and [[under clergy]] of friars or vagabond clérigos, diffuse opinions teolà ³ gicas, or surviving materialists in prÃctica, [[goliardo]] s or students [[without office nor benefit]]. In the cities, [[high burguesÃa]] and [[low burguesÃa]] lives a similar process of separacià ³ n on fortunes, that does impossible to maintain that an apprentice or an official or a poor repair shop foreman even has something long-distance to see with a merchant enriched by the commerce of [[Hansa]] or [[fairs of Champaña]] and [[Fairs of Medina of the Field|of Medina]], or a médico or [[lawyer]] left [[university]] to enter the high society. It is abriendo to step the possibility (before incredible) on which condicià social ³ n depends mÃs of the capacity econà ³ mica (not necessarily ligature always to the Earth) that of the familiar origin. In front of the medieval world of three à ³ rdenes, based on one economÃa agrarian and firmly ligature to posesià ³ n of the Earth, emerges a world from [[city]] is based on one economÃa commercial. The centers of being able move towards new [[town]] s. These re-balancings were reflected in the battlefields, since [[horseman|feudal horsemen]] began to be surpassed by the development of military técnicas like the arc of long shot, [http://www.php?op=noticia3&id=24 Arqueros in the Average Age] weapon that the English used to sweep to the French in [[Batalla de Azincourt|Battle of Agincourt]], in [[1415]], or [[itches (weapon)|] pricks], used by infanterÃa of [[mercenary Swiss]]. It is in this época when they appear the first professional ejércitos, made up of soldiers to whom the payment does not unite a pact to them of vasallaje with its señor but. As of century XIII the first uses of the one of [are registered in the West [pà ³ lvora]], invencià ³ n CH [[Image: Jean Fouquet 006.jpg|thumb|200px|left|'' [[DÃptico]] of [[Melun]] '', of [[Jean Fouquet]] ([[1450]]). Left panel: [[à ‰ has Chevalier]], the donor, with [[San Esteban]], its patronÃmico santo. In another época, the perspective jerÃrquica would have distanced to a simple mortal, by very powerful who outside, of celestial personages. ]] [[Image: Fouquet_Madonna.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Same dÃptico, right Panel: The Virgin with the Niño. The model was [[Agnès Sorel]], loving of the king [[Carlos VII of France]], which increases to the audacity of representacià ³ n, that aún asà was asumible by sensitivity from the época.]] ==== New ideas ==== The new religious ideas - that they adapt better to the form of life of burguesÃa that to the one of the privileged people already was in the ferment of [[herejÃa]] s which they are habÃan produced previously, as of century XII ([[cÃtaros]], [[valdenses]]), and that habÃan found effective answer in new [[begging order|à ³ rdenes religious beggars]], inserted in the urban surroundings; but in the últimos medieval centuries [[husismo]] or [[wycliffismo]] has a major proyeccià ³ n towards which serÃ[[the protestant Reformation]] of century XVI. [[Milenarismo]] of [[flagelantes]] convivÃa with [[mysticism]] of [[TomÃs of Kempis]] and with desà ³ rdenes and corrupcià ³ n costumary in the Church that culminated in [[Schism of the West]]. The impact was devastating that had in the western cristiandad espectÃass of two (and up to three) Popes excomulgÃndose mutually (and to emperors, kings and bishops, and with them to all priests and faithfuls), one in the call '' [[captivity The attempts to print major rationality to the catholicism already venÃan being present from the summit of [[escolÃstica]] of centuries XII and XIII with [[Pedro Abelardo]], [[TomÃs of Aquino]] or [[Roger Bacon]]; but now that escolÃstica faces its own crisis and internal questioning, with [[Guillermo de Ockham]] or [[Duns Scoto]]. The mentality [[teocentrismo|teocéntrica]] went slowly giving to passage to new [[anthropocentrism|antropocéntrica]], in a process that culminarÃwith [[humanism]] of century XV, in which already [can be denominated [Modern Age]]. That change not limità ³ únicamente to the élites intellectual: outlandish personalities, like [[Juana de Arco]], become héroes popular (with the counterpoint of other terrible ones, like [[Gilles de Rais]] - Blue Beard); Ernesto Ferrero [http://www.it/esp/testo_completo.asp?IDARTICOLO=52 '' Barbablú. Gilles de Rais and the decline of the Average Age. The true history that anticipà ³ in four hundred años the f {{mentions|Today we eat and we drink and we sing and we idle, that mañana ayunaremos. |Carol of [[Juan of the Oak]]}} [[Anonymity]] consciously looked for in which generations lived quiet during centuries {{mentions|'' Non nobis, Dominates, non nobis,
sed nomini tuo gives gloriam ''|col2=ÂNot, Señor, not,
sino to your name gives the glory! |[[Psalms]] 115:1, musicalizado and used very frequently for liturgical use. adoptà ³ as motto of the templarios and appears in the work '' [[Enrique V]] '' of [[Shakespeare]].va/archive/bible/nova_vulgata/documents/nova-vulgata_vt_psalmorum_lt.html#PSALMUS%20115 Liber Psalmorum 115:1] in Vatican.com/watch?v=ewbuPY3uGQ4 Fragment of pelÃcula '' Enrique V ''] of [[Kenneth Branagh]] (subtÃtulos in francés).
}} and that seguirÃbeing situacià ³ n of the humble ones during the following centuries, takes passage to búsqueda of the fame and the personal glory, not sà ³ between the noble, but in all the Ãmbitos social: the craftsmen begin to sign their products (from works of art to the marks craftswomen), and every time is less exceptional than any act of the life leaves its track documentary (parochial books, mercantile registries, notarial notary publics, protocols, jurÃdicos acts). DesafÃo to social, polÃtico and intellectual the monopoly econà ³ mico, of the privileged people, slowly created new spaces of being able to the benefit of [[monarch|kings]], asà like a place every time mÃample s for burguesÃa. Although most of poblacià ³ n siguià ³ being farmer, the certain thing is that the impulse and the new features no longer provenÃan of [[castle]] or [[monastery]], but of [[Cuts]] and [[city]]. In the meantime, [[love cortés]] (coming from [[Provenza]] of century XI) and [[ideal chivalrous]] were revitalized and happened to just become one ideologÃa justificatory of the nobiliary way of life when this it began to be in cuestià ³ n, [[Arnold Hauser]] '' social History of Literature and the art ''. living a época sea bream, obvious declining, located in perÃodo of splendor of [[duchy of Borgoña]], that reflejà ³ [[Johan Huizinga]] in its skillful '' [[otoño of the Average Age]] ''. {{VT|Gótico tardÃo|Gótico flamÃgero|International Gà ³ tico|Primitive flamenco|Trecento|Quattrocento|Dante|Petrarca|Bocaccio|Chaucer|Jean Froissart}} ==== the aim of the Average Age in the PenÃnsula Ibérica ==== {{AP|Crisis of the Average Age in España}} Whereas for the MediterrÃEastern neon the aim of the Average Age supposed the unstoppable advance of islÃmico [[Ottoman Empire]], in the western end, the expansive Christian kingdoms of the PenÃnsula Ibérica, after a period of crisis and ralentizacià ³ n of the secular advance towards the south, simplified to the polÃtico map with unià married ³ n of [[Kings licos Catà ³]] ([[Fernando II of Aragà ³ n]] and [[Isabel I of Castile]]), the agreements of these with the one of Portugal ([[Treated about Alcaçovas]], that suponÃan the distribution of influences on the AtlÃntico) and [[conquest of Granada]]. Navarre, divided in a civil war between sides oriented and taken part by French and Aragoneses, serÃa to a large extent annexed to the flood [[MonarquÃa Catà ³ lica]] in 1512. {{VT|Kingdom of Granada|Castilian Civil war|House of TrastÃmara|AlmogÃbar|Commitment of Caspe|War of Sucesià Castilian ³ n|It conquers of the Canary Islands|Civil war of Navarre|Catalan civil war|}} {{VT|The Beam and Busca|War of the Remensas|By arbitration sentence of Guadalupe|Scrambled Irmandiña|Shaken antijudÃa of 1391|Shaken of Pedro Vine shoot|New Christian|Inquisicià española ³ n|Expulsià ³ n of the judÃos of España}} {{VT|Gótico isabelino|plateresco|manuelino}}
Image: Burgos-condestable.jpg|[[Chapel of the Gunner]] in [[Cathedral of Burgos]], gà ³ tico final ([[1482]]). Image: Gallegocatholicmonarchs.jpg|[[Licos Kings Catà ³]], by [[Galician Fernando]] (towards [[1490]]). Image: First Igreja gives Golega 96a.jpg|Manuelina cover of the church of [[Golega]]. The retorcimiento of the columns imitates the one of heavy ropes of the boats, in one nacià ³ marine n overturned in [[Era of the discoveries]]. Image: Alhambra Decree.jpg|[[Decree of the Alhambra]] by which it is expelled to the judÃos of España, the same año that conquers Granada, is discovered América and Nebrija publishes his '' GramÃtica Castilian '': [[1492]]. It is the end of the Average Age and the beginning of the Modern Age, with a religious unit that acompañà ³ to unià ³ n of the kingdoms of [[MonarquÃa Catà ³ lica]].
== Véase también == * [[CronologÃa of the Average Age]] * [[Medievalismo]] * [[medieval ArqueologÃa]] * [[medieval FilosofÃa]] * [[medieval Science]] * [[medieval Thought econà ³ mico]] * [[medieval Military strategy]] * [[medieval Art]] * [[medieval Literature]] * [[medieval Theater]] * [[Cantar of deed]] * [[Saga]] * [[à ‰ pricks medieval]] * [[medieval Música]] * [[medieval Dance]] * [[GastronomÃa of the Average Age]] * [[Clothing (Average Age)]] BIBLIOGRAFÃA == References == === BibliografÃa ===
* {{ref-I free | you go = ISBN 84-323-0355-0 | tÃtulo = Transitions of the Antigà ¼ age to the Feudalism | año = 1979 | author = [[Perry Anderson|Anderson, Perry]] | publicacià ³ n = Madrid: 21st century }} * {{ref-I free | you go = ISBN 84-323-0229-5 | tÃtulo = Soldiers and Farmers. Initial development of economÃa European (500-1200) | año = 1976 | author = [[the Georges Duby|Duby, the Georges]] | publicacià ³ n = Trotta }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Guy Fourquin|Fourquin, Guy]] | tÃtulo = SeñorÃo and feudalism in the average age | año = 1977 | publicacià ³ n = Madrid: EDAF | you go = ISBN 84-7166-347-3 }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[à ‰ has Gilson|Gilson, à ‰ has]] | tÃtulo = filosofÃa in the Average Age: from orÃgenes patrÃsticos to the aim of century XIV | año = 2007 | publicacià ³ n = versià española ³ n of Arsenio Pacios and Salvador Horseman. Madrid: Gredos | you go = ISBN 978-84-249-2861-2 }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Jacques Le Goff|Him Goff, Jacques]] | tÃtulo = the Average Age explained to jà ³ horseradish trees | año = 2007 | publicacià ³ n = Barcelona: Paidos | you go = ISBN 978-943-1988-4 }} * {{ref-I free | you go = ISBN 978-84-8432-032-6 | tÃtulo = invencià ³ n of the Average Age | año = 2000 | author = [[Jacques Heers|Heers, Jacques]] | publicacià ³ n = Trotta }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Rodney Hilton|Hilton, Rodney]] (ed., artÃculos of [[Maurice Dobb]], [[Karl Polanyi]], [[R. Tawney]], [[Paul Sweezy]], [[Kohachiro Takahashi]], [[Christopher Hill]], [[the Georges Lefebvre]], [[Giuliano Procacci]], [[Eric Hobsbawm]] and [[John Merrington]]) | año = 1976, 1977 in español |tÃtulo = transicià ³ n of the feudalism to Capitalism |publicacià ³ n = Barcelona: CrÃtica |you go = ISBN 84-7423-017-9 }} * {{ref-I free | you go = ISBN 978-84-95101-36-5 | tÃtulo = otoño of the Average Age | año = 2006 | author = [[Johan Huizinga|Huizinga, Johan]] | publicacià ³ n = Tower of Goyanes }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Régine Pernoud|Pernoud, Régine]] | tÃtulo = ÂQué is the Average Age? | año = 1986 | publicacià ³ n = Español Teaching | you go = ISBN 978-84-265-2512-3 }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Henri Pirenne|Pirenne, Henri]] | tÃtulo = Mahoma and Carlomagno | año = | publicacià ³ n = Madrid: Alliance | you go = ISBN 9788420622149 }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Roman Ruggiero|Roman, Ruggiero]] and [[Alberto Tenenti|Tenenti, Alberto]] | tÃtulo = the foundations of the modern world. Average age tardÃa, Renaissance, the Reformation | año = 1971 | publicacià ³ n = Madrid, 21st century | you go = situated Depà ³ Legal M.301-1970 }} * {{ref-I free | author = [[Julio Valdeà ³ n Baruque|Valdeà ³ n Baruque, Julio]] and [[José Ãngel GarcÃa de CortÃczar|GarcÃa de CortÃczar, José Ãngel]], in [[Manuel FernÃndez Ãlvarez|FernÃndez Ãlvarez, Manuel]]; [[Miguel Avilés FernÃndez|Avilés FernÃndez, Miguel]] and [[Manuel Burgos Swords|Swords Burgos, Manuel]] (dirs.) | tÃtulo = the Great Universal History (volúmenes 11, 12 and 13) | año = 1986 | publicacià ³ n = Barcelona: Club the International of Libro | you go = ISBN 84-7461-654-9 }}
=== Notes === {{listaref|2}} == external Enlaces == {{commons|Middle Ages}} Centers of investigacià ³ n * [http://www.es/medieval/ Departament d'Histà ² laughs Medieval, Paleography i Diplomà tica. Universitat of Barcelona.] (in catalÃn) * [http://www.es/departamentos/filoyletras/hmedieval/especifica/cuadernos/ Notebooks of Medieval History. Autà university ³ noma of Madrid.es/departamentos/filoyletras/hmedieval/ Ãrea de Medieval Historia.es/info/media/ Connections to Webs of interés. Department of Medieval History. University of Alcala of Madrid.html Seminary of Medieval and Renaissance Studies. University of Salamanca.] * [http://departamento.es/dhmcthus/ Department of Medieval History. University of Seville] * [http://centros.es/web/departamentos/D210/index.htm?content=general/index.htm&frame=adicional/indice.xml%3Fid%3DE125 Magazine d'Histà ² laughs Medieval], [http://centros.es/web/departamentos/D210/castellano/ Department of Medieval History. University of Valencia.es/web/esp/dptos/depto-estudios-presentacion.asp Department of Medieval Studies.ar/contenidos/investigacion/institutos/historiaantiguaymedieval/publicaciones.htm Institute of Old and Medieval History " Prof. José Luis Romero"], [http://www.ar/ Faculty of FilosofÃa and Letras, University of Buenos Aires.] Artehistoria * [http://www.es/historia/contextos/cont4.es/historia/contextos/cont5.htm Total and Low Average Age.es/historia/contextos/916.htm daily Life in the High Average Age.es/historia/contextos/1334.htm daily Life in Total and the Low Average Age.] Library Gonzalo de Berceo * [http://www.com/berceo/ PÃgina main] * [http://www.com/berceo/florilegio/portada.htm medieval Florilegio] * [http://www.com/berceo/actasVIII/indice.htm DAILY LIFE IN the AVERAGE AGE (Acts VIII Week of Medieval Studies, NÃjera 1997)] Liceus * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0241.asp Repertoire of sources of the Average Age] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0236.asp general BibliografÃa on the average age] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0235.asp medieval BibliografÃa on economÃa] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0239.asp BibliografÃa on the rural world in the average age] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0232.asp BibliografÃa on councils and cities] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0242.asp BibliografÃa on señorÃos and feudalism] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0243.asp BibliografÃa on medieval society] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0233.asp BibliografÃa on medieval culture] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0234.asp BibliografÃa exceeds straight medieval] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0237.asp BibliografÃa on the Church in medievo] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0238.asp BibliografÃa on medieval institutions] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0240.asp BibliografÃa on towns germÃnicos] * [http://www.com/cgi-bin/aco/his/03/01/0231.asp BibliografÃa on Al-Andalus] Forums and blogs * [http://www.HTML MedWeb] * [http://www.com] * [http://members.html '' The Middle Ages Trust ''] (in inglés) {{sucesià ³ n | predecessor = [[Old Age]] | tÃtulo = [[Average Age]] | perÃodo = [[476]] - [[1492]] | successor = [[Modern Age]] }} {{outstanding|the USA}} {{Good|lt}} [[CategorÃa: Average age| ]] [[high frequency: Middeleeue]] [[als: Mittelalter]] [[an: Edat Meya]] [[ar: عصور وسط٠‰]] [[ast: EdÃAverage]] [[bar: Mittelalter]] [[bat-smg: VÄ-doromÅ ¾ Ä “]] [[sees: ÐÑÑ€ÑдР½ ÑÐ ² ÐΜÑ ‡ n ‡ а]] [[sees-x-old: ÐÑÑ€ÑдР½ ÑÐ ² ÐΜÑ ‡ n ‡ а]] [[Vg: Средновековие]] [[br: Krennamzer]] [[versus: Srednji vijek]] [[ca: Mitjana Edat]] [[cs: StÅ™edovÄ› k]] [[CB: Ð' ÄƒÑ ‚аР¼ Ä•Ð ¼ Ä•Ñ€ÑÐΜÐ ¼]] [[cy: Yr Oesoedd Canol]] [[gives: Middelalderen]] [[of: Mittelalter]] [[: Μεσαίωνας]] [[in: Middle Ages]] [[eo: Mezepoko]] [[ET: Keskaeg]] [[the USA: Erdi Aroa]] [[fa: قرون وسطی]] [[fi: Keskiaika]] [[fr: Moyen à ‚GE]] [[fur: Etât I gave mieç]] [[fy: Midsieuwen]] [[ga: An MheÃnaois]] [[gd: Meadhan-Aoisean]] [[gl: Average Idade]] [[I have: ימי ×” × `×™× ×™×™×]] [[hr: Srednji vijek]] [[ht: Mwayenaj]] [[hu: Középkor]] [[you go: Pertengahan abbot]] [[io: Mez-epoko]] [[is: Miðaldir]] [[it: Medioevo]] [[ja: ä¸ä¸-]] [[ka: შურáƒáƒáƒ£áƒ™áƒ£áƒœáƒ” ე რ`ი]] [[ko: ì¤`세]] [[ksh: Meddelallder]] [[ku: Çaxa navîn]] [[KW: Oesow Kres]] [[: Aevum medium]] [[lb: Mà “to ttelalter]] [[li: Middeliewe]] [[lt: ViduramÅ ¾ the IAI]] [[lv: Viduslaiki]] [[mk: Среден век]] [[nds: Middelöller]] [[nds-NL: Middeleewn]] [[NL: Middeleeuwen]] [[n: Mellomalderen]] [[not: Middelalderen]] [[nrm: Mouoyen à ‚GE]] [[oc: Edat Mejana]] [[pl: Åšredniowiecze]] [[pt: Idade Média]] [[ro: Evul Mediu]] [[U.: Средние века]] [[scn: Mediuevu]] [[simple: Middle Ages]] [[sk: Stredovek]] [[sl: Srednji vek]] [[sq: Mesjeta]] [[Mr.: Средњи вијек]] [[sv: Medeltiden]] [[sw: Zama za Kati]] [[ta: மதà¯à®¤à®à®¯ க஠¾ à® ² ம௠(à®à®°à¯ ‹à®ªà¯à®ªà® ¾)]] [[th: สà¸à¸±à¸¢à¸à¸¥à¸ ² ภ‡]] [[tl: Gitnang Panahon]] [[tr: Orta ÇaÄŸ]] [[UK: ÐÐΜÑ€ÐΜдР½ ьР¾ Ð ² N ‡ N ‡ N]] [[time: Medioevo]] [[I saw: Thá” i ká” ³ Trung Cᔕ]] [[vls: Middelêeuwn]] [[wa: MoyinÃ¥dje]] [[yi: מיטל ×לטער]] [[zh: ä¸ä¸-纪 .
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