the expression " text argumentativo" it is used like synonymous of " speech argumentativo", and it as much makes reference to the expression written as to the oral one.
argumentative texts are those in which the emitter has like communicative Intention high-priority the one to offer its subjective vision on a certain subject. Whereas to argue it is, by definition, procedure persuasive, aside from all the information that through these texts can be provided (what it implies that almost always exhibition is also ), implicitly exists in them also the intention of to convince to the receiver about which is being said.
Although it is evident that if is inhaled to the communicative effectiveness, the text must be composed taking care of criteria of order, clarity, precision, etc., argumentative texts are, potentially, much more prone to present/display understanding difficulties that others. This is thus because in them it is not tried to reflect a reality objectively, but what looks for is to express one Interpretation of the same, which with takes the necessity not only to set out that reality, but besides defending the one vision and defending themselves of those of others. This, inevitably, complica the reception of these texts. In this sense, in argumentative Texts is not too operative the distinction between divulging and specialized, inasmuch as the emitter does not tend so much to select the type of receiver, but to strive in expressing its thought independent of whom it is this.
Another clear argumentative text example can be the opinion of a person about a subject or well-known information by the same. We remember that a speech or argumentative text, must try on an extremely controversial subject and dialógico, which must generate manifolds points of view, a clear example of controversial subject is: Homosexuality.
In addition the argumentation owns dialógico character, since always they will be present two or more actors, who try to resist the thesis of the other, then a species of dialog is generated, to which it is denominated to him: dialógico character of the argumentative speech. It is classified in two parts:
The parts of argumentative texts are:
g) expression of feelings, emotions, etc.
Thesis: idea that is defended or reflected, tries to reach the general acceptance and in that is its controversial character. It corresponds to a declaratory oration with verb conjugated in indicative mood. It is introduced with expressions like: " in my opinion… ". Generally, the thesis begins the argumentation (deductive).
Anticipated or bases: is the argument that gives information to defend the thesis, appealing to the logical-rational or the touching-affective thing. They are the initial datas since they are easily acceptable and provable.
Guarantees: is the reasons that guarantee the thesis. Ideas that tie the thesis with the bases to see the relation among them.
Endorsements: is the ideas that serve as support to what has been said in the guarantees (data, numbers, studies).
Types of argument according to the reasoning way
logical-rational Arguments Reasoning by analogy: settles down a similarity between two concepts, different beings or things. It is deduced that what is valid for one is valid for another one. Example: Maria and Jose are glad, respectful. People in charge and study two hours every day. Maria obtains discharges qualifications. Thesis: Jose also obtains discharges qualifications. Reasoning by generalization: from several similar cases, is generated a common thesis, that it is applied to a new case of the same type. Example: Pablo Neruda, Vicente Huidobro and Gabriela Mistral are excellent poets, all of them are Chilean. Thesis: The Chilean poets are excellent.
Reasoning by symptomatic signs or: indications or signals are used to establish the existence of a phenomenon. Example: To Maria no longer they interest the celebrations to him, it spends long time in its house, reads many novels of love. Thesis: Maria is enamored.
Reasoning by cause: settles down a causal connection between two facts that base the thesis. Example: The whale meat is very coveted, they were hunted indiscriminately, in spite of protection laws still are hunted to them. Thesis: The whales are in extinction danger.
Uso of the authority criterion: alludes to the opinion of experts in the subject or consecrated personages to sustain the thesis. Example: San Stolen Alberto said: “It is necessary to give until he hurts”. Thesis: it is necessary to cooperate with charitable works.
touching-affective Arguments : one goes to the feelings of the audience, especially to his doubts, desires and fears with the purpose of to affect and to bring about a reaction of affection or rejection.
Arguments by concrete it : familiar examples to the listeners are used because it affects to them directly.
Confidence of the emitter : it is appealed to the confidence that the same emitter inspires and to the credibility that must to him.
Argument-slogan : it is a done phrase that is repeated constantly and summarized a subject or invites to believe in which it is said.
Resources of the fame : the public image use of or word of a good personage evaluated socially corresponds to.
Fetichismo of masses: it is sustained in the idea that the majority chooses the correct thing or has the right opinion.
Uso of prejudice : It uses a prejudice like argument of a thesis.
Resource to the tradition: the set out idea leans in a tradition whose value is not questioned nor discusses.