the expression " text argumentativo" it is used like synonymous of " speech argumentativo", and it as much makes reference to the expression written as to the oral one.

argumentative texts are those in which the emitter has like communicative Intention high-priority the one to offer its subjective vision on a certain subject. Whereas to argue it is, by definition, procedure persuasive, aside from all the information that through these texts can be provided (what it implies that almost always exhibition is also ), implicitly exists in them also the intention of to convince to the receiver about which is being said.

General characteristics

Typical examples of argumentative texts are opinion articles of newspapers or scientific articles where is tried to demonstrate certain Hypothesis: one is texts in which the emitter develops Reasoning to demonstrate the validity of the idea that has on subject that it tries, that is to say, certain thesis on a certain subject that is tried to defend or to discuss by means of the use of arguments and counter-arguments .

Although it is evident that if is inhaled to the communicative effectiveness, the text must be composed taking care of criteria of order, clarity, precision, etc., argumentative texts are, potentially, much more prone to present/display understanding difficulties that others. This is thus because in them it is not tried to reflect a reality objectively, but what looks for is to express one Interpretation of the same, which with takes the necessity not only to set out that reality, but besides defending the one vision and defending themselves of those of others. This, inevitably, complica the reception of these texts. In this sense, in argumentative Texts is not too operative the distinction between divulging and specialized, inasmuch as the emitter does not tend so much to select the type of receiver, but to strive in expressing its thought independent of whom it is this.

Another clear argumentative text example can be the opinion of a person about a subject or well-known information by the same. We remember that a speech or argumentative text, must try on an extremely controversial subject and dialógico, which must generate manifolds points of view, a clear example of controversial subject is: Homosexuality.

In addition the argumentation owns dialógico character, since always they will be present two or more actors, who try to resist the thesis of the other, then a species of dialog is generated, to which it is denominated to him: dialógico character of the argumentative speech. It is classified in two parts:

  • Macrostructure.

  • Superstructure.

The parts of argumentative texts are:

  • Hypothesis
  • Argument
  • Conclusion

Disposition the argumentation texts

The development of an argumentation can be organized, essentially, following either a disposition, or an inductive disposition deductive. In the deduction, that is most frequent, one goes away of the thesis to the conclusion: the causality relation is oriented from the cause the consequence. In the induction, the inverse system to the previous one, the conclusion represents the reason to consider the thesis: the causality relation is oriented from the consequence towards the cause. The most habitual resources to support the argumentation are: the contraargumentación (to make the possible objections to the own argumentation explicit); the comparison (with the intention of demonstrating something); the definition (to need the terms which is spoken); the appointment of external information (the news of a newspaper, declarations of somebody…), that when it is an explicit support to the opinion of the author denominates “appointment or argument of authority” (that serves to sanction the one of the emitter); illustration; the scale of argumentative force (evaluation of arguments and conclusions of others), etc.

To the being a type of text with a high degree of subjectivity, the language can present/display a great wealth, reflecting in addition the particular style to the emitter. In addition, the persuasive intention that underlies forces of some way to the emitter to strive very linguistically in being attractive, using rhetorical resources that they also attract his atención.
Very linguistically, the following characteristics can be warned:
a) use of the self-reference, that indicates the degree of subjectivity of these texts; however, the impersonalidad is also very frequent semántica.
b) use of an abstract lexicon, in agreement with the rather theoretical subjects and nonscientists tratados.
c) it frequents use of will verbs (to want, to like, to wish), language (to say, to ask, to speak) and thought (to think, to believe, to observe, to watch); also the adverbs of evidence or reaffirmation are frequent, that act putting like lifting of the affirmations to a multiple or public emitter: evidently, it is necessary to realize a selection, but it must take control of honesty and justicia.
d) use of the rhetorical interrogation, as it forms to imply to receptor.
e) generally, enunciated extensive and syntactic complexity, that reflects the explanatory and argumentative tendency of the thought: causal, consecutive, conditional and concessive orations. Coordinations with value of causalidad.
f) valuing adjectival use and expressions; connotative value of the expression, emphasizing it, sometimes, with elements gráficos.

g) expression of feelings, emotions, etc.

Internal structure

Thesis: idea that is defended or reflected, tries to reach the general acceptance and in that is its controversial character. It corresponds to a declaratory oration with verb conjugated in indicative mood. It is introduced with expressions like: " in my opinion… ". Generally, the thesis begins the argumentation (deductive).

Anticipated or bases: is the argument that gives information to defend the thesis, appealing to the logical-rational or the touching-affective thing. They are the initial datas since they are easily acceptable and provable.

Guarantees: is the reasons that guarantee the thesis. Ideas that tie the thesis with the bases to see the relation among them.

Endorsements: is the ideas that serve as support to what has been said in the guarantees (data, numbers, studies).

Types of argument according to the reasoning way

logical-rational Arguments Reasoning by analogy: settles down a similarity between two concepts, different beings or things. It is deduced that what is valid for one is valid for another one. Example: Maria and Jose are glad, respectful. People in charge and study two hours every day. Maria obtains discharges qualifications. Thesis: Jose also obtains discharges qualifications. Reasoning by generalization: from several similar cases, is generated a common thesis, that it is applied to a new case of the same type. Example: Pablo Neruda, Vicente Huidobro and Gabriela Mistral are excellent poets, all of them are Chilean. Thesis: The Chilean poets are excellent.

Reasoning by symptomatic signs or: indications or signals are used to establish the existence of a phenomenon. Example: To Maria no longer they interest the celebrations to him, it spends long time in its house, reads many novels of love. Thesis: Maria is enamored.

Reasoning by cause: settles down a causal connection between two facts that base the thesis. Example: The whale meat is very coveted, they were hunted indiscriminately, in spite of protection laws still are hunted to them. Thesis: The whales are in extinction danger.

Uso of the authority criterion: alludes to the opinion of experts in the subject or consecrated personages to sustain the thesis. Example: San Stolen Alberto said: “It is necessary to give until he hurts”. Thesis: it is necessary to cooperate with charitable works.

touching-affective Arguments : one goes to the feelings of the audience, especially to his doubts, desires and fears with the purpose of to affect and to bring about a reaction of affection or rejection.

Arguments by concrete it : familiar examples to the listeners are used because it affects to them directly.

Confidence of the emitter : it is appealed to the confidence that the same emitter inspires and to the credibility that must to him.

Argument-slogan : it is a done phrase that is repeated constantly and summarized a subject or invites to believe in which it is said.

Resources of the fame : the public image use of or word of a good personage evaluated socially corresponds to.

Fetichismo of masses: it is sustained in the idea that the majority chooses the correct thing or has the right opinion.

Uso of prejudice : It uses a prejudice like argument of a thesis.

Resource to the tradition: the set out idea leans in a tradition whose value is not questioned nor discusses.

Classes of arguments

  • Based on facts and observable data and objectives.

  • Based on the opinion del that argues, or in the general knowledge reasons on the subject.

  • Arguments of authority based on the reasons of an expert or an authority in the subject.
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